Volter is the one of small scale gasification power plant manufacturer in Finland. They use down-draft type gasifier and power outputs is 40kW and heat one is 100kW. They developed the package type power generator of compactness and simple composition. A necessary woody dried chip is about 1 ton per day, and it's a trump card of woody biomass small dispersion generation of power in the area aiming at local producing center in particular. First one in Japan has been installed into Kita-akita city in June of this year by Volter Japan which is Japanese agency of Volter. We added dryer for wood chips in this site and demonstrate a performance test. We'll report on these contents, a result, and a problem for the future spread in Japanese market.
The supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of wet-biomass holds promise as a technology to convert biological effluent into valuable, environmentally, and friendly energy. Shochu residue is organic effluent as waste produced at distillation process in Shochu distillers. One of major obstacles was tar plugging in heat exchanger tube. 24 h continuous SCWG operation of Shochu residue with pilot plant (1 t-wet/d) has been conducted and it was successful achieved with some kind of countermeasures. However, Shochu distillers’ daily work style suggested that Daily Start and Stop operation of SCWG plant for Shochu residue treatment will be profitable at Shochu factory. Therefore, 60 h DSS gasification experiment of Shochu residue has been conducted to consider tar suppress effects of rapidly temperature rising and radical scavenger. This was successful achieved, because of no plugging and stable pressure loss at heat exchanger tube during gasification.
In our previous studies, two-step pressure swing adsorption (2 step PSA) using HAS-Clay and Zeolite A-5 was developed, and executed the performance tests for hydrogen purification with CO<sub>2</sub> capture. As a result, the following facts were obtained: (1) CO<sub>2</sub> almost completely from syngas was separated by HAS-Clay, and (2) hydrogen of 97 % concentration was purified by Zeolite A-5. Here, a simulation model of hydrogen purification through 2 step PSA in consideration of non-stationary dynamics unsteady was developed in use of gPROMS (PSE Ltd.) in order to simulate the performance of 2-step PSA. For this purpose, the related physical property data were employed.
Consequently, it was confirmed that our simulation model was valid in comparison to the experimental results of multicomponent breakthrough curves. Also, it would be favorable to estimate the energy efficiency and/or the environmental indexes, changing the technological parameters.
A commercial CHP (spark ignition engine driven) is operated with bio-syngas, a combustible gas from autothermal gasification system. A small downdraft gasifier with commercial pellet is used. City gas (13A) is used as a reference. Efficiencies of generating power from the sources (pellet and 13A), NOx in the exhaust and in-cylinder temperatures are discussed. As a result, NOx emission is smaller in bio-syngas operating and the in-cylinder temperature is also lower. Though the lower temperature means lower NOx emission, the temperature difference between bio-syngas and 13A is not so large. The prompt NOx should be considered.
A kind of woody biomass pyrolyzed at relatively low temperature of 300-400 °C, named "bio-upgraded coal," has better energy density and pulverization property to achieve a high co-firing rate of 30% and more in a coal combusting power plant. Tars by-produced during the upgrading processes from Japanese cedar were analyzed, and it was found the tars contained many compounds, which depended on upgrading conditions and tar sampling points. Tar sampled from an outlet of upgrading furnace contained valuable diterpenes having pharmaceutical effects of high contents (ex. ferruginol: 12%). The tar containing these valuable diterpenes may improve cost effectiveness of the total system.
Regional wood biomass utilization would be fundamentally closely concerned with the forest tree storage in the area, and sometimes it comes less relation because of difficulty on the regional forest utilization. Smart forestry project to create a SCM system at such a region with much forested area for efficient forest management and harvesting has been conducting. Together with active forestry and accurate timber production, the regional woody biomass production can be designed in the harmony of technology and management. The GIS based forest management tool system is preparing for that and the balance between operation mechanical technology and the area forest management scheme was discussed. A model for the balance was created and was discussed on the harvesting operation technical level, the annual harvesting amount of the operation and the area for operation.
This study aims to design the wood energy system based on the local energy demand distribution. For zero CO<sub>2</sub> emission, not only wood biomass but also other renewable energy such as solar and wind are considered. The monthly and daily energy demands of residential and commercial sectors are evaluated using an annual demand. The renewable energy potential is also evaluated using the local characteristics. As results in Fukushima prefecture, the electricity demand 33.3 PJ and the heat demand 38.5 PJ are obtained. Further, the wood biomass potential 33.8 PJ is also obtained. The wood biomass is utilized to the heat supply because the electricity demand is mainly covered by the solar and wind energy.
Bio-energy with CCS (CO<sub>2</sub> capture and storage), called as BECCS, is expected to be a promising method to reduce the atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> concentration. In this study, conditions under which negative CO<sub>2</sub> emission can be achieved in BECCS using pulverized coal-fired power plant (500 MWe, thermal efficiency:38 %(HHV)) with co-firing with woody biomass have been investigated. The results from the analysis showed that the critical co-firing ratio of biomass to coal, which is defined as the ratio over which the net CO<sub>2</sub> emission is negative, strongly depended upon the CO<sub>2</sub> recovery rate in CCS and increased with decreasing the CO<sub>2</sub> recovery rate. The critical co-firing ratio was around 10 % when the CO<sub>2</sub> recovery rate was 90%. On the other hand, the CO<sub>2</sub> capture and storage energy varying from 1 to 4 GJ/t-CO<sub>2</sub> had little influence on the critical co-firing ratio.
Over 4 years have passed from institutional introduction of FIT, and gross demonstrated capacity comes to over 3.66GW beyond 250 cases for the new plan of woody biomass power plant at July, 2016. On the other hand, the number by which less than 2 MW of non-use added newly 2 years before is a frame is only 22, and there is only 4 cases of something working actually. The current state of the FIT system in woody biomass was inspected once more and the condition for the small-scale distributed type woody biomass CHP system spread was considered.
Two wood biomass projects (district heating/cooling, combined heat & power) have been realized in countryside of Japan as early exemplars. Key technical aspects and performance parameters are presented and discussed from user / business operator perspectives. Author argues that so many past failures, too many money-induced electric mono-generation projects with low energy utilization, and inability to promote heat use / CHP in Japan to date, is largely due to lack of educated professionals and/or their mindsets. Author urges academic leadership in building objective and common key knowledges in applying biomass energy in practice, through working in partnership with early technology adopters and analyzing leading examples overseas.
Intrinsic transesterification rate of palm oil with methanol can be easily measured in homogeneous phase, which can be accomplished by adding a co-solvent to the reaction mixture. The authors found that the type of co-solvent influences the transesterification reaction rate constant. In this paper, the authors tried to clarify this unknown phenomenon by applying the concept of hydrodynamic size and intermolecular interaction of palm oil molecules, which depend on the type of co-solvent. Methylethylketone (MEK) and tetrahydrofurane (THF) were used as co-solvents.
This study aimed to propose economic evaluation for heat and rice husk charcoal utilization by rice husk combustion. Rice husk charcoal was prepared by electric furnace on the 12 combustion conditions, combination of combustion temperature (400, 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900°C) and combustion time (3 and 60 min). Economic value of heat utilization of rice husk was evaluated by output heating value and the amount of unburned carbon. Economic value of rice husk charcoal utilization was evaluated based on the amount of eluted soluble silica as fertilizer component measured by the molybdenum blue absorptiometry. As a result of 3 min combustion, economics increased with increasing combustion temperature, 0.14 JPY/g-fuel (400°C) to 0.23JPY/g-fuel (900°C). On the other hand, as a result of 60 min combustion, economics decreased with increasing combustion temperature, 0.26 JPY/g-fuel (400°C) to 0.09JPY/g-fuel (900°C). These results show the possibility of short-term and high-temperature combustion for developing rice husk burner as biomass utilization.
The green microalga Botryococcus braunii produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons that are promising as an alternative to petroleum. To better understand the mechanism of hydrocarbon accumulation in the alga, genes responsible for biosynthesis of the precursors for terpenes and epoxidation of squalene were isolated and characterized. The alga possessed multiple isogenes coding for 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase that catalyzes the first reaction step of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway for biosynthesis of the universal precursors of terpenes. Furthermore, a totally five of isogenes homologous to squalene epoxidase were also isolated. These genes may be used as tools to regulate triterpene hydrocarbon productions by the alga once technology for genetic engineering of this alga is established.
Photosynthetic O<sub>2</sub> production curve of chlorella was measured. O<sub>2</sub> production rate of flat algal culture vessel was estimated from photosynthetic O<sub>2</sub> production curve of chlorella. The experimental result of O<sub>2</sub> production and algal growth rate is nearly equal to estimated value. The algal growth rate becomes the maximum in which the light intensity at the bottom is light-compensation point in spite of water depth. The algal growth rate decreases with the increase in light intensity. For this reason, the photosynthetic algal growth rate under midday sunlight is low.
Green-tide forming Ulva meridionalis exhibits high growth rate and even doubles a day at an optimized culturing condition. U. meridionalis is expected to be a source for fixation of carbon dioxide due to high ability in photosynthesis and formation of cell wall polysaccharides. We used <sup>13</sup>C-tracer to understand the mechanism how U. meridionalis rapidly capture carbon. U. meridionalis were cultivated for 12 h. under light or dark conditions using enriched artificial seawater medium (EASW) containing <sup>13</sup>C-NaHCO<sub>3</sub> as a sole carbon source. Within 12 h of cultivation, U. meridionalis exhibited 1.8-fold increase in its dry weight and 41.2% incorporation of <sup>13</sup>C. FT-ICR-MS analysis demonstrated that <sup>13</sup>C-labelled nucleotide diphosphate (NDP) sugars started to appear within 4 hours of culturing under light with m/z ranging between m<sub>0</sub> (monoisotopic mass of NDP-hexose) and m<sub>0+15</sub>. The semiquantitative <sup>13</sup>C-NMR analysis revealed that <sup>13</sup>C also rapidly transfers to matrix polysaccharide.
Rice straw has a potential as a sugar source for ethanol in Japan. However, there are some problems to commercialize ethanol production from rice straw. We paid attention to the high collection and storage cost due to high water content of rice straw just after harvesting rice and the resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. In order to overcome these two problems, we have developed two treating methods of rice straw to work on storage in a wet condition and on improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis: one is hot-pressing treatment and the other is compression grinding treatment supplemented with lime. We evaluated effectiveness of these two treatments in this study. The hot-pressed rice straw showed high glucose yield in enzymatic hydrolysis and strong resistance to biological decomposition. The density of hot-pressed rice straw was over 1 g/cm<sup>3</sup>, which can improve cost of transportation and storage. The compression grinded rice straw also showed high glucose yield and resistance to decomposition. The density was around 0.5 g/cm<sup>3</sup>, lower than that of hot-pressed rice straw but over twice as high as that of roll baled rice straw. These results indicated the two methods we proposed were effective in cutting the collection and storage cost and in improving the sugar yield in enzymatic hydrolysis.
2 kinds of variety of Erianthus (Erianthus arundinaceus), seed propagation type and clonal propagation type have been developed for the first time in the world. By this thing, Erianthus was recognized as a crop for cultivation, and supply of the seed or the plant of Erianthus which the quality is guaranteed became possible by public support. Erianthus with a potentiality will complement woody biomass lacking and it's expected that a business model by a new viewpoint is proposed.
We are working on screening and improvement of useful enzymes for cellulosic biomass saccharification. Although environmental microorganisms can be used to produce various glycoside hydrolases for the commercial degradation of lignocellulosic biomass, more than 99% of environmental microorganisms are difficult to culture and have not been fully characterized. This limitation can be overcome to a large extent by metagenomics, which is the culture-independent genomic analysis of microorganisms. In this study, a metagenomic approach was used to identify a gene that encodes an enzyme with efficient cellulosis saccharification activity. In addition, we also tried to improve the enzymes by rational design based on structural information and the directed evolution technique.
The recombinant yeast strains displaying the heterologous cellulolytic enzymes on the cell surface using the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring system are considered promising biocatalysts for the consolidated bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we constructed novel gene cassettes for the efficient cellulase display on yeast cell surface. We revealed that simultaneous utilization of the GPI anchoring region derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae SED1 and its original promoter in a gene cassette enabled highly-efficient enzyme integration into the cell wall. The β-glucosidase and endoglucanase activities of recombinant yeast cells transduced with the novel gene cassette were 8.4- and 106-fold higher than those of conventional strains. The novel gene cassette also improved cell-surface hemicellulase activity. These results suggest that the novel gene cassette has the wide applicability for efficient cell-surface display of heterologous enzymes and that recombinant yeast cells displaying enzymes using these cassettes are promising biocatalysts for the efficient ethanol production from biomass resources.
While bioethanol production from sugarcane molasses has advantages in greenhouse gas emissions because of its energy acquisition from bagasse, there are some vulnerability issues in the whole system. These issues should be addressed through the interdisciplinary analysis integrating agriculture and industry. Among a lot of technology options, a solution should be able to select technology package on agricultural and industrial processes. In this study, we constructed a process model of combined raw sugar and bioethanol production from sugarcane considering agricultural and industrial technology options. Simulation results using the process model demonstrated that the simultaneous implementation of both technology options increases production of raw sugar and bioethanol, and saves fossil and natural resources.
"Yume Take Valley" is being constructed in Nankan-machi, Kumamoto is consisted in the three companies. One is the bamboo material processing plant and a 2nd is the raw material pretreated plant and a 3rd is the energy plant. They are the first processing, commercialization and energy use of the balance material consistently focusing on the bamboo for the area resources.
One-pot direct catalytic conversion of cellulose to light hydrocarbons at low temperature (443 K) in the presence of Pt– zeolite catalysts and water was investigated. Results revealed that Pt supported on H<sup>+</sup>-form ultra stable Y type (H-USY) zeolite catalyst (Pt/H-USY) enabled direct conversion of cellulose into C<sub>3</sub> and C<sub>4</sub> hydrocarbons without hydrogen and other expensive reagents. The production trend is attributable to the bifunctional catalysis of supported Pt and acid site in H-USY zeolite, which has a large pore system and effective acidity. Results revealed that 1wt% Pt/NH<sub>4</sub>-USY(14) catalyst showed higher C<sub>3</sub>+C<sub>4</sub> hydrocarbon yield than 1wt% Pt/H-USY(14) catalyst because 1wt% Pt/NH<sub>4</sub>-USY(14) has smaller Pt particle size and larger Pt surface area. Pt/zeolite catalyst with about 5 nm Pt particle size showed high TOF of C<sub>3</sub>+C<sub>4</sub> hydrocarbon yield.
Biomass-derived sugars have attracted increasing attention in recent years as an alternative carbon source. Although significant advances have been reported in the development of catalysts for the conversion of carbohydrates into key chemicals, only a limited range of products can be obtained. We herein describe the highly-selective cascade syntheses of a range of useful compounds using biomass-derived sugars and aldehydes. We especially focus on the upgrade of 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA) generated from glucose to yield useful compounds via C-C bond formation. The establishment of this novel synthetic methodology to generate valuable chemical products from saccharides renders carbohydrates a potential alternative carbon resource to fossil fuels.
Recent advances of fundamental and application studies on nanocelluloses prepared from wood biomass are reviewed, primarily based on the results obtained in our laboratory. Because nanocelluloses have unique and functional properties different from petroleum-based or inorganic nanomaterials developed up to date, it is possible to use nanocelluloses in versatile common and high-tech products as new bio-based nanomaterials. When a new material stream from forest to high-tech industry through nanocelluloses can be created in combination with efficient plantation, it would contribute to a decrease of CO<sub>2</sub> concentration in atmosphere and consequently to prevention of global warming.
I was composed primarily of bamboo material and developed "very ecological material". "cotton-formed bamboo fiber"50%, "•bark compost"45%, Kyushu University Brand goods organic fertilizer " medicinal herbs of the plant of the soil" 5% were most suitable for the combination ratio of this material.
I developed "an aerial nitrogen fixation bacteria instruction type tree planting new method of construction" (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport new technology utilization system NETIS, QS-110013A authorization finished) based on this material.
It was strong and, from the above-mentioned result, suggested that it was the naturally original healthy soil and a permanent tree planting method of construction not to use artificial manure, RAS wire netting, the chemosynthetic adhesive, peat moss, and "to return "bamboo" felled" from "the mountain" to "the mountain" in conclusion.
This method of construction were 1) The characteristic of this method of construction supplies nitrogen by 1) nitrogen fixation bacteria automatically (as for the artificial manure no application), 2) Futon by the strong linkage combination of cotton-formed bamboo short fibers (binder, RAS wire netting unnecessary), 3) High moisture holding ability (peat moss unnecessary) of cotton-formed bamboo short fibers,
It was strong and, from the above-mentioned result, suggested that it was the naturally original healthy soil and a permanent tree planting method of construction not to use artificial manure, RAS wire netting, the chemosynthetic adhesive, peat moss, and "to return "bamboo" felled" from "the mountain" to "the mountain" in conclusion.
We estimated the amount of forest resources available from Nagano Prefecture from the number of forestry machinery that is social constraints. Firstly, the utilization rate and the productivity of the bucking machinery were calculated from the survey of the number of forestry machines owned. Based on the results, we estimated the number of forestry machinery needed to produce future target of 750,000 m3. In order to achieve the goal, it is necessary to increase more than 60 machines and it became clear that it is a very difficult goal. In addition, it was difficult to produce even if the operation rate was improved. Therefore, it was suggested that the limitation of the available amount by the number of forestry machines is very large
There is a difference between existing and available amount in any resources. This study investigated the difference in woody biomass resources from a technical standpoint in relation to logging operations. The two areas chosen for this study were Nagano and Kochi Prefecture, which have planted forest area of 3378.2 km<sup>2</sup> and 3415.4 km<sup>2</sup>, respectively. Cable logging with tower and swing yarders were simulated in a geographic information system for estimating the available amount. The available amounts were estimated to be 1338.4 km<sup>2</sup> in Nagano Prefecture and 1379.4 km<sup>2</sup> in Kochi Prefecture. The results showed that there is a large difference between existing and available amount in woody biomass resources, suggesting the important role of further expansion of forest road networks to increase available amounts.
Even though current forest condition of one stand becomes clear by means of rapidly-evolving remote sensing technologies, past treatments such as thinning conducted there before are still unclear. Estimation of such past treatments can lead to better evaluation of not only the amount, but also the quality of forest resources, which enables us to know the amount of available woody biomass resources with better accuracy. This study used two tools for showing shifts of stand condition, stand density control diagram and "System Yield Table", to compare parameters of possible stands with similar current conditions but different past treatments. It showed examples in which even stands with similar current stand stem volume and tree density can have quite different DBH and tree height resulting from different past treatments.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate a mechanized wood harvesting system. The system consists of felling, skidding, processing and forwarding. In gentle slope areas, the system is designed by using vehicle-based forestry machines (Feller buncher, Skidder, Processor and Forwarder). We define the scale of land as 250-m mesh (6.25 ha) and locate forestry road networks and timber yards. As a result of using two feller bunchers, two skidders, two processors and two forwarders, it became clear that the productivity is about 28 m<sup>3</sup>/man-day. Based on this result, energy consumption, CO<sub>2</sub> emissions and total cost will be clarified.
This study extracted production forests and estimated the annual available amounts of forest biomass resources under profitable forest management in Tochigi prefecture. Production forests were extracted as sub-compartments where expected revenues surpassed all costs—from planting to final harvesting—for a 55-year rotation. Then, annual available amounts of forest biomass resources were estimated on the basis of annual supply potentials from production forests. Annual supply potentials from precommercial, commercial thinning and final felling operations were 64,357 tons, 156,830 tons, and 172,855 tons, respectively. Annual available amounts were estimated at 12,800 tons, 29,745 tons, and 33,902 tons with a destination and 15,815 tons, 37,093 tons, and 41,872 tons with nine destinations, respectively. Since the 2,400-kW Nakagawa woody biomass power generation plant consumed 50,000 tons/year, the largest annual available amounts for small-scale woody biomass gasification power generation was 12,000 tons in Ootawara city.
The consumption of fuel wood chip made from unutilized forest biomass is increasing after FIT start. The consumption volume exceed 3 million m3 that is about 15% of timber production in 2015. The chip or chip purpose log price are increasing in some area of nearby a woody biomass power generation plant. The chip price trend behavior are different from lumber or plywood purpose logs prices after January of 2015.
Utilization of logging has been spreading for woody biomass power generation over a wide area as well as small scaled regional use such as "wood station". The recovery systems can be classified into large scaled and small scaled ones. The large one is typically operated by a single cooperation using large trucks for intensively accumulated logging residues at landings. On the other hand, the small one uses small trucks or light-weight trucks operated by many shippers. They ship logging residues to intermediate landings, so called "wood station", where the residues are transferred to wood chipping factories or processed to wood chips and then transferred to burning facilities. Although large scaled systems would generally have superiority in a view point of cost efficiency, small scaled systems may be better than large scaled ones in other points of view other than cost efficiency. The present paper discusses with comparison of the superiority between such different scaled systems on not only cost efficiency but also CO2 emission, energy efficiency, and contribution to regional economy.
In this study, we design a sustainable logistics system of forest biomass considering forest biomass supply chain linking from forests to power plants. The system consists of four depots, forests, natural drying sites, pellet plant and power plants, linked by truck transport. We calculate transportation amounts and storage on a day-to-day basis for a year with the linear programming using spatial information of amounts of available forest biomass, demands of power plants, and locations of depots. From this analysis, we reveal robust transportation network, supply cost, inventory turnover rate, lead time, energy consumption and CO<sub>2</sub> emission of the system. Using five indexes, energy consumption, CO<sub>2</sub> emission, cost, inventory turnover rate, and transport efficiency, we evaluate the performance of the system.
Hokkaido Research Organization have started study of Formulation of a stable renewable energy supply system as strategic research. In Furano area, we estimated the amount of field residue, livestock manure, agricultural product processing facility waste using regional data. By using biogas produced by the biogas plant made from livestock manure in some areas and agricultural processing residues in Furano city, it is possible to replace the most of the thermal demand of schools and agricultural facilities in the city.
As the energy use from woody biomass is increased woody biomass supply from softwood logs only may not be sufficient. The necessity of cutting hardwood trees such as oak is now increasing because of an increase in the damage caused by Japanese oak wilt. Therefore, it is anticipated that the use of hardwood as woody biomass will increase. However, it is difficult to construct an efficient supply system because few data are available on the harvesting and transportation of hardwood materials. In this study, hardwood branches with low carrying efficiency were chipped to reduce the volume, and its rate of volume reduction and the chipping productivity was measured. We found that the chipping productivity was 5.5 t-dry/hour (9.7 t-wet/hour, 30.4 chip-m<sup>3</sup>/hour) with a 60 mm hole screen, 3.6 t-dry/hour (6.2 t-wet/hour, 18.4 chip-m<sup>3</sup>/hour) with a 40 mm hole screen, and 3.0 t-dry/hour (5.2 t-wet/hour, 14.9 chip-m<sup>3</sup>/hour) with a 25 mm hole screen. The bulk density of the branches of the hardwood tree is 0.08 t-dry/m<sup>3</sup>, and after chipping, it became 0.19 t-dry/m<sup>3</sup>, and the rate of volume reduction was 41%.
We have been investigating a new production system for forest biomass, the "integrated wood logging system," in which the wood logs are forwarded without being cut into butt logs and stem butts of logging residues (e.g., stump logs) during the bucking process. This results in the integrated wood logs being longer than the conventional wood logs. Therefore, we developed a new forwarder for the integrated wood logging system. First, we designed a prototype forwarder with an extended loading platform at the back and then developed a forwarder with a lateral loading platform. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the loading work using these machines.
CO<sub>2</sub> emission to the atmosphere by the use of fossil fuels is estimated at around 5.5Gton-C/year. On the other hand, afforestation can reduce the CO<sub>2</sub> at the rate of 5.37ton-C/ha/year. .Hence if 1 G ha (100,000 km<sup>2</sup>) is newly afforested, all the CO<sub>2</sub> emission by the use of fossil fuels can be fixed. As a result, CO<sub>2</sub> emission can be efficiently encountered and it can solve the global warming issue. If 1 ha of afforestation cost is assumed as $1,600, the global warming issue can be solved at a cost approx. 1,600 Billion $ is raised by financial institution using the financial engineering and 1G ha is afforested. This created employment for people under poverty and also can increase the food supply. For more revenue can be generated by selling CO<sub>2</sub> emission rights and production of renewable energy.
"Bamboo Frontier Vision" constructed in Nankan-machi, Kumamoto is consisted in the three companies. One is the bamboo material processing plant and a 2nd is the raw material pretreated plant and a 3rd is the energy plant. They are the first processing, commercialization and energy use of the balance material consistently focusing on the bamboo for the area resources. It is most important to make a collecting system of bamboo economically and effectively. We report the collecting system of bamboo from the economical point of view.
Stock farmers use litter for livestock and ther excreta management. The litter includes straw, rice husks, sawdust, bark and sand. As the grain of sawdust is small, it keeps hold of a large quantity of water. So sawdust is suitable for the litter. But recently its price rises by the competition with FIT, so stock farmers must devise about the cost down of the litter.
To develop wood ash recycling to the forest, component of wood fuel material, and fertilizer and micro element concentration of wood ash generated from wood biomass burning boiler were investigated. In the fuel material, wood chip was highest and sawdust and bark were lower component than chip. PKS were always contained 10% of total weight. These components did not fluctuated during sampling. In the wood ash, potassium contents were 4-8%, and water soluble potassium were 1-2%, and it also contains 1-2% of phosphorus. Silicate was highest elements and its concentration was 50-60%. Total from of heavy metal concentration in all elements were under the limit of environmental standard, but some element such as fluorine and boron were over the limit in some ash. To stabilize the nutrient concentration in the wood ash, it is necessary to keep a components of fuel material for burring.
"Bamboo Frontier Vision" constructed in Nankan-machi, Kumamoto is consisted in the three companies. One is the bamboo material processing plant and a 2nd is the raw material pretreated plant and a 3rd is the energy plant. They are the first processing, commercialization and energy use of the balance material consistently focusing on the bamboo for the area resources. We find out the ash from combustion of bamboo and bark material has the sterilization and deodorant effect. In this case, the ash could be used for valuable with no expenses. We report the possibility of ash for sterilization and the deodorant effect.
In order to recycle wood ashes back to the places of biomass production as fertilizer, modifications of their solubility are necessary. To evaluate of the effects of lignosulfonates on the solubility of ash components, the aqueous extracts of the wood ashes stabilized by water (40 % of solid weight) and various additives (5% of solid weight): calcium hydroxide, calcium lignosulfonate, and magnesium lignosulfonate were compared. The curing period of 28 days changed pH level of the extracts from 13 to 11 and reduced electrical conductivity from 2.8 to 0.79 S/m. The declines in pH and electrical conductivity were slightly enhanced by lignosulfonates. The additions of lignosulfonates decreased the solubility of toxic trace metal elements, such as chromium, while those suppressed the weight gain of the stabilized ashes, which indicates that lignosulfonates tend to inhibit the deposition of insoluble carbonates on moist ash surfaces.
In this paper, clinker formation on the stainless steel mesh during combustion of bamboo powder packed bed has been investigated. The temperature and the amount of clinker adsorption on the mesh were measured. Furthermore, the clinker on the mesh was also observed. It was suggested that the clinker formation process was consisted of two stages as follows. Firstly, the white particles of about 10 μm were adsorbed on the mesh at about 1000 K. Secondly, some large clinkers of about 200 μm due to coalesce of the small particles were formed when the surface temperature on the mesh achieved to about 1200 K.
Two kinds of wood chip fuel and three kinds of agricultural residue from Hokkaido were torrefaction-treated, and measured various quality performance. The yield decreased 8-17% by heat-treating at 250°C, but fixed carbon，calorific value, and friableness increased. The water absorptivity of wood chip fuels had decreased by the torrefaction-treatment , but the agricultural residues did not show the obvious change.
At Memuro town, which is one of the leading production area of red beans (azuki) and Chinese yam (nagaimo) in Hokkaido, use of agricultural residues discharged in large quantity is tried. Especially, there is a lot of the agricultural residue of Chinese yam that mixed with polyethylene net for breeding. It is difficult to separate the dirt and the polyethylene net. Therefore, for the purpose of effective utilization of the resources, we examined to produce fuel pellets. As a result, it was possible to decrease the ash content by separating the dirt adhering to the red beans shell and the residue of Chinese yam. The calorific value of the pellets mixed with the red beans shell and Chinese yam net was also improved by sediment separation.
Bio-coke is highly densified biomass fuel developed early in this century. The first commercial sized manufacturing equipment, that materials are heated and cooled at same part in the reactor with press from one direction in batch typed operation, was installed in 2011. For saving the energy during manufacturing and construction cost, newly equipment have been developed. For the environmental impact assessment in particular global warming, life cycle CO<sub>2</sub> that involves loading raw material, pretreatment, shaping Bio-coke, loading Bio-cokes and burning Bio-coke was calculated in the cases which Bio-coke was made by these equipment.
Tar, by-produced during producing bio-upgraded coal from Canadian conifers, were thermogravimetrically and mass spectrometrically analyzed. The tar contained steroids, terpenoids and phenol derivatives. Their concentrations were dependent on temperatures of the thermal treatments. An effective system to collect these compounds, based on their thermal properties, was proposed.
In this study, pyrolysis characterization of peat and mushroom culture waste were investigated. The composite of the pyrolysis gas (volatile material) and char for each reaction temperature were investigated by using fixed bed reactor. As a result, in the case of peat, generation rate of volatile material was increased with increasing temperature and the ratios of monoxide and dioxide are higher than other components. Also, the ratio of hydrogen was increased with increasing reaction temperature. Biomass shows the similar behavior such as peat, however total generation amount was slightly more than peat. In the case of peat-char, C ratio was increased and H ratio was decrease with increasing the temperature. These result showed that dehydrogenation and carbonization had a relationship and progressed with increasing pyrolysis temperature. In the case of biomass, similar result was shown.