A large number of the projects of city-development are being planned in the Metropolitan Area by the local self-governing bodies and the private companies. On the almost cases, as many buildings having complex uses are expected to be constructed, so more quantity and better quality of energy used in the space heating and cooling are inevitable. For this purpose, the district heating and cooling system are expected to be introduced as a ra-tional distribution system, especially into all of the Sub-Center areas of Tokyo City. Therefore, the Energy Supply Companies must have a large responsibility and an important part to this request of supply. Of all energy used in town, oil (kerosene) is most economical and not inferior at a point of view of supply, environment and safety, so it should have a important role. As to the heat energy distribution system in the Water-ront in Tokyo, the proposal of systems by gas and electricity was already presented in the Journal. In this paper, the followings are described: those are the basic matter of city energy supply, the trait of district heating and cooling by oil, and our two model plans proposing to the Sub-Center areas of Tokyo City.
The newly developed aromatic polyimide membranes have been manufactured from the polyimide solution prepared by condensation of biphenyltetracarboxylicdianhydride and aromatic diamines. They have high selectivity for H2 permeation rejecting CO, CH4, N2 and others. They also enjoy notable durability to high temperature, characteristic to aromatic polyimide, and are applicable to wide range of gas processing conditions. By developing the relevant technologies of module construction and its system, we designed and built a commercial plant for H2 recovery from a catalytic reformer off gas in a oil refinery. We also designed a commercial high purity H2 system of the multistage permeation process with no recompression of permeate. The system is successfully producing 99. 999% up H2 (dry base) of 70 Nm3/H. The polyimide membrane has high H2O vapor pormeability and can be applied to dehydration of natural gas or organic vapors, or air drying. The water vapor permeates 100-200 times faster than the ethanol vapor. In the test plant operation (250l/day), 30 wt% ethanol was concentrated up to 99 wt%. Air drying system of inner side feed and counter current purge attained up to -50° dew point.
The compositions and the temperatures within diffusive catalytic combustion burners burning methane, propane, hydrogen and natural gas were measured. As a result, the follow-ing conclusions were obtained. 1) The combustion features showed a fast reaction of fuel with oxygen, similar to those of diffusion flame. 2) The reason such fast reaction occurred depends on the fact that transfer to a reaction controlled by pore diffusion is suppressed by use of a very small diameter fiber catalyst. 3) The prestage reaction of both methane and propane is probably fast partial oxidation which pro-duces CO and H, 2. 4) It was found that the combustion efficiency is decreased at a higher input or at the center, upper part of the module burner due to lack of sufficient oxygen, but forced air combustion facilitated good combustion performance.
The reaction rates of 32 coal chars with steam (1173-1273 K, 9. 8-37 kPa) and 11 coal chars with carbon dioxide (1223-1273 K, 16-37 kPa) were measured in a thermobalance. Coals ranging from anthracite to brown coal were used. The effects of partial pressures of steam and carbon dioxide, reaction temperature, characteristic properties of coal on the gasification rate were in-vestigated. The following empirical equations to estimate the gasification rate of coal char were ob-tained. The gasification rates estimated by these equations were in fair agreement with the experimen-tal ones. Steam gasification r0.5=96· ((Ca+Na) · (O/C)) 0.30·exp (-170×103/RT) ·PH2O0.70 CO2 gasification r0.5 =7380· (Ca+Na), 0.92·exp (-215×103/RT) ·PCO20.67 where Ca: Ca content in char (mmol/g-char) Na: Na content in char (mmol/g-char) O: Oxygen content in coal (%, daf) C: Carbon content in coal (%, daf) T: Temperature (K) P: Partial pressure of reactant gas (Pa)
The distributions of compound classes in coal-derived oil were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin layer chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (TLC/FID). Neutral oils, free of the acidic and the basic portion, were separated into 5 compound classes Fr-P (alkanes), Fr-M (monoaromatics), Fr-D (diaromatics), Fr-T (tri-or tetraaromatics) and Fr-PP (polyaromatics or hetero compounds). Separations were performed by HPLC using a Zorbax BP-NH2 column, as reported previously. Quantitative distributions of these compound classes were estimated by FID, compared with the conventional gravimetric method. In order to accurately determine the contents of compound classes, it is necessary to examine the sensitivity of FID response. The sensitivities of FID for compound classes with a larger number of aromatic rings, such as Fr-T and Fr-PP, were higher than those of compound classes with smaller number of aromatic rings, such as Fr-P, Fr-M and Fr-D. The contents were estimated by using the calibration curves, which give the relationhips between contents and signal intensities of FID (TLC peak area in this case) for each compound class. Consequently, distributions of compound classes with parent coal C% by FID agrees fairly well with those according to the gravimetric method. It is concluded that the HPLC-FID method is useful for characterization of coal-derived neutral oil. So, routine quantitative analyses can be carried out relatively easily by this method.
In order to evaluate the feasibility of coal derived middle distillates as diesel-powered automobile fuels, mass emissions of several substances (CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter) in exhaust gas from two kinds of test automobiles were measured by operating the automobiles under 10 mode driving cycle, idling condition and constant speed conditions at 20, 40 and 60km/h. Also, compositions of soluble organic fraction, hydrocarbon type and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter were analyzed. The middle distillates were obtained from the liquefaction of Australian brown coal in a continuously operating bench unit and treated with catalytic hydrogenation in a batch autoclave. Two kinds of test fuels were prepared by mixing the middle distillates and a commercial gas oil., Mass emissions of CO, HC and particulate matter were exponentially increased with mixing percent of the middle distillates in the gas oil. Therefore, as far as mixing percent of the middle distillates was low, the extent of increase in mass emissions was small. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in particulate matter increased with the increase of the middle distillates, but the contents of total soluble organic, aliphatic, aromatic and polar fractions were not correlated with the middle distillates. Aromatic hydrocarbon in the fuels significantly affected the emissions, which was the same tendency as petroleum derived fuels. Accordingly, it is desirable that the techniques for decreasing aromatic hydrocarbon content in coal derived middle distillates at catalytic hydrogenation are developed.