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94 巻 , 10 号
選択された号の論文の13件中1~13を表示しています
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特集:バイオマス(総説)
特集:バイオマス(論文)
  • 松本 光史, 野島 大佑, 池田 貴一, 吉野 知子, 田中 剛
    94 巻 (2015) 10 号 p. 1087-1091
    公開日: 2015/10/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    冬季におけるバイオディーゼル燃料生産の候補株として北九州沿岸から単離された耐冷性海洋珪藻Mayamaea 属JPCC CTDA0820 株は10℃において高いオイル含有量(47%)を示した。本株は5-28℃までの広い温度域において培養可能であり,最適化した培養条件において,バイオマス及びオイルの生産性は31 g/m2/day,9.8 g/m2/day であった。更に当該株の屋外大量培養に成功した。これらの結果からMayamaea 属JPCC CTDA0820 株は,低温環境下においてバイオディーゼル燃料生産を可能とし,これまでにバイオディーゼル燃料生産に用いてきた海洋珪藻Fistulifera solaris JPCC DA0580株と組み合わせることで,年間を通じた安定生産が可能になる。
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  • 山根 浩二, 小坂田 潔, 河﨑 澄
    94 巻 (2015) 10 号 p. 1092-1097
    公開日: 2015/10/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究では,一般にバイオディーゼル燃料と呼ばれている脂肪酸メチルエステルの生産工程において,製品の純度を高めるために導入されている蒸留精製処理に関して,その効果あるいは影響をグリセロリシス反応モデリングと実験によって系統的に調査し明らかにした。その結果,蒸留処理は純度を高めることができるが,グリセロリシス反応によりモノグリセリドが析出することや,蒸留温度を高めると過酸化物が生成してそれがただちに有機酸へ変化し,酸価を上昇させてしまうことなどがわかった。そのため,燃料の酸化安定性が低下することや,低温流動性も悪化することが明らかになった。低温流動性が悪化する原因として,酸化劣化によって融点の高いギ酸が生成し,蒸留温度が高いほどそれが高濃度となることが判明した。また,メチルエステル反応直後や水洗・乾燥工程直前の中間BDFを蒸留処理しても酸化劣化し低温流動性も悪化することがわかった。
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  • 進藤 昌
    94 巻 (2015) 10 号 p. 1098-1104
    公開日: 2015/10/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    リグノセルロース系バイオマスから低コストでバイオエタノールを生成するためには,糖化液作成時に使用する酵素使用量の低減と酵素の回収率を向上させることが有効である。しかし,セルラーゼなどの糖化酵素は,リグニンへ吸着するため添加酵素が有効に作用しないばかりか,酵素の回収率も低くなる。そこで,リグニンへの吸着を抑えるために,酵素反応液にリン脂質ポリマーを添加し,酵素糖化への影響を検討した。その結果,2-メタクリロイルオキシエチルホスホリルコリン(MPC)とメタクリル酸(MA)の共重合体(PMA)が,粉砕された杉の酵素糖化率を向上させた。また,MPC とMAのモル分率が1:9(PMA10)のときに最も杉リグニンへの吸着を阻害した。また,PMA10 の濃度が0.025 g/g dry mass 以上で酵素糖化率が最大になった。さらに,PMA10 無添加の場合,残存タンパク質濃度は検出限界以下(回収率0%)であったのに対し,PMA10 添加では,0.2 mg/ml 残存し,約30%の回収率だった。
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特集:バイオマス(技術論文)
  • Toshiki KITAGAWA, Fumio HASEGAWA, Kiyotaka SAGA, Yutaka KAIZU, Kenji I ...
    94 巻 (2015) 10 号 p. 1105-1109
    公開日: 2015/10/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study investigated the effects of hot-press pretreatment on sugar recovery from rice straw. Hot-pressed rice straw was evaluated using enzymatic hydrolysis. After hot-press pretreatment with 30 % moisture at 180 °C, 16 MPa, the glucose yield of hot-pressed rice straw was 73 % and the density of it was 1.3 g-wet/cm3. In addition, the sugar recovery increased to 92 % when the wet milling process was added before hot-pressing. Rice straw after the hot-press pretreatment can be stored for more than six months, without changing the sugar recovery rate. These results indicate that the hot-press pretreatment eliminates the need for drying the raw materials, improves the storability, reduces the volume of the rice straw, and has pretreatment effect for enzymatic hydrolysis.
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  • Caezar A. CUARESMA, Jessie C. ELAURIA, Delfin C. SUMINISTRADO, Mari ...
    94 巻 (2015) 10 号 p. 1110-1119
    公開日: 2015/10/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The study aims to determine the suitability of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) wastes for charcoal briquette production. Three types of raw materials namely 100 % tuba-tuba husk, 50 % husk and 50 % pressed cake, and 100 % pressed cake were carbonized using FPRDI carbonizer. The carbonized materials were bonded with cassava and corn starch as binders at different binder level of 10 %, 14 % and 18 % based on the weight of feedstock to form charcoal briquettes. Sample briquettes were evaluated based on their charcoal yield, crushing strength, proximate analysis, and heating values. Variation of treatment means for VM, Ash content, fixed carbon crushing strength and heating values was highly significant. Briquettes from pressed cake bonded with either cassava or corn starch at 10 %, 14 %, and 18 % was found to be superior among other materials tested. The 50 % J. husk and 50 % P. cake also showed promising results, but its quality may not be as good as that of pressed cake. The husk however, did not conform to the standards set by Philippine Standard Association (PHILSA), due to its high VM, and ash content. Based on the five properties, 10 % binder using pressed cake produced good Jatropha charcoal briquette.
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  • Virgilio S. MORALES III, Jessie C. ELAURIA, Marilyn M. ELAURIA
    94 巻 (2015) 10 号 p. 1120-1128
    公開日: 2015/10/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    A modified drum-type carbonizer was fabricated for the carbonization of young coconut waste. The major modification made was increasing the number of air inlets from four inlets per layer to eight inlets per layer, for three layers. Three tests were made by adjusting the number of air inlets opened. Water boiling test was performed using the three charred samples from the three tests. The first test had eight inlets opened, the second test had six, and the last test had five. The actual recovery and efficiency of the carbonizer were computed based on the data obtained. Observations were made on the charcoal produced and then it was subjected to water boiling test to determine its quality based on the stove’s efficiency. The modified version produced higher amount of charcoal and low amount of uncharred young coconut waste than the original. It was also more efficient in producing young coconut waste charcoal. The original design took a longer time of carbonization operation. Results showed that the carbonizer with 8 air openings obtained the highest actual charcoal recovery of 33.13 % and highest efficiency of 64.8 % in the carbonization process. The water boiling test showed that the average thermal efficiency of the stove is 19.32 % and comparable with the thermal efficiency of the same stove using wood charcoal of 20 %. It means that the quality of charred young coconut waste is comparable to wood charcoal.
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特集:バイオマス(資料)
  • Surya Prakash CHANDAK, Kumanduri Ranga CHARI, Mushtaq Ahmed MEMON
    94 巻 (2015) 10 号 p. 1129-1147
    公開日: 2015/10/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    A project was implemented in India to promote conversion of waste agricultural biomass into energy in partnership with Birla Institute of Management Technology. Several capacity building and awareness raising workshops were carried out. The topics covered in these workshops included: assessment of waste agricultural biomass; technologies; methodology for sustainability assessment of technologies; and policies. In India, 415.546 Tg (415.546 million t) of waste agricultural biomass is generated annually equivalent to 103.88 Tg of oil of which 101.88 Tg (equivalent to 25.47 Tg of oil) is estimated to be surplus. The technology demonstration was carried out at M/s Starlit Power Systems Ltd. Sohna, Haryana, which is a lead recycling company. It was decided to replace the diesel oil firing system with syngas produced from a biomass gasifier. A 540 kW (thermal) gasifier installed which led to a saving of 440,000 L/year of diesel and thus avoided 1,160 t/year of GHG emissions. The company invested US$ 160,000 but the savings amounted to US $ 400,000 thus the investment was paid back in just 5 months. A national strategy for enhancing conversion of waste agricultural biomass into energy was developed. A sub-regional workshop was organized to share the results achieved and lessons learnt.
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論文
  • Yanqun XUE, Jun HASHIMOTO, Kenji OTANI
    94 巻 (2015) 10 号 p. 1148-1153
    公開日: 2015/10/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper investigated a solar spectrum estimation method based on the SMARTS2 code and the specific impact of input parameters i.e. turbidity and precipitable water vapor (PWV) on the estimation. The turbidity measured by the filter type spectroradiometer called skyradiometer was used for increasing the estimation accuracy. The results of three different estimation methods for obtaining PWV from GPS sensor, skyradiometer and conventional humidity measurement were compared. The estimated solar spectrum was verified by grating type spectroradiometer and conventional instruments. As a consequence, each parameter set was sufficient to estimate solar spectrum, especially, the parameter set consisted of the turbidity from skyradiometer and the PWV from conventional humidity measurement was the most accurate.
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  • Masayuki MURATA, Sukanya NITIYON, Noppon LERTWATTANASAKUL, Kaewta SOOT ...
    94 巻 (2015) 10 号 p. 1154-1162
    公開日: 2015/10/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Considering its advantages including reduction of cooling cost and saving water during the fermentation process, which consequently cut down the total running cost, high-temperature fermentation with thermotolerant microbes is expected to be one of next-generation fermentation technologies. We focused on the establishment of high-temperature fermentation technology for ethanol production from biomass in Thailand, for which thermotolerant microbes suitable for various types of biomass were selected and advanced fermentation processes including a temperature-uncontrolled fermentation and a simultaneous fermentation and distillation under a low pressure were investigated.
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技術論文
  • Roberto CIMINO, Valerio BROCCO, Filomena CASTALDO, Giambattista De GH ...
    94 巻 (2015) 10 号 p. 1163-1168
    公開日: 2015/10/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The paper illustrates a project carried out - between 2012 and 2013 – during which the first eni solar/fossil hybrid power plant – without any grid connection and energy storage systems - has been designed, built, started up and successfully operated - in Egyptian Western Desert - over more than 8000 hours. The purpose of the project was to enhance the efficiency of oil production operation by integrating solar with diesel fuelled power production. A patented Power Management Module (PMS) optimizes power flows among the components of the plant, namely Photovoltaic (PV) panels, Diesel Generator (DG) and sucker rods electric engines. The plant has demonstrated reliability in hostile conditions and capability to save diesel fuel and reduce CO2 emissions up to 12 %. Further optimizations have also been identified, in order to enhance the performance of the whole system.
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ノート
  • 三浦 孝一
    94 巻 (2015) 10 号 p. 1169-1172
    公開日: 2015/10/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    低品位炭は高品位炭より酸素との反応速度が大きいため自然発火しやすいと考えられている。自然発火が起こるには,低品位炭がまず70℃程度と言われる限界温度まで加熱される必要があるが,石炭がどのような機構で限界温度に至るかは必ずしも明らかではない。本研究では,この温度上昇に大気中の水蒸気の石炭への吸着が及ぼす影響に注目した。まず,80℃で乾燥した後28℃程度に冷却した3種類の褐炭を同温度で関係湿度70%の大気にさらすと,1分程度で温度が40~43℃に上昇した。次に,同様に乾燥した後に38℃程度に冷却したそれら褐炭を同温度で関係湿度100%の大気にさらすと,やはり1分程度で石炭温度は60℃以上にも達した。これらの結果から,大気中の水蒸気の石炭への急速な吸着が一つの要因となって,自然発火に至る限界温度まで石炭が加熱される可能性が示された。
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ゲストエディタ(特集:バイオマス)
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