Primary English education has been part of the curriculum in South Korea since 1997. In the 2012 national curriculum, primary school English education was two hours each week for the third and fourth grade and three hours for fifth and sixth grade. Although South Korean society is becoming internationalized, increasing the English learning motivation of fifth and sixth grade students in South Korea remains crucial.
The purpose of this research is to clarify (1) the factors of English learning motivation, (2) the difference in English learning motivation by overseas experience, gender, and grade, (3) and the factors that influence the English learning motivation of fifth and sixth grade students in South Korea. The results of a study of 809 Korean fifth and sixth grade students showed that English learning motivation is composed of four factors: usefulness, intrinsic, avoiding uneasiness, and exchanging Desire.
In order to investigate the difference in English learning motivation for those students with overseas experience and those without such experience, the difference in the average value of each factor score was verified by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that students with overseas experience were at a significantly higher level than those without overseas experience in the four factors. The results also showed that boys were at a significantly higher level than girls in usefulness, intrinsic, and Exchanging desire by an analysis of variance. Furthermore, the results showed that sixth
grade students were at a significantly higher level than fifth grade students in avoiding uneasiness.
The covariance structure analysis showed that the school factor effects usefulness, Intrinsic, and avoiding uneasiness in English learning motivation and that the family and friends factor effects Usefulness. That familiar people are connected with the foreign country may encourage students to have a sense of security in English even if the familiar people cannot speak English. Although students may feel secure, they may not strongly feel the usefulness of English. The results also clarified that the family and friends factor effects avoiding uneasiness. This can be interpreted as pressure from family or the circumference working. The individual factor effects usefulness, intrinsic, and exchanging Desire. In general, increasing intrinsic motivation for the study is desirable. The results of this research show that intrinsic English learning motivation was most strongly subject to influence from the school factor. We could therefore conclude that the school factor is the most important factor when the school goal is to increase the English learning motivation of fifth and sixth grade students.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the contents and issues of the Teacher Evaluation System (TES) in Taiwan. Based on related national regulations, information posted on the website of the Ministry of Education, as well as related research, this study explores the development and contains of the TES, by using historical research methods and literature analysis.
The research produces three major findings. First of all, the current TES is not formally institutionalized and therefore not able to be enforced by all teachers. Besides, The Ministry of Education has no clear long-term plans for promoting TES. Altogether these two factors reduce the willingness of teachers to participate, and make it difficult for school administrators to implement TES. Therefore, to formally institutionalize the TES and maintain a long-term plan for its implementation are two critical steps to be taken.
Secondly, the promotion and communication of the TES, quality of evaluators, and simplicity of the evaluation procedures are the most important factors affecting the effectiveness of the implementation of TES.
Finally, providing teacher support, such as workshops according to individual needs derived from the evaluation, and promoting professional dialogues between teachers, is considered to be helpful for increasing the professional quality of teachers.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the actual circumstances of modern school education in Kingdom of Bhutan in the 1940s and 1950s, which is before the start of First Five Years Plan. This period is not particularly mentioned in the history of modern school education in Bhutan, and has been overlooked in helping to talk about education in Bhutan. In this paper the author divides schools founded at that time into two groups of “schools of Bhutanese” and “schools of Nepalese immigrant”, and attempts to clarify characteristics of the establishment form and language of instruction of each school.
Aspects of establishment form reveal that schools of Nepalese immigrants which began to be established in the southern region since the late 1940s, opened as small private schools based on the needs of local residents. This assumes a spread of modern school education from below. On the other hand, Bhutanese schools, established all over the country from the beginning of the 1950s, opened as comparatively large-scale public schools under an initiative carryied out by local government officials at the behest of the king. This development assumes a spread of modern education from above.
With regard to the language of instruction, it emerged that the schools of Nepalese immigrants had been invited teachers from India and Nepal, who adopted the language of instruction in Hindi and Nepalese. On the other hand, Bhutanese schools basically adopted Hindi as the language of instruction and implemented teaching by their own Bhutanese teachers who had experience studying abroad, without inviting teachers from other countries.
As a result of the analysis above, it can be concluded that schools of Nepalese immigrantschools and Bhutanese schools are characterized by a stark contrasting. Such features characterize the entire modern school education in Bhutan in the 1940s and 1950s. The period prior to First Five Years Plan launched in 1961 and the full expansion of modern school education are the bases of school education detailed in this paper. The introduction of the modern school education system and the curriculum, and the adoption of English as the language of instruction were implemented in the 1960s. However these were not implemented suddenly, bue were done on the foundation of school education opened to the public from the late 1940s.
Since the 1990s, many regional studies of academic achievement in Africa have been conducted by the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Education Quality (SACMEQ). From the results of these studies, certain school factors have been identified that influence academic achievement. However, school factors in academic achievement might be influenced by differences in home environment. Therefore, to ensure good educational outcomes for disadvantaged children, school improvements should be investigated with consideration of children’s backgrounds. This paper examines the school factors that influence academic achievement (mathematics test scores) through an analysis that takes into account children’s place of residence and socioeconomic status, based on data obtained from SACMEQ III. First, I surveyed disparities in academic achievement and school environment to get an overview of the quality of the school academic achievement were found by place of residence and by socioeconomic status. On mathematics tests, pupils with high socioeconomic status scored 21.9 points higher in rural areas and 57.4 points higher in urban areas than their counterparts with low socioeconomic status. In urban areas, large disparities were found in school facilities. Second, I analyzed whether school education quality made a difference in academic achievement for a given socioeconomic status. I found that the effect of school education quality differed according to place of residence and socioeconomic status. For pupils in urban areas with high socioeconomic status, there were many school factors that influenced academic achievement. For pupils in rural areas with high socioeconomic status, few factors influenced academic achievement: school facilities, class size, and math textbook ownership were not associated with a difference in academic achievement. For pupils in urban areas with low socioeconomic status, having a school library, a school building in good condition, and a school head with qualifications were associated with significantly higher academic achievement. Depending on place of residence, school effects were different among pupils with the same socioeconomic status. These findings suggest the following measures to improve academic achievement among pupils in urban areas with low socioeconomic status: establishing school libraries, improving schools buildings, and employing higher qualified school heads. For pupils in rural areas with low socioeconomic status, teacher qualifications and in-service training could contribute to improving academic achievement. By analyzing the relationships between school factors and academic achievement according to pupils’ backgrounds, this study found different school factors that make a contribution depending on place of residence and socioeconomic status. To reduce disparities in academic achievement, it is important to implement school improvements with appropriate consideration of pupils’ backgrounds.
Until now, there is a vast literature on education in Southeast Asia. Researchers have focused on national integration, globalization and Chinese immigrantion. This article attempts to examine the position of Punjabi education in Southeast Asian Sikh communities in relation to the national educational system. Then I’ll consider their educational strategy as a minority immigrant in Southeast Asia.
Sikh is the belief in Sikhism which Nanak started in South Asia. There are ten Gurus as spiritual leaders. Also Gurua Granth Sahib which is written in Gurmukhi script is placed in Gurdwara (Sikh temple) as Holy book.
Sikh immigrated into Southeast Asia in the latter half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. At present there are 80.000 Sikhs in Southeast Asia; 15,000 in Singapore, 40,000 in Malaysia, 20,000 in Thailand and 6,000 in Indonesia. Their first language, Punjabi, in the first generation was changed into the second or third language.
Singapore has cultural pluralism as an educational policy for national unity. The government adopts a bilingual policy, which include English and the ethnic language. In 1989, the government recognized Punjabi as a second language in the national educational system. Sikhs established Singapore Sikh Education Foundation for the provider of Punjabi education. The organization caters Punjabi education on every Saturday and published their original textbooks.
Malaysia follows an integration approach as educational policy for national unity. In primary education the teaching mediums are Malay, Chinese and Tamil. The teaching medium in secondary education is only Malay. Punjabi is an optional subject in the national examination, even though Punjabi is not taught in the national educational system. Punjabi Education Trust Malaysia is an organization which provides Punjabi education in Malaysia. The organization provides Punjabi education for the examination on every Sunday in their 32 centers, using the text books of the Singapore Sikh Education
Thailand and Indonesia use an assimilation approach as educational policy for national unity. In both national educational systems, the national language, Thai and Indonesian, are only used as a teaching medium. In Thailand the Sikh Foundation established the Thai Sikh International School which follows the international curriculum for IGCSE and GCE-A level. The international school has Punjabi education in foreign language study. In Indonesia, 6 religions are officially recognized and are taught in the national schools as a religious subject. The government recognizes that Sikhism is a kind
of Hinduism. Gurdwara provides Punjabi education in religious study.
The positions of Punjabi education are different in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. In Singapore Punjabi education is a subject of second language in the system. In Malaysia Punjabi education measured by the national examination in the system. In Thailand the international school outside the system provides Punjabi education. In Indonesia Gurdwara offers Punjabi education for the school system’s religious study in the system.
From consideration on the positions of Punjabi education in Southeast Asia, we can understand their educational strategy, respect for their national educational system and the development of their transnational network.
The purpose of this paper is to overview the multicultural education law of South Korea in general and examine the life-long education of the “Gum-ho life-long education Center”. It also covers a case study “Gum-ho life-long Education Center” in Korea, to analyze their own multicultural education programs for people leading to multicultural families and foreign.
Recently, global community encourages pluralism by reflecting on cultural conflict that is different the from taking in rapid changes of multiculturalism. A variety of multicultural education is proposed the in and around educational systems. Students must thus develop knowledge on the right comprehension of other cultures through multicultural education and cope with the difficulties of identity confusion. Some equality of opportunity of education can the break through social prejudice and linguistic and cultural differences.
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the practical conditions of community support for the harmonious life of multi-cultural students with other pupils. Furthermore, the purpose is to present an efficient plan for social integration and collect understanding about multicultural family children's multicultural education to solve various differences.
They have some serious problems to the life and learning at school. But it is hard to find any curriculum based program, extracurricular program, or systematic assistant program which helps them to study and adapt in life-long education. The country has to try to harmonize the new emerging multicultural community with a Korean majority, to make them understand each other, and to support them to live as equal members of Korean society, which is changing to multicultural society. Multicultural education includes respecting the nature of cultural differences and similarities; and, understanding intercultural differences as well as individuals' many differences. Through multicultural education, it is necessary for Koreans to be develop as citizens who are able to respect all different cultures and human races.
Finally, based on the former examination, this article will discuss current issues of non-Korean multicultural children's identity, educational support, and positive educational policy in the field of Life-long education.
The purpose of this article is to examine the implementation of social inclusion programs, in particular the quota system in public universities in Brazil.
Since the late 1990s, there has been an impressive expansion of higher education institutions in Brazil. However, this expansion has not been enough to offset the unbalanced distribution of enrollment rates across ethnic and socio-economic groups at the top of the education pyramid: while the enrollment rate in higher education of 18-24 year olds has increased considerably from 7.1 percent in 1997 to 17.6 percent in 2011, the 9.1 percent enrollment rate of the population of African descent is still very low as compared to the 21 percent enrollment rate among people of Caucasian descent. Moreover, in spite of the fact that 87 percent of high school students attend public schools, 73 percent of the students enrolled in public universities are graduates from private institutions. Thus, access to the country’s prestigious public universities remains for the privileged few.
Since 2001, due to the pressure of social movements, public universities have promoted social inclusion programs. At the federal level, a ‘Quota Law’ was finally enacted in August 2012, requiring federal universities to reserve 50 percent of the admission slots for students from public schools and low-income families as well as for students of self-declared pardo (mixed-race), African and indigenous descent. To comply with this law, the State of São Paulo in December 2012 also launched its own quota system proposal called PIMESP (Inclusion Program with Merit in Public Higher Education in São Paulo). This program not only reserves the socio-economic and racial quota as required by the federal law, but also stipulates that students selected from the public schools must attend two years of community college to be eligible to use the quota system at the state universities. Although PIMESP still needs to be approved by the University Council, it is almost certain that all São Paulo State Universities, including the renowned University of São Paulo, which has thus far been vehemently opposed to the quota system, will to a certain extent comply with this program.
The introduction of a quota system in the elitist public universities remains a challenge. While some interpret it as a form of discrimination as it divides citizens into different groups with different rights, others celebrate it as a way of ensuring equity and as a step forward in the process of democratization of education and of Brazilian society as a whole. Proponents point out that the quotas will provide access to educational opportunities in the country’s top universities for the marginalized groups in society and that this can promote social mobility. It is still too early to assess the quota system’s impact on education and on society as a whole but it is certainly a first step to ensuring equity and expanding access to public higher education in Brazil.