It is effective to suppress carbon dioxide emission that engines utilize biomass fuels. Two experimental studies on the engine performances operated with a neat rapeseed oil are conducted. The first experiment is to clarify the performance of the diesel engine operated by seven kinds of neat rapeseed oil which were taken at the end of seven refinement stages in the manufacturing process. The experimental data show that the seven kinds of oil have the potential of practical application. The second experiment is to clarify the generation behavior of the deposit in the cylinder and the influence on the engine performance. The clearance volume of the tested engine was decreased until 700min, and the compression ratio was increased by the deposit generation. The Bosch smoke unit was not increased by the deposit generation. Although the slight increase in the consumption of the lubrication oil was detected, the piston ring wear was even less than that in the diesel fuel operation.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a material with advantages of productivity, recyclability and economy, and that is applied to various products such as pipes, films and electric cables. On the other hand, it is limited that the PVC products are used because of excessive fear to chemical substances generated by the combustion, and to endocrine disrupters from the plasticizer. In this study, life cycle inventories of a pipe for water supply as rigid PVC products and an agro-film as flexible PVC products were analyzed, and the comparisons with alternative products were investigated in terms of environmental load, that is, energy consumption, CO2 emission, SOX emission, NOX emission and solid waste. As results, it was shown that the energy consumption from the pipe for water supply made from PVC was smaller than that from the alternative pipe for water supply. In addition, the environmental load caused by the PVC pipe was remarkably decreased by raising a ratio of Pipe to Pipe recycling. Considering the durability of each agro-film, the energy consumption of the agro-film made from PVC was the largest in all agro-films. It is necessary to extend the life period of PVC films in order to reduce the environmental load.