This paper is concerned with measuring method of the absolute spectral sensitivity of photodiodes. This is generally made possible with simple equipment by the self-calibration method of quantum efficiency published rece ntly by J. Geist, et al with NBS. Applying this method to photodiodes on the market, several practical problems were investigated. A mutual comparative method suitable for the measurement of surface reflectance of photodiodes was introduced, and the relation between incident angle and quantum efficiency was studied.
With TiO2-SiO2 multi-layer film that transmits visible rays while reflecting infrared radiation, the energy consumption in incandescent lamps can be greatly reduced. This film is formed from organomet allic solutions by the dipping method. In order to achieve the film whose properties meet the desired purposes (high refractive index, high visible transmittance, able to form a multi-layer coat, high heat resistance, etc.), the organometallic solution compositions and processing conditions had been investigated. As a result, it was formed possible to deposit film in multi-layers, over 10 layers. In order to deposit titanium dioxide films, a chelated mixture of Tetra-Propoxy-Titanate polilner and monomer was found apPropriate, The refractive index of titanium dioxide films from this solutions is over 2. 1 (at 1, 000 nm), when baking temperature is over 600°C, and the heat resistance of this films is over 900°C. Appling this multi-layer films to tubular tungsten halogen lamps, energy consumption can be reduced as much as 15%.
Some mercury behaviors in a compact fluorescent lamp with amalgam have been analyzed. The discharge tube is doubly folded. The main amalgam is contained in an exhaust tube and auxiliary amalgams are near the electrodes. The results are as follow. (1) The amount of In coating on the auxiliary amalgam flag influences luminous build-up characteristics of the lamp. (2) After switching the lamp off, its mercury vapor diffuses from main amalgam to auxiliary amalgams. (3) The mercury weight in auxiliary amalgam increases in proportion to the square root of T (T; total time lapse after switching off). (4) The lamps mercury vapor pressure becomes minimum around forty cinutes after switching the lamp off.
JIS Z 8812 “Measuring method of eye-hazardous UV radiation” which defined for a degree of hazard of the UV radiation against the skin and the eyes of human body was revised in 1984. The convenient eye-hazardous UV irradiance meters suitable for the definition have been developed. Which consist of a phototube with Cs-Te photocathode, interference filter for spectral responsivity correction and a diffusing system for incident angle characteristics correction. A photocurrent amplifier and a power supply are also built-in. Measurements of the incident angle characteristics, the spectral responsivity and the effective detectivity on the fabricated irradiance meters were carried out. As the results, the incident angle characteristics was improved remarkably for that of the UV irradiance meters heretofore in use, and was close to that of the illuminance meter for visible region. Inthe wavelength region of 250-300nm the spectral responsivity well agreed with the relative spectral effectiveness of ACGIH. The effective detectivity was over. 0.01μW/cm2 at 270nm. The results shows that the fabricated irradiance meters satisfy the definition of new JIS Z 8812.
The light emitted from the conventional fluorescent lamps contains a small amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which causes color change or bleaching of the illuminated objects. Thus, in the presence of paintings and printed matters, application is made of the UV-free fluorescent lamps with a UV-absorption layer deposited in-or outside of the glass tube. However, the UV-absorbing materials employed so far have been fast-deteriorating, and made luminous flux or color rendering properties inferior to the lamps without the absorption layer. By applying outside the tube a solvent-soluble fluororesin containing a UV-absorbing substance, a UV-free fluorescent lamp is obtained without the above mentioned disadvantages.
Calculation of the radiation spectra of the high pressure sodium discharge arc was carried out by a simplified calculation procedure. The shape of the arc plasma temperature was assumed to be a parabola and the axis temperature was calculated from the potential gradient. The effective temperature was regarded as the average temperature, calculated from the temperature distribution, and the arc temperature distribution was approximated to be a two step model. The line shapes of both atomic and molecular spectra were assumed to be of an optically thick manner, and the absorption coefficient Kvwas assumed for each line. Adjustable factors for each Kv were determined by the measured profile. The standard high pressure sodium lamp's spectra were calculated by the simplified solution of the radiative transfer equation and a good agreement between the calculated and measured values for the lamp characteristics was obtained, especially for the average color rendering index Ra and the visual luminous efficacy.
The living room is basically an important space in the residence because we stay in the space for a long time, doing various deeds. Accordingly, in the living room the lighting method is necessary which improves visual performance and produces comfort and pleasant atmosphere. In order to develop the new lighting method, authors quantitatively cleared the required atmosphere in the living room and next made quantitative analysis of relations between lighting condition and atmosphere. In this report, at first, deeds in the living room were classified into four living scenes, being unbending, pleasure, dinner and party. In the second place, required atmospheres corresponding to four living scenes were quantitatively cleared by factor analysis in the semantic differential method. At last, for the development of the new lighting method producing the required atmosphere in the living room, experiments containing transition of atmosphere caused by lighting condition were made and relations between lighting condition and atmospheres corresponding to four living scenes were quantitatively made clear. As a result, it was made clear that the lighting method using plural lighting fittings and changing the lighting method corresponding to the living scene were very effective for making the improved atmosphere.