In this research, the model for budget allocation to countermeasures against livestock manure oversupply problem was developed to contribute to the establishment of reasonable policy decision-making. The model was based on the multi-criteria analysis, which was often applied to the evaluation of public works projects. The developed model was applied to Maebashi city, Gunma Prefecture as a case study. As a result, the most effective countermeasure was the combination of "Feed Production" and "Methane Fermentation" to improve the environmental & social benefits, which had high priority for residents in Maebashi city. And "Livestock Reduction" was also an effective countermeasure in case that there was leeway in the budget. It seemed to be difficult to execute "Livestock Reduction" In Japan. However, the expected benefits were quite large especially in water pollution, global warming and acidification if that countermeasure could be executed. Therefore, a promotion of consensus building between government and residents through environmental education was expected.
The structure of asphaltene is an important factor for investigating the reactivity of heavy hydrocarbons. For the evaluation of asphaltene, elemental analysis and NMR analysis are commonly applied. However, such analyses are sometimes limited due to too small sample size. Especially, 13C-NMR analysis for the determination of carbon aromaticity (fa) requires about 100mg of asphaltene while elemental analysis and 1H-NMR analysis requires only 10mg or less. In addition, 13C-NMR analysis takes quite a long time for the measurement. It is well known that H/C atomic ratio has a strong relationship with fa, but it has relatively weak relationship with molecular structure. Therefore, we studied a statistical estimation method for fa of hepane-insolubles (asphaltene) from the results of elemental analysis and 1H-NMR analysis using 45 worldwide vacuum resides (VR). As a result, fa was estimated within a error of 0.04 using H/C, N/C, S/C and O/C atomic ratios obtained by an elemental analysis and hydrogen distribution obtained by 1H-NMR. The difference between observed number of aromatic rings per unit structure and estimated ones is within one. Those results are quite effective because only 20-30 mg of samples are necessary to obtain fa, and the data set for the average molecular structure analysis can be obtained from very small sample size obtained by a preparative GPC, for example.