To consider the future prospect of energy resources, ultimate resources, technical and economical recoverable resources are reviewed. As the result of comparison between each reserved recoverable resource and consumption, it is suggested that the pattern of present energy consumption is unsuitable for some reserved resources and these unsuitability will increase in future. Mean yearly maximum energy consumption per capitation is derived from historic trend of annual energy consumption in several developed countries, and it is presumed as 30×106 kcal. World energy consumption is represented as the product of mean energy consumption per capitation and world population. Thus future prospect of world population is also refered. From the futiire prospect of world population and economical growth, it is pointed out present reserved economical recoverable resources will be consumed nearly in 2, 040. For the human being surviving, balancing between energy consumption and reproduction sould be essential. Forestry product as the settler of solar energy will be useful for the renewable energy resource, however world wide management of forest and technology development to use resource economicaly are required.
A large number of the projects of city-development are being planned in the water-front areas. And the district heating and cooling system (DHC) are being introduced to improve the town environment on the large scale. Kerosene as an energy of DHC is superior at a point of view of economy, environment and flexible transportation means, so it should have a important role. For the solution of traffic and store problems happenning at mass transport, on the other hand, the marine transportation system by small tankers is effective in the water-front areas. The way is the following: -Kerosene is unloaded at the coast in the area by small tanker and transported to DHC plants by pipelines or small tank-lorries. This system is called “Closed Service System Limited in the Area” as being solvable traffic problems outside of the area. In this paper, the followings are described: those are the outline of oil transportation and the model plan for the Sub-Center Areas of Tokyo City.
Combustion characteristics of a petroleum pitch have been studied by use of a fluidized bed combustor with an enlargement of cross section in the upper zone of the free board and a circulation system of unburnt solids. The secondary air was injected downward from a nozzle located at the top of the combustor to reduce particle carryover. In spite of many efforts, combustion efficiencies had been limited to 90% due to poor combustibility of petroleum pitch at zero solids circulation system. Combustion efficiencies in excess of 99% were achieved by reinjecting the captured flyash into the free board.The experimental conditions studied for the combustor were; a temperature of circulating solids, 300°C; an average temperature of combustor, 900°C; an average residence time of gas, 1.8 sec. At solids circulation, the levels of CO emission were remained the same as that of zero solids circulation and NO concentrations corrected to 6% O2 were reduced to 80-100 ppm. A new equation is presented for predicting combustion efficiency of solids circulation combustor. The calculated value obtained from the new equation was found to be in good agreement with the experimental value.
Hydrocracking of polar fraction (Po) isolated from Wandoan coal-derived heavy oil was carried out over a Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst at 375°C to determine their chemical structures. The nonpolar product (Po/NP) was separated into seven compound-type fractions by HPLC equipped with a semipreparative μBondapak-NH2 column. Each compound-type fraction was analyz-ed by field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS), but it was difficult to determine the skeltal structures, especially in compound-type fractions with large aromatic rings, because of many naphthenic rings. Therefore, Po/NP was dehydrogenated over a Pt/Al2O3 at 325°C to eliminate naphthenic rings. The dehydrogenated product (Po/NP/DH) was separated into seven compound-type fractions which were analyzed by FIMS. The skeltal structures of Po/NP/DH were shown to be polycondensed aromatic rings with molecular weights represented by 178+50n, 154+50n, 202+50n (n=0, 1, 2, 3, 4). The skeltal structures of the original polar fraction (Po) were presumed from those of Po/NP and the removal mechanism of hetero atoms in some model compounds.
Effects of CaO and FeO additives on ash fusion and fusion behavior of the blending coal ashes exhibiting a wide range of fusion temperature have been investigated under reducing atmospheres. (1) Fusion temperatures of ash with CaO and FeO were greatly lowered and were almost equal to the lowest eutectic point in the SiO2-CaO-FeO phase diagram system. The optimum chemical composition corresponding to the minimum fusion temperature was CaO: FeO=0.2-0.6: 1 (by weight). (2) A multiple regression equation, which was derived from the correlation between chemical compositions such as SiO2, Al2O3, CaO and FeO and fusion temperature, was proposed (correlation coefficient=0.95). (3) High temperature fusion behavior of blending coal ashes showed a good correlation with the multiple regression equation.
Surface-Chemical study of coal was made mainly on some properties related with viscosity and adsorption characteristics as one of the research series to establish the evaluation system of coal for CWM. Viscosity and adsorption characteristics are affected by oxygen containing functional groups on coal surface, primarily by carboxyl group.Flow patern of CWM is also very sensitive to content of carboxyl group.Although phenolic hydroxyde group is much more in quantity, its effect seems to be considerably weak. Various parameters on viscosity, zeta potential, adsorptions of water vapor and carbon dioxide, may be given as a function of carboxyl group as shown in the followings, m=a·Cn Here, m is amount of change, C is the quantity of carboxyl group, a is constant. Exponent n is generally in the range of 0.42-0.48 except zeta potential, in which case it is 0.22, about a half of those above stated. Ion-exchange resin which functional group is mainly carboxyl, behaves in a similar manner as shown by the above equation.
Australian Wandoan coal liquefaction tests to confirm reaction behavior were carried out by 1 t/d process development unit. The test results agreed well with estimations obtained from previous basic studies. (1) Contents of n-paraffins in the recycle solvent increased up to 20wt%, also conformable with the estimated value from batch autoclave studies. (2) Oil yields were increased with the increase of the gas-slurry ratio (G/L), and it was clarified that the G/L effect was explainable by converting the G/L into the function of residence time. (3) Product oil yield (b. p.350°C-fraction) from Wandoan coal liquefaction using iron catalyst is more than 50wt% on d.a.f. coal basis.
The effect of atomic S/Fe ratio of various natural pyrite catalysts on the liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal has been investigated. The catalytic activity of pyrites was compared on the basis of the exothermic peak temperature and differential pressure in a high-pressure DTA analysis. The exothermic peak temperatures of pyrites with the atomic S/Fe ratio of 1.87 to 1.97 were lower than those with the ratio of 1.99 to 2.04. The latter contained more Na2O, K2O, CaO and MgO and these oxides were considered to inhibit the liquefaction. On the other hand, the results of 500 ml autoclave experiments showed that the liquefaction with the pyrites which were more active in the DTA analysis produced somewhat higher yield of asphaltene. However, the conversion and oil yield were not related to the catalytic activity in the DTA analysis. They might be affected by the contents of SiO2 and Al2O3 in the pyrites.