Reviews on bulk sampling theory are given from the following three points of view. Sample division-experimental results of sample division on samples for size deter-mination and samples for chemical analysis of iron ores show that division errors express-ed in variance are inverse proportional to masses of sample retained. Systematic sampling-the precision of systematic sampling depends on the nature of variation of the population, i. e., random, periodic, trended, or correlated. It is proved by W. G. Cochran that stratified random sampling is more efficient than systematic sampling for the trended population. Trends are observed in all of size, moisture and total iron con-tent in an iron ore during the discharging of the whole vessel. Optimal sampling methods are discussed in these cases. Variogram-variograms of moisture content in a lumpy iron ore, gold content in a gold bearing ore, one hundred successive masses of molten iron tapped from a blast fur-nace and sulfur content in these tappes of molten iron, together with correlograms of the gold content and the masses of molten iron, are presented and discussed.
Japan has been making a determined effort to increase its offical development assistance (ODA) in recent years, defiming it as a priority area in playing a larger role in the global communbity. There are growing expectations on the part of both of recipient and donor countries with regard to Japan's ODA. In 1988 Japan's ODA exceeded that of the United States on a budgetary basis. In addition to the expansion of the volume of ODA, its quality requires improvement. The expansion of technical cooperation is one of effective measures for improving the quality of ODA. Technical cooperation is implemented by various organization in Japan, but most of the governmental level activities are carried out through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). JICA's technical cooperation includes programs such as receiving trainees, dispatching experts, project-type techical cooperation, development survey and so on.
Quinoline was carbonized in an autoclave at 400°C in the presense of ZnC12 follow-ed by heat-treatment at 600°C. Atomic N/C of the feed quinoline is 0.111 whereas carbonized product was 0.095. Thus the carbonized product containing nitrogen is efficiently prepared. Evolution of hydrocarbon gases during polymerization reaction and analyses of benzene-soluble materials indicate that hydrogenation of aromatic rings and subsequent cracking of produced naphthenic rings also pro-ceed. Possible mechanisms for these reactions are proposed. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was car-ried out on the prepared carbonaseous material containing nitrogen as a catalyst support. The catalysts impregnated with 1.6 wt‰ Co and 5.0wt‰ Fe showed higher olefin selectivities (especially more than 50‰ for C3 hydrocarbons) than corresponding catalysts prepared from a carbonaseous pro-duct from anthracene, which contained no nitrogen. This suggests that support effects originatedfrom electron donating properties of nitrogen appear for the catalytic reactions, in compatible with the generally observed behavior of an addition of potassium as an electron donnor.
Surface chemical study in CWM was made with 20 kinds of raw coals and their chars made by heating on the stand point of functional groups on their surfaces, specially carboxyl group. Carboxyl group has, unlike phenolic hydroxyl group, a strong influence on viscosity and water adsorp-tion characteristics, which may be deducible from the carboxyl content or zeta potential closely correlated with this content. Carboxylic acid group is a highly active site and is converted to the salt form by exchange with ca-tions, such as Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+, inducing marked rise of pH and decline of zeta potential.
Nakayama lignite that contained much humus easily reacted with chromic anhydride (CrO3) in aqueous solution. CrO3 was reduced to Cr2O3 at the temperature coal pyrolysis oc-curred (<500°C). Therefore, the hydrogenation of Nakayama lignite pre-treated with CrO3 was car-ried out at 500°C. As a result, the yields of liquefied oil and low boiling components gradually increas-ed with increasing the amount of CrO3. 1HNMR spectroscopy and ultimate analysis showed that the values of Hα, Hβ, Hγ and σ were larger and those of Ha, fa and Ra were smaller with increasing the amount of CrO3. This means that the average structure of liquefied oil was continuously converted in-to naphtene rings and alkyl side chains with increasing the amount of CrO3. The above facts could sup-port the following mechanism: Cr03 causes oxidative decomposition of coal structure under reducing (CrO3/Cr2O3) temperature. Furthermore, oxidative chromium formed by the reduction of CrO3 pro-motes the hydrogenation of produced oil.
The mechanism of adsorption of anion surfactant (naphthalene sulfonic acid sodium formalin condensate) on various coals in CWM were studied and the following results were ob-tained. Grain size of coals did not have effect on amount of equilibrium adsorption of surfactant. As for the adsorption rate of surfactant on coals, it was dominated by diffusion rate for pores of coals. The ad-sorption equilibrium of surfactant showed a type of Freundlich in low concentration region. The dif-ference of saturated amount of surfactant which is adsorbed on various coals is due to various accep-tabilities of adsorption site allocation.
Light gasoline was produced from kerosene at industrial vapor phase hydrocracking plants. The system analysis of the plants was made from the engineering point of view. Here, the calculation model of gasoline yield per weight was proposed, and it was clarified that according to the increase of LHSV-1, the yield increased following the equation of the 1st order reac-tion rate. The longitudinal reactor temperature was measured and increased monotonously towards the outlet of the reactor from the inlet. The temperature rising with reaction was 66-88k according to operating conditions. Thus the hot spot trouble was not observed.
The stepwise hydrocracking of heptane-soluble polar fraction (Po) and asphaltene (As) isolated from wandoan coal-derived residue was carried out over a presulfided Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst at 375 °C to investigate their chemical structures. Five nonpolar samples (Po/NP, Po/Po/NP, As/NP, As/As/NP, As/Po/NP) were obtained from the hydrocracking products as shown in Fig. 1. The nonpolar products (Po/NP, As/NP) from the first hydrocracking of Po and As had lower molecular weights than those (Po/Po/NP, As/As/NP, As/Po/NP) from the second hydrocracking of the recovered polar materials. Each nonpolar product was separated into seven compound-types by HPLC equipped with a semipreparative Bondapak-NH2 column. Fr.3 and Fr.6 were analyzed by field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS). The same compound-type fractions were shown to con-sist of similar polycyclic hydroaromatic structures, although those from the second hydrocracking have more naphthenic rings which resulted in higher molecular weights.