Proceedings of the Conference on Biomass Science
Online ISSN : 2423-8341
Print ISSN : 2423-8333
ISSN-L : 2423-8333
Current issue
Showing 1-50 articles out of 62 articles from the selected issue
  • Hiroki YOKOYAMA, Yukihiko MATSUMURA
    Pages 1-2
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is attracting attention because it can convert biomass quickly and almost completely. When nitrogen containing feedstock is to be gasified, behavior of nitrogen under hydrothermal conditions is important. There are some studies about amino acid decomposition in subcritical condition. It is also known that ionic reactions mainly take place under subcritical condition. As for supercritical conditions, amino acid is known to decompose rapidly , and its decomposition rate has not been determined due to its short reaction time. In this study, we conducted SCWG of glycine in less than 5s. The experiment was conducted using a tubular flow reactor at 25MPa and glycine was employed as feedstock. Order of the decomposit ion rate was determined.

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  • Kenichi FURUHASHI, Akihiro TANAKA, Kazutaka KURODA, Naoki FUKUJU
    Pages 3-4
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In this study, the introduction of solid-liquid separation process in wet anaerobic digestion treatment system, which can treat the semi-solid manure, was investigated for composting the solid fraction without adding any secondary material and increasing the concentration of organic matter in the liquid fraction The recovery rate of sawdust was over 96% by screw press with wedge wire screen (slot size, 0.8mm). The same degrees of the fermentation temperature and the decomposition rate of organic matter were observed in both of composting of the solid fraction and the sawdust-added material. The concentration of organic matter in the liquid fraction was increased by the reuse o f the liquid fraction to slurry the manure.

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  • Masao MASUDA
    Pages 5-6
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In order to commercialize algae biomass fuel, improvement of algae biomass production and equalization of production throughout the year are major issues. However, in Japan, a decline in biomass production in winter is inevitable.

    Therefore, we considered leveling the production volume by heating and cooling the culture pond with waste heat. As a result, we confirmed that summer cooling and winter warming of the culture ponds contributed significantly to the growth of algae, and that a water temperature of 20-25°C was suitable for indigenous algae in Fukushima.

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  • Shimpei Aikawa, Takamitsu Arai, Toshiaki Kondo, Akihiko Kosugi
    Pages 7-8
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Oil palm trunk (OPT) stores abundant sap accounting for approximately 70% of the whole weight. The squeezed sap can be used as a carbon source for microbial fermentation such as ethanol and lactic acid production because of containing around 10% (w/v) fermentable sugars. Microalgae are attracted attention as promising sources for bio-based industry. They are normally cultivated using carbon dioxide (CO2), but the lower cell density is a critical issue for biofuel production. To overcome the bottleneck, we examined heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae using the OPT sap, since it h as been known that some microalgae can vigorously grow on sugars and organic acids instead of CO2 . In this study, we investigated the heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae by adding diluted OPT sap. Significantly increasing cell mass was observed in microalgae such as Euglena gracilis, Chlorella sorokiniana, and Haematococcus lacustris. Particularly, the cell density of C. sorokiniana was drastically enhanced by adding of the sap. This result indicates that OPT sap is a useful carbon source and mineral source for microalgae cultivation that is necessary to be high cell density.

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  • Kenichi SASAUCHI, Masayuki HORIO
    Pages 9-10
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    The feed-in tariff system for renewable energy in Japan ”FIT” is planning to be abolished and reduced. However, the small-scale biomass power system of less than 2MW of 40 yen/kWh using unused biomass as a fuel is drawing attention.

    However, the direction of the national policy is the abolition of FIT, and it will be reviewed sooner or later. Cogeneration with less than 2MW of unused biomass has the effect of regional circulation of domestic biomass and should continue to expand regardless of the FIT system. We describe the post-FIT technology strategy based on the prevalence of small-scale biomass power system.

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  • Akihiro HAMASAKI
    Pages 11-12
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    SDGs are that the Sustainable Development Goals are the blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. They address the global challenges we face, including those related to poverty, inequality, climate, environmental degradation, prosperity, peace and justice. The reason why SDGs issue develops is externality of the market so to solve SDGs is to get rid of externality of the market for example carbon prices. The right carbon prices($25/t-CO2) and the lowest cost($6.4/t-CO2) carbon reduction which is afforestation are proposed to solve SDGs.

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  • Makoto OOBA, Takuya TOGAWA, Shogo NAKAMURA, Kazuyoshi NEMOTO
    Pages 13-14
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    Utilization of woody biomass and installation of biomass power plant in Japanese rural area have been promoted by the FIT-system, while concern about depletion of forest resource and absence of regeneration of plantation are raised. The wood biomass supply potential in the studied area (Mishima Town, Oku-Aizu region) were investigated by an integrated biomass model. From an interview study, there are many problems in the area, especially, lacking of social system for sustainable forestry and biomass utilization. In this study, a story of establishing a consortium toward to an achievement of wide-area circular economy by using forest resource and distributed renewable energy system.

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  • Kenji KAIBE, Junichiro OTOMO, Toshihiko NAKATA
    Pages 15-16
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Energy conversion technology of woody biomass (WB) has attracted attention because of carbon neutral energy. On the other hand, the energy use of WB is not advanced sufficiently since WB power generation costs are higher than grid power generation costs. One of the reasons for high cost of WB power generation are that the WB fuel costs account for more than 50% of the total power generation costs, which is essential to reduce WB production costs in order to expand the use of WB. Costs, life cycle assessment, and technological performance and improvement of WB use have been discussed previously. However, those studies tend to be limited to present technologies and specific areas. Moreover, they have not discussed the impacts of technological improvements and/or introduced technologies to the WB power generation costs. In this study, we focus on the WB production cost, and clarify the correlation of each factor between processes and the impact of each element improvement on power generation costs. We design a WB production process, calculate its cost by a detailed bottom-up approach, and propose technological scenarios to show innovation pathways to utilize WB effectively. We find that it is important to improve the chipping cost and the labor efficiency of timbering, and thus it is suggested that the WB power generation cost can achieve 25 JPY/kWh which is a target cost in this study.

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  • Takaaki FURUBAYASHI
    Pages 17-18
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    This study aims to analyze and draw regional energy flows considering not only biomass but also other renewable energies such as wind power, solar energy and wasted heat from incineration plant. I draw the conventional energy flow, and analyzed the energy supply and demand for zero carbon soci ety. As a result, the final energy consumption 85.8 PJ/year in Akita prefecture is covered only using regional renewable energy, and biomass energy is mainly utilized to heat production in Industrial sector The wind power supplied more than half of electr icity demand.

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  • Takuya Togawa, Shogo Nakamura, Makoto Oba
    Pages 19-20
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    The proliferation of renewable energies in local distributed energy systems requires more rapid progression in promoting local initiatives in elemental technology development and policy implementation. This study takes a mountainous area named Mishima Town in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, in which each village is assumed to be a unit for decision making in optimizing energy system design and operation plans of renewable energies according to its demand variation. Based on the summation of each village’s decision, the total resource and economic circulation effects within the region are evaluated. Result reveals that the utilization of renewable energies is indicated that can play an important role in the formation of regional circulation symbiosis through reallocating the flow of money and resources in a region.

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  • Mitsuru GAU, Hideki MIWA, Kenzo KIKUCHI
    Pages 21-22
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Tohoku-region in Japan is near a northern limit area for growing for Erianthus (Erianthus arundinaceus) which origin is the tropical or the sub-tropical area. Erianthus varieties , ”JES1” and ”JEC1” which are already brought up don't include Tohoku-region in cultivation suitable land, and if we try to grow Erian thus in Fukusima area, it's necessary to improve the adaptability to the cold district. The diversity of Erian thus indicates the enough a daptability in Fukushim a area , and we can think the improvement of the cold district a daptability is possible by hereditary improvement.

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  • Satoshi Kawajiri
    Pages 23-24
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    At Takenaka Corporation, as a comprehensive town planning engineering company, we are making various efforts by positioning the construction of a sustainable society as our growth strategy. This research is carried out as a measure to realize the strategy. The goal is to develop a system to build a sustainable recycling society by linking the treatment of garbage biomass discharged from urban buildings and agricultural production.

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  • Hiromi YAMAMOTO
    Pages 25-26
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    In this paper, BioEnery CCS(BECCS) that would be needed in the case with drastic CO2 emissions reduction is surveyed. BECCS is the combination of the commercial technology of bioenergy uses and semi-commercial technology of CCS, and its technical hurdle towards introduction is not strict among the options of CDR(Carbon Dioxide Removal). BECCS is introduced at a large scale in the long-term energy scenarios collected by IPCC under stringent CO2 emissions reduction, such as 1.5°C target. The CO2 reduction costs of BECCS are assumed to be 3 to 7 times as much as those of thermal power generation with CCS. However, the large-scale uses of BECCS impose a burden on future generation that must use CDR at a large scale.

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  • Hiroaki WAKIZAKA, Yoshinari NARUMI, Futoshi AKASAKA, Takeshi MATSUMOTO
    Pages 27-28
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Rice husk is one of the attractive renewable energy sources in Asia. Several studies have reported that rice husk biochar produced by some energy conversion systems is dangerous to human because it contains crystalline silica. The purpose of this study is to develop an effective gasification technology which can prevent crystallization of silica. Rice husk is converted to producer gas at about 1000 degree C in new type of gasifier for tar cracking. This gas is clean and stable enough to produce 15kWe electric power by gas engine CHP. Biochar from this gasifier is analyzed using XRD and the peak of Cristobalite is not detected. These results indicate that new type of gasifier can satisfy both power supply and prevention of silica crystallization by using rice husk.

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  • Ryoma SATO, Takashi KADOMA, Yusuke FUJIMOTO, Naoaki OGATA, Yoshihiko ...
    Pages 29-30
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    This paper reports our experience of moving bed biomass gasification at Oobae-Kuroshio power plant in Kushima City, Miyazaki Pref. This plant has installed 10 gasification reactors and gas engines (165kW per unit) supplied by Burkhardt Inc. Germany. Although the pellets fed to this plant satisfied the specifications of EN plus A1 as well as manufacturer's recommendations, huge clinkers were formed in the reactor by ash agglomeration and the gasifier operation had to be terminated within several days. After months of scrutinies we found that the clinker formation rate can be related to chemical property of pellets and successfully achieved continuous operation over 1218 hours (about 7 weeks)), which is longer than the standard operation hours of Burkhardt units of about 4 weeks

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  • Masaya ODA, Daisuke Shirato, Ryo YOSHIIE, Ichiro NARUSE, Yasuaki UEKI
    Pages 31-32
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS RESTRICTED ACCESS

    In recent years, biomass gasification processes are attracting attention to produce renewable gaseous fuels. However, it is difficult to use raw biomass because it has low heating values. So, we considered the introduction of oxygen enriched air. By supplying oxygen-enriched air, the heat loss due to water evaporation can be compensated. It is considered that partial combustion of the fuel can be promoted and sufficient heat can be obtained. In the experiments, we used a packed bed gasifier. This gasifier is small in size and suitable for small-scale distributed utilization of biomass. From the experimental results, it was found that even if moisture content of the wet biomass is high, the gasification of the biomass is possible by increasing the oxygen concentration of the gasifying agent. The syngas contained more H2 and CO compared with normal biomass gasification.

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  • Hajime YASUDA, Takahiro MURAKAMI
    Pages 33-34
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    A novel fixed bed gasifier was designed that could recover the internal solids while maintaining mutual relative positions. The bottom of the gasifier was opened after quenching and a transparent cylinder was set to collect solid particles. Since only the furnace bottom has been designed to be opened and the gasifier main body not to be required to cut, labor can be reduced. Further, the solid held and collected in the cylindrical body can be cut along the slit of the cylindrical body, then the cross section of the mass of solid particles could be observed. The effectiveness of this visualization method was confirmed by comparing the gasification performance with the observation results.

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  • Suntaro TSUBAKI, Pablo B. Sánchez, Agilio Padua, Yuji WADA
    Pages 35-36
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Microwaves have been reported to be effective as a technique for promoting dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids.

    However, the mechanism for promoting solubilization of cellulose by microwaves is not fully understood. In this study, the solubilization behavior of cellulose was analyzed kinetically under precise microwave irradiation conditions.

    Furthermore, the dielectric properties depending on the cations and anions that make up the ionic liquid were investigated by measuring the complex dielectric constant of the ionic liquids, and the mechanism by which solubilization was accelerated by microwaves was discussed.

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  • Tomoko SHIMOKAWA, Eiji TOGAWA, Satoshi KUBO, Masanobu NOJIRI, Hajime S ...
    Pages 37-38
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Cellulose nanofibers(CNFs)were produced from soda-anthraquinone digested pulps (soda-AQ pulps) and commercially available kraft pulps by wet grinding in combination with enzymatic pretreatment. Previous study showed the effect of CNF-blended undercoat paint to prevent the fading of wood panels under accelerated weathering test. In this study, we blended CNFs with acrylic resin emulsion to examine their compatibility as waterborne undercoat pant.

    When the conditions for producing CNFs from pulps were the same, the properties of pulps affected CNF properties.

    CNF derived from Sugi soda-AQ showed the highest compatibility for CNF-blended undercoat paint , with good dispersibility in varnish. One of the reasons for this result might due to the low degree of polymerization of Sugi soda-AQ CNF. In the dispersibility test of derivatized CNF into mineral spirit, the effect of dodecylation was confirmed.

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  • Yoshimitsu UEMURA, Varsheta Sellappah, Suhaimi Hassan
    Pages 39-40
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Torrefaction is a low temperature thermal treatment for lignocellulosic biomass to improve its energy density. Since the main product of this process is used as solid fuels, rather cheap products, any additional benefits must be considered in order to improve economical feasibility. From this viewpoint, it is important to identify the by-products from torrefaction. In the present study, torrefaction of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm kernel shell (PKS) was carried out by using a fixed-bed tubular reactor at 473-573K for 30min under nitrogen atmosphere. The representative by-products identified in the present study included carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water, acetic acid and phenol. In gas phase, also minor hydrogen and methane were detected. In liquid phase, fifteen types of minor organics were detected. Firstly, pyrolysis products from hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin were listed up from previous studies. Then by-products detected in the present study were correlated to possible sources, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. Secondly, the yields of major by-products were estimated by summing up the contributions from hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, and compared with the observed yields.

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  • Xiaodong LI, Tsubasa YATSUSHIGE, Daisuke KAWANO
    Pages 41-42
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    For simulating the operating environment of the fuel cell, 1-D model for PEFC was constructed in this study. These numerical results using this model were compared with experimental results in the same operating environment to verify the reliability of the fuel cell model. The influence of the initial temperature difference on the output characteristics of the fuel cell was investigated.

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  • Haruto CHIDA, Kazuyoshi NEMOTO, Toshihiko NAKATA
    Pages 45-46
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    The purpose of this study is to develop wood harvesting system model considering spatial information of forest resources. The forest data include forest area, tree volume, slope, hauling distance, etc. We set six cases considering full-tree, tree-length and cut-to-length logging with either gentle slope or steep slope. The performance of the systems are evaluated by thier productivity, energy consumption, CO2 emission. As a result of a case study in Mishima town, Fukushima for six cases, the averaged system productivity is 3.1-8.8m3/hour. The averaged energy consumption and CO2 emission are 80.6-268.1MJ/m3 and 5.6-18.5kg-CO2/m3, respectively. This study can provide some beneficial information for decision making in forestry.

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  • Keisuke ADACHI
    Pages 47-48
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    In this paper, we examines the substancial cost of woody biomass power generation based on the data on integrated commercial thinning in the Okuetsu area, Fukui Prefecture. We found the following results: the balance of power generation will be positive if the scale of power generation is 5,000 to 10,000 kW and the moisture content of chip materials is 20 to 30%. In the case of the 7,000 kW plant and the moisture content of 20%, some of the 36 thinning cases have a surplus, but from a social point of view, the power generation has generated a loss of 1.2yen per kWh.

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  • Akihiro HAMASAKI
    Pages 49-50
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Productivity of the biomass energy from palm farm is very high. On the other hand, there are many opinions that life-cycle CO2 for palm oil and PKS are too big to reduce CO2. If a new palm farm is developed, a lot of CO2 will be exhausted by deforestations and oxidation of peat. Therefore, a feasibility study to minimize lifecycle CO2 for biomass fuel from palm farm in a model of the world's best palm oil production country of Indonesia is carried out.

    The results to reduce lifecycle CO2 of biomass fuel from palm farm is that to produce liquid fuel from woods and peat discharged by developing palm farm. Calculated CO2 reduction quantity potential will be More than 120 million tons a year in case using all the biomass fuel from all Indonesian palm farms (around 100,000 square kilometers).

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  • Hidetsugu MORIMOTO, Yuto KONDO
    Pages 51-52
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    We confirmed the changes in the soil thermal environment (thermal diffusion) from bamboo powder application by planter cultivation experiment. This aimed to observe the soil temperature under planter cultivation for 45 days from seeding (10th May 2017) to harvest (27th June 2017). The design consisted of a control pot (non-application) and three treatment pots (standard (50kg/10a), twice and three times as much as the standard). The soil thermal diffusion was higher in all the treatment pots than in the control pot. This indicates that it is necessary to consider the amount of bamboo powder application because of the associated changes to the soil temperature; however, the standard addition amount caused no adverse change in the soil thermal environment.

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  • Michino HASHIZUME, Chinnathan Areeprasert, Koji TOKIMATSU
    Pages 53-54
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    In paper industry, usually they utilize waste from paper making process such as woody waste, waste reject and paper sludge for internal energy use. Our research focuses on paper sludge contains too high moisture contents to treat easily. We focused on our previous study showing that hydrothermal treatment can make paper sludge upgraded. In our research, we calculated CO2 emissions from the paper sludge system to generate electricity in the actual paper mills in Thailand. As a result, when hydrothermal treatment is applied on paper sludge and cofiring with coal, it will be better in terms of environmental perspective when the boiler size is small such as the boiler capacity with 50t/h and paper production capacity with 100t/h.

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  • Fumio HASEGAWA, Shingo YOSHIKAWA, Yutaka KAIZU, Kenji IMOU
    Pages 55-56
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Recently photographic survey using small UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) has attracted attention. The SfM (Structure from Motion) method is a powerful tool to create a 3D model from multiple 2D images. In this study, the plant height of an energy crop erianthus was estimated by UAV-SfM method. The estimated height was lower than the measured height because the top of the leaf was not matched among images and the 3D model was not constructed. The difference between the estimated and the measured height was less than 0.5m and the correlation between the estimated and the measured height was high, so UAV-SfM method is useful for the estimation of the plant height of energy crops.

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  • Koujirou FURUHASHI, Hiroshi KAJIKAWA, Makoto TAKAYA, Koji ITONAGA, Man ...
    Pages 57-58
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Methane fermentation is currently attracting attention as a viable form of renewable energy in Japan. However, methane fermentation has a problem of low energy efficiency due to low methane concentrations. Finding a solution, at present, is of utmost importance. Therefore, in this study, we worked on experiments that would improve methane concentration in biogas produced using biological methanation methane fermentation. In this specific method of methane fermentation, adding a biological methanation was aimed to improve the methane concentration in the generated biogas. Methanation is a technique that turns hydrogen and carbon dioxide into methane and water by using methane-producing bacteria or metals. As a result of the experiment, in which we used cow manure as a seed bacteria for the methane fermentation, 3L of cow manure allowed for a consumption limit of 0.5L of hydrogen per week. It was found that methane concentration increased by 5% by adding 0.5L of hydrogen per week. The amount of methane obtained by methanation in this experiment, in terms of concentration, made it possible to show the expected value.

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  • Yohanes Andre Situmorang, Zhongkai Zhao, Nichaboon Chaihad, Akihiro Yo ...
    Pages 59-60
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Biomass char obtained from pyrolysis process has high activity due to high carbon content and low volatiles amount compared to the original biomass. In some researches, biomass char is also used as catalyst support or catalyst for the reforming of tar. In this study, various biomass chars were combined with rice straw to enhance gas production in the rice straw gasification. Apple tree branch, knotweed stem, and seaweed were chosen as biomass char sources because they have high contents of Ca and K in their ashes that have activity to increase gas production of gasification. Pyrolysis to generate the char was performed at 500°C with a heating rate 10°C/min for 2h. The steam co-gasification was performed in a fixed bed reactor at 750°C for 1.5h with a ratio of biomass/ char of 1:1 in 0.5g of total mass. From those 3 biomass chars tested, seaweed char was the only char that can increase gas production when combining with rice straw, even though Ca and K contents in seaweed ash is not as high as apple tree branch and knotweed stem.

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  • Aisikaer Anniwaer, Yohanes Andre Situmorang, Nichaboon Chaihad, Zhongk ...
    Pages 61-62
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Rice husk (RH) contains a high content of silica (Si), and it is not so easy to be gasified at a low gasification temperature. To enhance hydrogen yield from the gasification of rice husk, the disposal seashells obtained from sea bay of Aomori prefecture, Japan, was calcinated at 900°C, and utilized as the catalyst. The effects of reaction temp erature and steam flow rate on the gasification of RH in the presence of different amounts of calcined seashells (CS) were investigated in details. It is found that the addition of CS can effectively enhance the gasification of CS at low temperatures

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  • Takahiro IWASAKI, Hironori OHASHI, Michio SATO, Kenji KOIDO
    Pages 63-64
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Because of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred in 2011, radio active cesium was dispersed over a wide range of eastern Japan including forest area. In March 2018, decontamination of residential areas has been completed whereas the forest areas have hardly been decontaminated. The forest decontamination should be implemented in an integrated manner: 1) the wood chips as feedstock of gasification CHP , and 2) Cs immobilization in a pollucite for stable sto rage of concentrated radio active cesium In this study, effect of reused char with Cs2CO3 addition to feedstock on enhancing H2 and CO generation has been clarified during wood gasification

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  • Toru OGURA, Michio SATO, Kenji KOIDO
    Pages 65-66
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Spent mushroom-bed (SMB), which are waste biomass, can be expected as a fuel. In this study, the gasification characteristics of spent Shiitake mushroom-bed were evaluated by TG-DTA and a laboratory-scaled fixed-bed downdraft gasifier. The DTG showed two-step curve during SMB pyrolysis because of more hemicellulose content than timber waste (TW). The continuous gasification of SMB blended with Erianthus showed that the conversion to gas and hydrogen concentration were enhanced by 7.5–8.8points at blend rate of 50wt%, which was caused by the effect of co-gasification. In addition, at the SMB blend rate of 50 wt%, the H2S concentration in the producer gas was lower than expected, while COS concentration was higher than expected, due to the blend effect.

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  • Mana YAZAKI, Chihiro FUSHIMI
    Pages 67-68
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    In recent years, the introduction of gasification and direct melting system has been promoted for the purpose of recycling waste and extending the life of the final landfill. However, CO2 emissions from the gasification and direct melting system are high owing to the use of coal coke. In this study, solid biomass fuel production process was integrated with waste gasification and direct melting system, and the CO2 reduction effect and economics were evaluated. It was found that CO2 emissions can be reduced by 79% by replacing coal coke with BIC produced in this process. In addition, in order to recover the initial cost in 10 years, it was found that the molding machine price needs to be less than US$ 1.3M (in the case that air for a dryer is preheated by the exhaust gas) and US$ 1.5M (in the case that the hot exhaust gas is used in the dryer), respectively.

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  • Takayuki HOSHI, Takahiro IWASAKI, Michio SATO, Kenji KOIDO
    Pages 69-70
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Fruit pruning is a woody biomass that is a precious bioresource for regional small-scale plants. In this study, gasification of peach pruning was performed to clarify the effects of gasifying agents on producer gas composition and conversion to gas. For the different reaction temperatures (T = 800-1000°C) in N2/H2O gasification of timber waste (Japanese cedar/cypress). As a result, the peach pruning had a higher gasification rate than the timber waste. For gasification performed in the different gasifying agent with different CO2/O2 ratio, the highest conversion to gas (72.2 C-mol%) was obtained for gasifying agent of CO2/O2/N2/H2O = 0%/ 3%/ 13%/ 84%. And the conversion increased with decreasing CO2 agent and increasing O2 amount.

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  • Tadashi YASUMURA, Kazuhiro KUMABE
    Pages 71-72
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    The amount of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) used in automobiles and other products because of its lightness and strength is expected to increase year on year. Thus, low-cost, low-energy recycling technology will be required to recover carbon fiber from waste CFRP and perform its application development . On the other hand, tar is generated as a by-product in biomass gasification. In this study, we evaluated the effects of tar and simulated recycled CFRP on simulated asphalt characteristics in order to use biomass tar as an alternative to regenerative additives of recycled asphalt and develop applications for waste CFRP.

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  • Kakeru KUROSAWA, Michio SATO, Kenji KOIDO
    Pages 73-74
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    In recent years, biomass fuel demand for domestic power and/or heat production is increasing. For a stable woody bioresource supply, herbaceous perennial energy-crop such as Erianthus arundinaceus (Erianthus) is a promising option. Erianthus (JES1) grew about 14 t/ha in Nasu-shiobara, Japan; it standing-dead, leading to small drying cost. From our past gasification tests, the boudouard reaction was promoted by the metals (K, Si, P, Ca) contained in the Erianthus char. In this study, the effect of Ca and K on Erianthus char was investigated using TG-DTA. Ca and K were supported on a carbonized and demineralized Erianthus chars. The Ca-supported char was more slowly gasified than the demineralized char. The K-supported char was gasified faster than the raw char, and the development of pore structure parameters was observed.

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  • Zhongkai ZHAO, Akihiro YOSHIDA, Abuliti ABUDULA, Guoqing GUAN
    Pages 75-76
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    In this study, a separated-type small-scale biomass gasification system consisting of a pyrolyzer, a char gasifier, a combustor and a reformer with catalysts was designed. The hydrodynamic behavior of circulated particles was investigated by FLUENT 19.0 commercial software. It was observed that the c onventional non-mechanical seal internal cannot individually form a stable moving bed layer to prevent the air of riser combustor from entering into bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) char gasifier under the condition of low solids flux. To solve this problem, a seal tank wa s installed, which can direct most of air to the riser and reduce the effect of riser pressure on BFB. According to the results, the stable moving bed layer can be achieved and air of riser will not flow back in to BFB, when the seal internal and seal tank are set simultaneously

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  • Sota SUZUKI, Takuya ITO
    Pages 77-78
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Bamboo is one of the fastest growing types of biomass and is attracting attention as a means of energy production in Japan. The authors paid attention to gasification, which has various uses for products as an energy conversion method for bamboos. However, it is a problem that bamboo contains a lot of potassium. Potassium volatilizes at the gasification temperature and causes blockage of piping. In this present study, the gasification characteristics of bamboo char were investigated in order to gasify bamboo at below 758°C, which is the boiling point of potassium. As a result, it was clarified that the gasification rate of bamboo char at 700°C was remarkably low. Hence, bamboo gasification at below the boiling point of potassium needs to be accelerated by a catalyst.

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  • Takafumi SHINOZAWA, Yin LONG, Kiyoshi DOWAKI, Mitsuo KAMEYAMA
    Pages 79-80
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    In the pyrolysis gasification process, a solid residue of carbon called Char, which is generated in a pyrolysis furnace, is burned with off-gas in a combustion furnace to produce the necessary amount of heat, and heat is supplied by circulating in HC However, the amount of heat loss is large. Therefore, we focused on designing a process using the gasification of biomass Char, the introduction of charcoal for the purpose of promoting gasification and bottom-up of the calorific value of synthesis gas is considered. There is concern that CO2 emissions will increase when charcoal is introduced, but it is thought that the amount of CO2 emissions per unit of purified hydrogen can be reduced. In order to evaluate the performance of the process, in this study, the gasification reaction rate was measured using a thermogravimetric rate experiment and the gasification process was designed.

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  • Takuya UMEZAWA, Takuya ITO
    Pages 81-82
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    The authors have proposed a horizontal rotary kiln with internal spiral transport mechanism as a biomass gasifier. In this rotary kiln, the gasification chamber and the combustion chamber are separated by the transport mechanism. And, solid particles move between two chambers through the transport mechanism. However, the gases in the chambers hardly mix because the transport mechanism is filled with solid particles, which act as gas seal. Thus, by applying to a gasifier, high/middle calorie synthesis gas is expected to be produced by using air without indirect heating. In the present study, a new two-layer type spiral transport mechanism was proposed, and the transfer rate of particle and gas sealability were examined by the cold model. As a result, it was clarified that the two-layer type spiral transport mechanism can transport particles faster in a state where a gas seal is formed as compared with the conventional spiral transport mechanism.

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  • Yuto NODA, Hiroshi NONAKA, Shiho IKEDA, Takuya YOSHIDA
    Pages 83-84
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Torrefaction is a thermo-chemistry process carried out under an inert gas atmosphere at a relatively low temperature (200 to 300°C) to recover energy from biomass. The drawback of torrefaction biomass is difficulty to pelletize. In this study, in order to investigate the effect of lignin on pelletization of torrefied biomass, alkali extraction and delignification were performed for torrefied rubber wood, and then tablets were prepared from alkali extraction residue and holocellulose. Delignification strengthened the tablet, suggesting that lignin may negatively affect the strength of the pellet.

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  • Nao UMEHARA, Kazuma TAKATA, Ken-ichiro TANOUE, Toyoaki NIKI, Morihisa ...
    Pages 85-86
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    In this research, in-situ observation during heating of three types of ash es was conducted. The 1st ash was obtained by carbonizing of bamboo powder at 600°C and 4 hours. The 1st ash became melting locally at 600°C, and the melting area of it expanded at about 1000°C, and then it melted completely at about 1100°C. On the other hand, the 2nd ash, which was obtained by bamboo combustion, had higher melting point at about 1000°C than that of the 1st ash. These results agreed qualitatively with the increase of the melting liquids amount by chemical equilibrium calculation

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  • Takeshi ONISHI, Manabu KUROSAWA
    Pages 87-88
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    With the expansion of the use of wood chips for biomass energy, moisture content has become an important quality item. Therefore, paying attention to the soil moisture meter that is easily available, we examined the method of continuous moisture content measurement technique of wood chips using the drying process. As a result, although there were problems in accuracy, etc., it was considered possible to grasp the approximate moisture content change.

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  • Yoshiki FUJIWARA, Yukihiko MATSUMURA
    Pages 89-90
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was treated at 350°C, 25 MPa for residence time of 20 s in the reactor made of SS316 steel tubing (i.d. 2.17mm, o.d. 3.18mm, and length 0.27m). Calcium phosphate was recovered from ATP as precipitate by adding calcium nitrate. Trial to recover the precipitate at the exit of the reactor using sintered stainless filter was not successful. Therefore, in this study, the precipitate position of generated precipitate was investiga ted.

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  • Kentaro KIMURA, Yuya SAIKA, Yusuke KAKUTA, Kiyohumi KURIHARA
    Pages 91-92
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Recently, biomass has been explored as an effective alternative fossil fuel resource. Therefore, the thermal decomposition behavior of cellulose in hydrocarbon solvent using hydrogenation catalyst was investigated in this study.

    The results indicated that residue generation was suppressed because furans derived from cellulose were hydrogenated by adding catalyst. In addition, hydrocarbon was increased because ketone derived fr om cellulose were decarbonylated by adding catalyst. It was found that these catalytic effects are appeared around the reaction temperature of 330°C

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  • Miono ISHIZUKA, Takuya ITO
    Pages 93-94
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    The direct liquefaction of woody biomass has the advantage of mild reaction conditions. However, the problem is liquefaction oil is high polarity. The problem causes phase separation when liquefaction oil and diesel oil are mixed. And, the high polar liquefaction oil becomes a residue when recycled as a solvent. Then, the authors tried co-liquefaction of the woody biomass and the brown coal. It was also expected to promote coal decomposition by woody biomass. As a result, the co-liquefaction oil using diesel oil as a solvent was homogeneous phase. Moreover, it was clarified that the decomposition of brown coal accelerated effect by woody biomass becomes increased as the reaction temperature increased.

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  • Genta SHINOHARA, Takuya ITO
    Pages 95-96
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    Conventionally, biodiesels refer to fatty acid methyl esters obtained from fats and oils. However, the biodiesel of animal fats origin is not used in winter and cold regions because it contains a lot of saturated fatty acids with a high solidifying point. Hence, the authors paid attention to the catalytic cracking method its biodiesel production. The catalytic cracking method includes the generation of paraffin and olefin with a lower solidifying point than the fatty acid methyl ester. This method accompanies the decarboxylation of oils and fats. In this present study, a catalytic cracking method using a fixed bed reactor filled with nickel-supported activated carbon was investigated. As a result of changing the reaction temperature and catalyst residence time, the decarboxylation rate increased, but the residue yields also increased.

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  • Rei SATO, Takehiko TAKAHASHI
    Pages 97-98
    Published: December 04, 2019
    Released: December 04, 2019
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    In this study, a vibration mill with ring media was used to make an amorphous rice flour of high-value-added ingredients. The amorphous rice flour is generally pulverized after cooking rice process and drying process. Therefore, the production cost is high. In this study, the amorphous rice flour was investigated directly for the method of amorphization. The pulverizing amount, heater temperature and pulverizing time were changed in experiments. As a result, a relationship was found between pulverizing amount, heater temperature and pulverizing time and Disorder Index(DI) as degree of amorphous. It is possible to decision a degree of amorphous by pulverizing amount, heater temperature and pulverizing time.

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