Recently the global environmental issue, especially the global warming issue became a grave concern of international community. The global warming is thought to have close relation with carbon dioxide emissions which, itself, is harmless to the eco-system. The issue has been discussed at many international forums, conferences and other meetings to assess the global warming effects scientifically, study its socio-econimical effects and consider the response strategy considering to harmonize environmental conservation and socio-economical development. IPCC (Intergervernmental Panel on Climate Change) has played a leading role in the discussion. IPCC reported its interim report to SWCC last November and we entered a new stage. The first round international negotiation on framework convention has started in Washington on February 4, 1991 and the negotiation will be finalized at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development which will be held at Rio de Janeiro in June. 1992. This article aimes at general understanding to the issue by describing international trends of the global warming issue.
Observed long-term trends of the surface air temperature are treated, comparing with the results of numercal experiment for increase of greenhouse gases. Global mean of the marine surface air temperature, which is not suffered from the local effect of urbanization, is estimated from 1900 to 1986 using COADS . Linear regression of the annual mean temperature gives a trend of about + 0.32°C/86 years, that is consistent with the results of numerical experiment by upwelling-diffusion climate model. After the 1960s with remarkable increase of carbon dioxide, significant warming is seen in Southern Hemisphere while no appreciable warming for Northern Hemisphre. This interhemispherical asymmetry of the temperature trend is opposite to the results of numerical simulation by atmosphere-ocean coupled model . This discrepancy between observation and numerical simulation should be possibly dissolved by taking account of the effect of sulphate aerosols on albedo for insolation. In the northernmost zone of the Atlantic Ocean, significant cooling appears after the 1960s together with noticeable decrease of salinity and temperature of the water in the surface layer. These facts suggest some variation of the thermohaline circulation.
Clouds have two opposing effects on climate. On the one hand, clouds reflect solar radiation and exert a cooling effect on climate. On the other hand, they reduce the effective temperature for outgoing terrestrial radiation and contribute to the warming of climate. These two effects are discussed in terms of the cloud radiative forcing observed by satellites, cloud feedback effects using a radiative-convective model, and global warming predicted by three-dimensional climate models. There still remains a large uncertainty in the sensitivity of the climate to doubling the CO2 concentration due to incomplete treatment of clouds in the present climate models. Much effort should be done to improve the cloud modeling to obtain a reliable prediction of the global warming.
The classic “Urey reactions” CaSiO3+CO2→←CaCO3+SiO2 controls the level of atmospheric CO2 over geologic time scales. The stoichiometry expressed as Ca2++2HCO3-→CaCO3+CO2+H2O explains clearly the direct effect of the coral reef growth on the atmospheric CO2 concentration: the short-term increase in CO2 level will be resulted. Deep-sea injections of fossil-fuel CO2 are the most feasible strategies to mitigate the climatic impact of global warming. The pH of the ambient seawater around the liquid CO2 lake at a 3000m depth will be lowered to 3.3, possibly making serious influence on the sea-floor ecosystem. Biogenic calcareous ooze can be act as the in-situ neutralizer while the pH-lowered seawater crawlingly spreads out on the ocean floor.
This paper conncerns following nine fundamental items, that is, (1) Equality, (2) Logic, (3) History, (4) Religion, (5) Language, (6) Technology, (7) Management, (8) Ecomony and (9) Demecracy, and deals with the commonknowledges about these items which are ordinarily true, but occasionally false if beyond some boundary. This true/false boundary is something like the offside trap of soccer fooyball game, man have been caught in this trap unconsciously very often. This trap is caused by the conflictions between micro-individual desires and macro-social requirements. The global problems such as earth enviromental issues are derived from total summing-up of individual desires, so this problems could not be solved from the micro standpoint, only the countermeasures from macroscopic standpoit would propose solutions. Any items is very difficult and deep problem, therefore this short paper will only discuss where the kommonknowledge go out beyond boundary and fall into traps, and why this phenomenom generate. At the ending of this paper, the core idea of Nihon Sintoh (Japanese Most Ancient Traditional Religion) will be explained, because it is the most important concept which must be remembered by everybody whenever he confronts and wants to overcome these difficult problems. We Japanes have lived and will live according to this criterion.
It is important to obtain the basic data for evaluation and utilization of coal liquid vacuum residue (CLVR) from economical viewpoints in coal liquefaction technology. The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of solvent-frac-tionated components of CLVR and the influence of raw coals on them. Samples used were five kinds of CLVR obtained from the continuous 0.1t/d coal liquefaction plant (BSU) of NEDOL process. The following conclusions were derived from the measurement of 1H-NMR spectra, molecular weight, elementary analysis data and extraction yields of solvent extracts of CLVR.(1) CLVR derived from lower rank coal had a tendency to contain a larger quantity of light organic components (n-hexane solubles, HS).(2) CLVR from the coal giving a higher liquid yield contained a larger quantity of HS and a smaller quantity of asphaltene.(3) N/C and O/C values of heavy organic component of CLVR were generally proportional to those of the raw coal respectively, and their values increased as the solvent-fractionated component became heavier except N/C of THE insoluble.(4) The ratio of naphthenic to total rings in the extracts of CLVR decreased with increasing rank of the raw coal.
The wastewater from coal coking process (gas liquid) is usually treated in the activated sludge after ammonia stripping. The two types of the gas / liquids, that were liquid (A) produced in a convensional ones and the other one (B) produced in a developing oven were treated in the activated sludege. Their biological reactivity and their chemical characteristics were compared. B liquid was found to carry so large quantities of organic compounds, especially the high molecular weight compounds, and the poisonous compounds (S2-, CN, SCN, etc.) for the biological treatment than A liquid. Hence B liquid was 4∼5 times more toxic than A one. B treated still carried larger quantities of organic compounds which included the high molecular weight ones than A treated effluent. On the activated sludge treatment, A liquid could be treated by 3 time dilution, whereas, the 12.5 time dilution in the treated water was not enough with B liquid, increaseing of COD, SS and SCN values with foaming in the aeration tank. After some days of operation the ORP suddenly became out of contorol, digestion of SCN becoming very poor. Damaged activated sludge was regenerated by the addition of rice bran and the high dilution of feed for 4 months. The SCN digestion ability was restored or even improved after the regeneration.
Low grade bunker fuel brings about evaporative and surface combustions, and produces unburned carbon easily because the fuel itself contains residue. The present experiment attached importance to this fact and clarified combustion characteristics of the low grade bunker fuel by thermal analyses. Samples for low grade bunker fuel were fuel oil C and compositions separated from the oil by column chromatography; and those for middle distillate fuel were gas oil and marine diesel fuel. The results of the experiment were as follows: (1) When the samples for low grade bunker fuel were heated, thermogravimetric analysis measured a loss in weight of-evaporation, thermal cracking and combustion of carbon residue, and temperature region of the three. Differential thermal analysis measured combustion point and heat of reaction through the heat of the samples mentioned above. (2) Saturated hydrocarbon in the fuel oil C was almost evaporated, and the combustion point is lower than that of other compositions. Most of both Aromatic hydrocarbon and Resin changed into carbon residue by thermal cracking. This process was facilitated by oxygen in the air. (3) The Aromatic hydrocarbon composition of used fuel raised the temperatures of combustion and thermal cracking, and changed into carbon residue easily. The complete combustion of the composition required more than 497°C of ambient air. (4) Combustion profile seen in blend of low grade bunker fuel and middle distillate fuel showed a shape combining the outlines of the two materials, if a region of boiling point was very different among both.