バイオマス科学会議発表論文集
Online ISSN : 2423-8341
Print ISSN : 2423-8333
ISSN-L : 2423-8333
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選択された号の論文の78件中1~50を表示しています
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研究発表(口頭発表)
  • 菅澤 貢, 吉廻 秀久, 繁田 政治
    p. 1-2
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    Bamboo forests mostly uncontrolled are spread nationwide in Japan and expanding the area with 3,000ha per year. Bamboo is growing rapidly but difficult to use as biomass because it contains harmful substances like potassium (K) and chlorine (Cl) which cause a fatal damage to boilers and a generation of carcinogenic Dioxins. HITACHI has developed an innovative reforming process, i.e. pulverizing and eluting to eliminate the above harmful substances which enables bamboo can be used as a typical wood-based biomass. And moreover, the waste liquid used for elution can be reused as a fertilizer realizing an environmentally friendly recycling scheme.

  • 斎藤 仁志, 佐々江 希望, 白澤 紘明, 松澤 義明
    p. 3-4
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    It is important to grasp the yield percentage in order to estimate the available amount of woody biomass resources. Previously it was estimated using a fixed yield percentage. However, it is pointed out that the yield percentage depends on tree species and forest age. Therefore, the yield of tree species was estimated from the log production data and the available amount of woody biomass resources was estimated. We compiled the production of logs and pulp from log production data of national forest and private forest. The yield percentage was estimated by dividing the result by the amount of logging. As a result, the yield percentage by tree type was 67% larch, 68% cypress, 58% cedar, 48% red pine. It is compared with estimation of woody biomass resources with fixed yield of 80%. Considering the yield percentage, the available amount of any tree species decreased.

  • 笹内 謙一, 井口 潤子, 堀尾 正靱
    p. 5-6
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    In recent years, a variety of small scale gasification power generation processes less than 2 MW for FIT have been introduced from Europe and other countries overseas. However, due to differences in propeerties of biomass including tree species between Europe and Japan, and to ambiguities in fuel specifications presennted by manufacturers, the achievements in Japan are far behind those in Europe disturbed in many cases by unstable ooperation. In this research, we investigate the cause of the mismatch and propose a way to successful implementation of gasification process by quantifying the biomass fuel properties aiming at establishing a new guideline or a standaard that can be effective in non-European biomass conditions.

  • 川村 淳浩, 新保 美玖, 井田 民男
    p. 7-8
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    Bio-coke that does not cause melting of combustion ash after combustion is also important from the viewpoint of promoting effective utilization of biomass combustion ash. However, a technology for mass-producing bio-coke that can be used in a household compact combustor has not yet been established. As a result of working on improvement of batch type manufacturing process using six-hole molder system for the purpose of improving production capacity of small diameter bio-coke, the following results were obtained. (1) It was found that it is possible to increase the size per unit by 85% by optimizing the initial moisture content. (2) It was found that by shifting the molding process using two molding units, the manufacturing capacity per unit time can be improved by about 40%.

  • 櫻木 潔, 大高 円
    p. 9-10
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    In this study, the grinding test were performed using a test roller mill with the mixtures of wood pellet and bituminous coal. As a results, in grinding test, the power consumptions of the mixture were higher than that of the coal. In addition, the differential pressure between inlet and outlet of the test roller mill were also increased. On the other hands, the neutral sugar content of samples in test roller mill were markedly increased from input. These results indicate that wood pellet was condensed in the roller mill. The condensation of biomass is a cause of an increased differential pressure in roller mill, even in low biomass mixing ratio.

  • Zuldian PRIMA, Reiji NODA
    p. 11-12
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    The fluidization process has important role to create optimal contact between raw material and particle fluidization like silica sand and clay (bentonite) with a raw material. The addition of Potassium Chloride (KCl) as an alkaline compound was selected as representation of the highest inorganic element which is dominantly contained inside raw material from biomass having potential problem like slagging formation and defluidization condition inside reactor during pyrolysis at 700oC. By comparing the performance of particle fluidization against KCl addition showed that the use of bentonite particle gave better performance than silica sand to maintain fluidization condition.

  • 立道 悟, 高山 敦好
    p. 13-14
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    BDF was widely used due to environmentally friendly use of subsidies because it is derived from waste edible oil and vegetable oil, but its use has been declining since the common rail system appeared in internal combustion engines. In the common rail system, high pressure spraying is possible by electronic control, but in BDF, dirt and deposits on the nozzle tip and the supply pump are generated and it is not usable. Therefore, using distilled BDF, we realized adaptation to common rail and clarified combustion characteristics by BDF-water emulsion fuel. As a result, BDF water emulsion fuel was able to reduce NOx concentration by about 30% and fuel consumption rate by about 14% compared to BDF.

  • 峯下 登夢, 高山 敦好
    p. 15-16
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    Waste food oil can be regenerated to biodiesel BDF(Biofuel Diesel Fuel) by methyl esterification, but it costs 30 to 60 yen / L, and SVO(Straight Vegetable Oil) attracts attention . In recent years, high pressure spraying and multistage spraying are adopted for the purpose of improving combustibility. In this research, in order to improve applicability in the future, we attempt to generate SVO as a whole use of waste food oil, targeting multi-stage spray combustion, and clarify the combustion characteristics of SVO as an alternative fuel to BDF. In addition, we adopted water emulsion fuel as a method of SVO and expected ion decomposition and radical treatment

  • Supriyanto, Ryozo Noguchi, Tofael Ahamed, Agusta Samodra Putra, De ...
    p. 17-18
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    Microalgae are potential biomass to produce biofuel due to the high yield. In large-scale production, polyculture-based microalgae in open raceway pond were promising. However, bringing the concept to the business of microalgae is challenging because the cultivation to the down-streaming process of microalgae consists of several complex activities and unique combination. The detail and structured evaluation in one framework were essential to optimize the production as a beginning step to achieve the profit. This research proposed the business evaluation framework using the economic cost-based analysis (CBA). The business evaluation framework was developed and implemented to the microalgae in an open raceway pond and used to evaluate the cost based on 10 ha cultivation. Based on the analysis, the production cost of bio-crude oil between 391.1 - 1,815.5 JPY kg-1 by utilizing the wastewater as a nutrient.

  • 濱崎 彰弘
    p. 19-20
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    Mass cultivation of microalgae by closed type light illumination cultivator is superior to open type outdoor cultivator in the following points with previous report1). Algal mass concentration can be made around 100 times. Energy conversion efficiency is high. Microbial contamination from the outside is small. With this report, wetted-wall tower type bioreactor is introduced that is easy control of light intension, CO2 dissolution and the nutrient medium density and that structure is simple. Gas exchange system for thermal power station using this bioreactor is also introduced.

  • 竹村 海生, 吉田 嵩一郎, 岩崎 裕樹, 喜多 晃久, 加藤 節, 青井 議輝, 中島田 豊
    p. 21-22
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    Transgenic strains of M. thermoacetica in which aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (aldh) was introduced and pduL2 or both of phosphotransacylase genes, pduL1 and pduL2 were eliminated were constructed. Although all strains harboring aldh produced ethanol using fructose as a substrate, they didn’t produce ethanol from H2-CO2. However, a pdul2 deletion mutant produced formate, suggesting that insufficient ATP supply caused poor metabolism of H2-CO2.

  • 上野 伸子, 矢部 彰
    p. 23-24
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    This paper presents global transition from the conventional fuel to the sustainable biojet fuel and key triggers by actor-network theory. Biojet fuel is made from sustainable sources and is also similar to kerosene, a hydrocarbon from C8 to C18. It can be used in existing jet engines without modification. The process of the transition from the conventional fuel to the biojet fuel was historically analyzed and visualized by actor-network theory which was originally methodology of Latour and Callon, anthropologists. The result revealed that D7566 certification of American Society for Testing and Materials International(ASTM International)was established for introduction of alternative jet fuel including biojet fuel into society, and biojet fuel of D7566 annex 2 HEFA was starting to be blended in conventional jet fuel. The trigger of transition was also shown to be mainly both push and pull mechanism of intervention. Push mechanism meant subsidies for research, development and demonstration from government and pull mechanism meant procurement of airlines and US military services. The issue in Japan was indicated that there was push mechanism of government such as funding of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, however, there is not pull mechanism.

  • 遠藤 貴士
    p. 25-26
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    Nanocellulose has the characteristic that it is five times stronger than steel and 1/5 light. Utilizing its characteristics, the development of high-strength materials by combining with plastics has attracted attention. However, if it sticks to nano size, practical materialization becomes difficult. We are developing technologies that produce nanocellulose from various raw materials by various methods and clarifying the characteristics of nanocellulose that is optimal for the purpose of use. As application development, we are currently aiming to apply it to a wide range of fields from daily necessities to functional foods.

  • 小野 史彰, 横田 角光, 稲垣 裕靖, 横山 卓也
    p. 27-28
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    In order to build a sustainable society and to counter global warming (reduction of CO2), it is expected to utilize woody biomass with carbon neutrality. The demand for wood plastic composite (WPC) has been increased using woody biomass as a filler in recent years. Although WPC is high strength, light weight, and has excellent corrosion resistance, weather resistance, white ant durability, it has a problem with fire resistance. Thus, it is considered necessary to make flame retardant (or incombustible) for expanding the applications. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop novel flame retardants for WPC using woody biomass.

  • 藤本 真司, 井上 誠一, 木原 秀元, 吉田 勝
    p. 29-30
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    In order to improve the economical and energetic efficiencies of glucose production from eucalyptus, the effect of solid concentration during the hydrothermal pretreatment on the subsequent enzymatic production of glucose was investigated. The hydrothermal pretreatment was conducted at 200 °C with various solid concentrations (9.1–50.0 wt%). The subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was performed at 50 °C for 72 h. It was found that the glucose yield increased with increasing solid concentration during the hydrothermal pretreatment. In the case of concentration of 50.0 wt%, especially, the glucose yield reached to 91.1%. The concentration of acetic acid generated during hydrothermal pretreatment increased with increasing the solid concentration. It is thus considered that the efficient removal of hemicellulose was achieved in high solid concentration because acetic acid accelerates decomposition of hemicellulose by autohydrolysis. Consequently, enzyme access to the cellulose surface during enzymatic hydrolysis should be improved and the high glucose yield was eventually observed.

  • 松村 幸彦, 井上 陽仁, 川井 良文, 谷川 博昭, 野口 琢史
    p. 31-32
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    Supercritical water gasification is expected to be the next-generation wet biomass conversion technology. In Chugoku District, this technology has been studied in the framework of Chugoku District Supercritical Water Gasification Research Group, and 1 t/d pilot plant has been built and operated. During the development the importance of rapid heating has been determined, and addition of radical scavenger has been proposed. The development of this technology is reviewed in this presentation.

  • 中島田 豊, 秋 庸裕, 岡村 好子, 中村 暢文, 松村 幸彦
    p. 33-34
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    Seaweeds have attracted the attention as a promising candidate of a renewable feedstock as 3rd generation biomass because they can be produced with a similar or higher yield compared to terrestrial energy crops and are less resistant to degradation than terrestrial lignocellulosic feedstocks. However, for developing energetically, economically, and environmentally feasible process for biorefinery of seaweed, integrated research approach including not only deep-understanding and improvement of elemental technology but also the process optimization in consideration of industrial use is needed. Hence, several key technologies for complete utilization of macroalgae were developed including efficient pretreatment, biofuel and valuable chemical production with zero-emission of hazardous materials.

  • 内田 基晴, 秀島 宣雄, 荒木 利芳
    p. 35-36
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    Koji is a traditional fermentation culture product, based on mold strains, which is commonly used in the manufacture process of Japanese fermented products such as soy sauce, miso, and sake, and promote enzymatic degradation. Koji is usually prepared by culturing a mold on cereals such as wheat flour, soybean, or rice, but that cultured on seaweeds has not been developed yet. This study prepared the koji by culturing Aspergillus oryzae on moisture-conditioned pieces of Pyropia yezoensis (nori), Saccharina japonica, and Sargassum horneri. The obtained koji products showed enzymatic activities in amylase and protease as well as traditional soy sauce koji and rice koji but not in agarase. This kind of seaweed koji, if prepared with a mold strain showing agarase activity, is expected to be utilized for solid saccharification of seaweed biomass coupled with bioethanol production. This study also reviews on the recent progress in seaweed fermentation technology.

  • 岩﨑 貴裕, 黒澤 翔, 大橋 弘範, 佐藤 理夫, 小井土 賢二
    p. 37-38
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    Because of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred in 2011, radioactive cesium was dispersed over a wide range of eastern Japan including forest area. In March 2018, decontamination of residential areas has been completed, whereas the forest areas have hardly been decontaminated. The forest decontamination should be implemented in an integrated manner: 1) the wood chips as feedstock of gasification CHP, and 2) Cs immobilization in a pollucite for stable storage of concentrated radioactive cesium. In this study, effect of Cs2CO3 addition to feedstock on enhancing H2 and CO generation has been clarified enhancing during wood gasification.

  • Rizqi Fitri Naryanto, Hiroshi Enomoto, Vo Cong Anh, Chuntima Chunt ...
    p. 39-40
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    One of the problem in biomass gasification technology is the emergence of tar which will reduce the efficiency of the biomass system performance. This research present on experimental of tar formation in the small downdraft gasifier with 500 mm length and 120 mm in diameter, in order for achieving a better outcome in syngas production. The research was done using wood pellet due to the easiness of availability. This experiment was conducted with the variation of moisture content on the condition 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10 % because of the limitation on wood pellet drying and the limitation of humidity. The occurrence of tar needs to be reduced because it will disrupt the performance of other systems. In addition, the effects of initial moisture contents on the yields of tar formation products from wood pellet were studied. The result showed by increasing moisture contents, the tar formation products indicated increased too as well as for chemical substances as acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene. The research had been carried out, and the result is differentiation on moisture content will affect the tar composition.

  • 古林 敬顕, 中田 俊彦
    p. 41-42
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    This study aims to analyze the regional biomass energy system. Three systems that the woody biomass distributed in the target region is utilized to heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) are compared based on the fossil fuel substitution rate. The heat produced from the biomass resource by heat only boiler (HOB) or CHP is distributed in the district heating system (DHS). In this study, the district heating network is designed using Prim’s method based on the linear heat density [GJ/m]. As a case study, the target area is Koriyama city. 968 buildings are selected as district heating demand based on the drawn heat density map. The designed district heating network length is 21.2 km, and the linear heat density is 10.4 GJ/m. The fossil fuel substitution rates are 0.86 for HOB, 0.61 for power, and 1.03 for CHP.

  • 戸川 卓哉, 竇 毅, 大場 真, 中村 省吾, 根本 和宜, 藤井 実
    p. 43-44
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    In this research, we are developing "village clinical records" that summarize basic information on energy supply and demand in terms of settlements and the evaluation results of the possibility of introducing energy systems utilizing forest biomass resources. We propose the basic framework of the data structure to become clinical records, and investigate and collect information on villages in Mishima-town, Fukushima Prefecture, and actually prepare charts. Furthermore, we will evaluate the village clinical records from the viewpoint of the accumulation and sharing of data and the effectiveness for the actual policy planning process.

  • 新井 颯太, 雨宮 隆, 野間 毅
    p. 45-46
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    In this research, effective utilization of locally existing woody biomass energy within the municipality area was studied. A mass and heat equilibrium simulation model for a plant that supplies heat to local agriculture using bark material discarded at neighbor sawmills was constructed. Using the simulation model, energy evaluation and exergy evaluation of the above woody biomass heat supply plant were carried out. In this study, investigation was made on the production of dry woody fuel using boiler surplus heat generated in the system and the possibility of supplying the produced dry woody fuel as energy feed material to the other boilers or co-generation systems in the local area.

  • 海邉 健二, Martin KELLER, 大友 順一郎
    p. 47-48
    発行日: 2019/01/09
    公開日: 2019/01/09
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    Energy conversion technology of woody biomass (WB) has attracted because of its low CO2 emission. On the other hand, the energy use of WB is not advanced sufficiently since the cost of power generation by WB is higher than that of grid. Costs, CO2 emission, and technological performance and improvement have been discussed in the previous studies. However, those reports tend to be limited to present technologies, and not to include the cost of CO2 capture and sequestration. Moreover, they have not discussed requirements of new technologies for wide-spread use. In this study, we evaluated economic and environmental advantages of chemical looping combustion (CLC) which is one of the promising energy conversion technologies from carbon fuels based on the cyclic reduction and oxidation of metal oxide particles and with reduced energy for CO2 capture, to clarify the technological problems and the influence of the improvement on power generation cost. We propose the innovation pathway based on designing each power generation process and calculation of the energy efficiency and power generation cost by the detailed bottom-up approach. Then, we found that sales of CO2 and / or carbon pricing were more effective method to reduce power generation cost of CLC with the improvement of steam cycle conditions and the cost reduction of WB itself.

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