This study was conducted to calculate the energy balance of supercritical water gasification with an activated carbon catalyst for a hydrogen fermentation residue of soybean fiber (SFHFR). To circumvent the problem of plugging, we examined the gasification of SFHFR by a staged operation with alternate feeding of water and feedstock. The calculations were applied to a gasification reaction conducted within a tubular reactor at 600°C and 25 MPa, with an average residence time of 73 s. The calculation results were a cold gas efficiency ηR [(amount of energy recovery from feedstock as product gas, Eg) / (energy supply from feedstock, Ef)] of 0.72 and an energy efficiency ηe, Eg / [(heat supplied by the electric furnace, Ei) + (energy supply from feedstock, Ef)] of 0.30. A comparison between continuous operation and the operation in staged intervals confirmed the effectiveness of the latter.
We have investigated dependence of device characteristics of bulk-heterojunction organic thin-film solar cells on concentration of glycerol addition to poly (3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) : poly (4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) solutions for fabricating buffer layers. The device structure is ITO/buffer/regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM)/Al where glycerol concentration is up to 13.0 wt%. Glycerol addition is effective for improving power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 1.25 to 1.41% because of increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc) without decreasing open-circuit voltage (Voc).
A new direct production process was developed for making high quality diesel fuel from oils and fats. In this process, which was operated under atmospheric pressure by using neither methanol nor hydrogen, no glycerin was produced. The product of the present process was composed of small amount gas (CO2, light hydrocarbons and minor amount of CO) and liquid hydrocarbons (C10-C20). The liquid product was composed of olefins and paraffins with straight and branched chain structure.
The non-catalytic reductions of nitrogen monoxide by using methane and kerosene as a reductant were experimentally investigated. The temperatures were ranging from 493 to 1373 K. In these experiments, the inlet concentration of NO was approximately 150ppm, that of methane was ranging from 8.3-40 ×103ppm, that of kerosene was ranging from 4.52 to 43.0ppm and that of oxygen was ranging 1.75 to 7.00%. Kerosene can be used as a reductant for the non-catalytic NO reduction.