A folky mountain system (“Satoyama” in Japanese) has a peculiar feature in the view of energy system. In Japan, many of the forests exist in such steep mountains, that the large expense is needed for the collec-tion and transportation of the felled or thinned woods. On the contrary in folky mountains, we can expect to avoid the big energy loss at the process of transportation because of the short distance to the consumers. However, the folky mountain system nowadays is declining because of an aging of the laborers and subsid-ence of demand of fuelwood. Accordingly, the restoration of classical folky mountain system is quite diffi-cult without new system-tool. We proposed here several new measurements to solve the Problems: (1) rental forest, (2) household forest, (3) mountain-forestal pasture, (4) thinned wood direct use.
In many countries, the concern with municipal solid waste (MSW) has been growing for the past few decades because of changes in lifestyle as well as constraints in waste disposal site. A remarkable increase in the amount of MSW has generated serious environmental impacts caused by pollutions such as fly ash, sludge, and dioxin etc. Waste management policies should be revised and updated in keeping with progresses in environmentally sound technologies. The purpose of the study is to design the optimum NISW management system in Japan. We have derived an optimal system configuration among the various alternative and conventional disposal facilities for waste management by applying a NISW system model. which can consider both the mass flow of the wastes and economic aspects of system operation. The advanced MSW management system which has been proposed can reduce the amount of landfill in FY2010 by approximately 40% in comparison with the data in FY 2000. The system increases the recycling rate in FY2010 by 10% compared to FY2000, and meet the budget allocation for NISW management. In conclusion, the installation of alternative facilities in optimal system configuration has a potential for not only the reduction in the cost of landfill but also the improvement of recycling rate.
To realize the biomass energy systems which is characterized as one of the pillars of the sustainable society is greatly significant, because of the multiple advantageous effects, such as global warming counter-measures, rising self-sufficiency ratio in the energy supply, national land conservation, regional develop-ment and biomass industry structural improvement. In this paper, we designed the hybrid systems of DME and electric power generation using biomass for a rural area and evaluated the system from the viewpoint of LCA and economics. The analysis shows that the system using only barks as fuel cannot economically viable. The system using both barks and plastic wastes as fuel reduces CO2 emissions in comparison with the present system, and is also economically possible because of the inverse onerous contract of the plastic wastes. The plant scale, distance of conveyance of ingredient, and circulation income of energy do not have large effects on the economics of the system.
A pseudo component lumping analysis was made analyzing the free induction decays of high-temperature NMR of low rank coals into four components, i.e., a rigid component, an intermediate component and two mobile components (mobile component 1 and mobile component 2). It was found that the characterization using the amount of the mobile component 1 obtained by the pseudo component lumping analysis is more useful than that using the maximum fluidity (MF) obtained by the Gieseler plastmeter for low rank coals.