Kinetic study of glucose production from cellobiose through hydrolysis has been performed to compare reaction characteristics by using reaction models with β-glucosidase (Trichoderma reesei) and with graphenebased amorphous solid acid catalyst (SAC). The decrease of cellobiose concentration through hydrolysis with β-glucosidase is inhibited by present glucose as reported, resulting in unreacted cellobiose remained for a long time. In contrast cellobiose concentration decreased with SAC obeying 1st reaction rate model, showing relatively rapid reaction rate without such inhibition observed in hydrolysis with β-glucosidase. By using the plug flow reactor with a SAC packing column, an attempt of catalytic aging experiment was carried out about over 4,000 h, succeeding in construction of the 1st order reaction rate model.
The performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder four stroke variable compression ratio (CR) engine when fuelled with sardine oil methyl ester are investigated. The suitability of sardine oil methyl ester as a biofuel has been established in this study. Biodiesel produced from sardine oil by transesterification process has been used in this study. Experiment has been conducted at a fixed engine speed of 1500 rpm, variable load and at CR = 16.0, 17.5, and 19.0. The impact of CR on break thermal efficiency, fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature and emissions has been investigated and presented. Optimum CR which gives best performance has been identified. The results indicate that break thermal efficiency is the highest for CR = 16.0 and Carbon monoxide is the highest for CR = 19.0. Hydrocarbon and Nitric oxide is the lowest for CR = 16.0.