Sakuteiki is the first systematic record on gardening that shows how to set stones. In traditional Japanese gardens, the usage of stones has been considered important. This paper examines the usage of stone in the Old Testament, which was written before Sakuteiki. If we find the way stones were used, it may be beneficial for people associated with landscape design. Every section of the Bible (cooperative translated version of the Japan Bible Society) is examined and parts where stones were used in different manners are identified. In several cases, it shows setting stones. The following were observed: (1) Jacob, Moses, and Joshua set up stones from their own will on the place as a memorial where they could hear God’s voice. Jacob set a stone twic e, while both Moses and Joshua set twelve stones one time. It was not God’s command. (2) God ordered to set stones for a memorial for Him to make miraculous things. God asked Joshua to take twelve stones from the Jordan River and set them up on one mountain. (3) Moses commanded the Israelis to set great stones with law after crossing the Jordan River. (4) When people made the important contract for each other, they set up a stone there as memorial. They believed God would watch and guard people from the stone. (5) God asked his alter to be made not with cut stones but natural stones. This paper describes that stones were set when God’s existence needed to be proved.
In this study, we examined the techniques of optical effects employed by Le Nôtre at the garden of Vaux le Vicomte, based on reference materials and an on-the-spot survey. As a result, the following findings were clarified: Visual illusion of vertical gradient has caused from the difference in the drainage gradients of 2 flats. Viewed from the château, there are possibly two levels of vanishing point in perspective, contrary to the past studies; one for the Parterre in the foreground is at the clustered fountain (la gerbe) and the other for the area near the Triton Fountain in the back is at the Statue of Hercules. When viewed from the château, the horizontal angle to the surrounding structures including the grottos is approximately 14 degrees, giving the “picture” a sense of unity. Garden planning corresponded to the rather natural topography, not strict geometric application, readable from the topography and history of garden designing. One tends to imagine that the French garden is built on relatively flat land since it is also called a planar geometrical garden. In actuality, we reconfirmed an application of optical effects such as a three-dimensional treatment to the undulating land in order to make it look flatter.
The species of plants painted on the outer garment as designs have been reflected the backgrounds such as the society, culture, or people’s interest. We studied species of plant pictures on the outer garments in different periods. At first they were found from Heian period. The total number of plants increased from Azuchi-momoyama period, especially in late Edo period. The plants with the largest number were Chrysanthemum, following Pinus, Prunus mume, Prunus sp. (Cherry blossoms), Phyllostachys sp., Acer, and Paeonia suffruticosa. The number of plants were little in Heian period, as Phyllostachys sp. and Paulownia tomentosa. In Kamakura period, the Chrysanthemum, Prunus sp., Salix babylonica, Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus and Patrinia scabiosaefolia appeared for first time. In Muromachi periods, Acer, Paeonia suffruticosa, Lespedeza sp., Camellia japonica, Taraxacum platycarcum, Viola mandshurica, Equisetum arvense var. arvense, Eupatorium fortunei, and Gentiana scabra var. buergeri were begun to use. In general the species of plants used as designs tended to change at each periods. Especially, Camellia japonica much increased number of species in Azuchimomoyama period, but decreased the number from Edo period. We discussed the reason of the fact from the viewpoint of social background or other’s reasons.
This study focus on the spatial feature in the Old Summer Palace in China from the view of architectural disposition. The architectural dispositions of 40 gardens in the Old Summer Palace were divided into 4 types with the cluster analysis method. In addition, the spatial feature of different kinds of garden were examined according to architectural disposition. As a result, a most important courtyard space was structured in order to emphasize the emperorship in the politics and ritual spaces. The central activity space was highlighted in most of religion spaces, and some of them were also shaped to blend in with the surrounding scenery. Most of living spaces adopt the closed quadrangle dwellings layout was adopted to create sense of privacy and safety, besides, some novel open spaces were created in order to integrate with natural scenery. Most of touring spaces strengthen the connection with surroundings, and some of them also highlight the royal noble status through the regular configuration. In conclusion, the garden spaces in the Old Summer Palace not only have conventional features for complying with traditional ethical codes, but also have some innovative features created by some distinctive architectural dispositions.
This study was intended to examine the repair plan for the Yasukuni Jinja shrine and its realization, which was designed by Yasuhei Nagaoka. The Yasukuni shrine’s repair process in the Taisho Era inspected by utilizing the drawings that Nagaoka possessed. The extent of Nagaoka’s design policy in the planning was thereby clarified. The design aimed at bolstering the sacredness of the Yasukuni shrine. However, this realization was not easy; the construction was altered and divided repeatedly, and there were many areas that did not follow the original plan. The problematic factors include financial limitations and differences in understanding Nagaoka’s plan. Only the north-south road’s construction followed the original plan. There were changes in the western part of the former riding ground. Greater solemnity for the Yasukuni shrine was accomplished partially in the former riding ground, as the approach with the lanterns were repaired and the view of the two Torii gates was made more magnificent than originally planned.
This research examines the conversion of castle sites to parks, and their development, following the “castle abolition” notice of 1873. Few contemporary records remain, so the focus is on the limited and fragmentary records available for Matsuyama, Ueno, and Tsuyama. In 1873 the government of Japan announced its policy on public parks and castle demolition. That year Ehime Prefecture applied to turn the site of Matsuyama Castle into a park, and development was funded by wealthy personages in the region. Turning the site of Ueno Castle into a park was suggested by Mie Prefecture in 1873 but turned down as premature. In 1886 concern over the deterioration of the site led local citizens to successfully petition the prefecture to establish a park. A reliance on donations for funding meant development did not proceed very far. In Tsuyama a citizens’ group to preserve the castle site was formed after the collapse of its stone walls in 1890, but the town’s purchase application was rejected. The town of Tsuyama purchased the site in 1899, and the park opened in 1900. These parks were established at different times and for different reasons, but it also seems that the parks at castle sites nearby had an influence.
This study examined the processes of contextual affection among stakeholders toward Maruyama Park, which was located beyond the administrative boundaries of the city, using sociocultural perspectives. The proximity of the park to Sapporo Shrine was thought to impart special meaning to the place. The Sapporo Subdivision Congress and city mayor were eager to establish a park in the former forestry experiment station site. The Maruyama Park plan made by Nagaoka to comply with the requirements of the Sapporo Subdivision appeared to have defined the framework for the park of today. The need of the shrine to fulfill upgrading the level of shrine and the deep relationship between the citizens and the shrine had made the beautification of the ground with cherry blossoms, and became Maruyama Park and shrine as a famous place of appreciating cherry blossoms. Several stakeholders of Sapporo civil society have involved for establishing nature conservation and recreational use of the Maruyama Park and around area. This study clarified those values from sociocultural perspective: identity of the place, relationship among stakeholders, momentum of social background, effect of civil activities in environmental conservation and recreational use.
There was a dispute over the concept of national parks between Tsuyoshi Tamura and Keiji Uehara during the 1920’s, and each made his own “Mt. Kongo National Park Plan” later in 1930. In this study, planning Idea of national parks by Tsuyoshi Tamura is discussed after identifying similarities and differences of the two through the analysis process of “Mt. Kongo National Park Plan”. As a result, the following points have been clarified. Uehara’s concept and resources of national parks change over time. During the 1920’s, Uehara considered national parks as a conservation district for natural treasures and excluded landscape to consider as their resource; however, he regarded landscape as a main resource in 1930. On the other hand, Tamura’s establishment of a park area was based on conditions such as a visible area of landscape and land ownership (prioritized forests owned by the nation and temples, and avoided private property), and to secure a vast size of the unity area. Lastly, Uehara prioritized history and culture as resources of a national park; whereas Tamura prioritized natural landscape and did not value traditional landscape.
Shirakawa-ishi is a famous granite that in the past was widely used for gardening and construction. The Shirakawa-ishi quarrying industry in northern Higashiyama was famous for the high techniques of the stonecutters of Kyoto. However, after having been closed for over a half century, the Shirakawa-ishi quarries now remain forgotten. This study aimed at recovering the location and transition of Shirakawa-ishi quarries in modern times, and summarizing the components and geographical features of Shirakawa-ishi quarrying sites. We collected and analyzed information on Shirakawa-ishi quarrying sites from documents, surveys, and old topographic maps, then conducted field investigations with GPS and the newest topographic maps. 4 quarrying areas (south Uryuyama, Yamanakagoe, Otowagawa, and south Shimeigadake) were recovered. The quarrying sites were closed no later than 1966 after the prosperous period from the Meiji era to the early Taisho era. Components of quarrying sites including rock cliffs in valley sides, flat working fields, stacked stones, and export routes were confirmed. Quarry searching based on the distance from the village, rock selection and export route choice in consideration of geographical features and existing mountain trails, and topography improvement by stacked stone design showed valuable traditional intelligence in natural resource use.
The aim of this study is obtain the character of the rock garden of the Nikko botanical gardens attached to Tokyo Imperial University Faculty of Science in the expansion period. The Nikko botanical gardens moved to Rengeishi in 1911. The new site, was also planted alpine trees, “Tsukiyama style” rock garden was built near the office by Shunsuke Kusano and Naoyoshi Mochizuki in reference to perhaps the British rock garden from 1912 to 1914. And the like that the Taisho Emperor sometimes took a walk in the botanical gardens during the summer months, the landscape gardening in the gardens advanced more and more. In 1927, “Taisho Emperor memorial garden” (about 2,000 tsubos) was made in the hilly place in the middle of the gardens. This garden of the Tsuyoshi Tamura design consisted of a lawn open space, realistic rock garden with many pockets and water garden. And the new rock garden (about 150 tsubos) was made along the Daiya River from 1934 to 1937. In the Nikko botanical gardens, the rock garden was the continued to be a major facility with the alpine atmosphere from 1911 to 1945.
A Nenbutsu dojo is a primitive form of a Jodo Shinshu Buddhist shrine, which were built throughout Japan after the 15th century. Nenbutsu Dojos were centers for missionizing local residents in small villages. It is well known that the residents in the Gokayama area are deeply religious Buddhists. Today, most of these dojos have been formalized into temples; only the Gokayama district in Toyama prefecture has many Nenbutsu dojos. The objectives of this research are to clarify the current situation of the transition of Nenbutsu dojos thorough field survey and interviews of the local residents. Nenbutsu dojos function not only as religious branches of the head shrines but also as community centers. The Dojo-mori (the manager of the dojo) takes on the role of a Buddhist monk in everyday duties, and local residents help to prepare foods, clean, etc. According to a case study of the Toga district, several religious rites had been abandoned because of aging and depopulation. Both the maintenance of the building and the performance of religious rites are important for retaining cultural heritage.
The preservation concept of traditional landscapes has been widely accepted in Japan. Especially, as of 2015, there are more than 100 preservation cases districts for groups of traditional buildings. However, the outer edges of historical areas have lost their historical resources, such as heritage townscapes, and this problem has not yet been resolved in Japan. In addition, individual historical areas have problems such as excessive tourism development and, depopulation. In this study, we focused on the outer edge of a historical area in Takayama city located in, Gifu prefecture as a case study. In order to develop the area located in Takayama city as a historical landscape,, spot maintenances has been carried out since the 1980s. In addition, architectures decollated with the historical resources were built at the outer edges of the historical townscape area. We collected the spot maintenance cases in the outer edge of the traditional buildings area. We investigated their characteristics and visualized the spatial extent of changes with time. Furthermore, we investigated the use and characteristics of traditional resources in decollated architectures by conducting a field survey in Takayama city.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the difference of the thermal environment at the outdoor balcony with or without the green curtain, which could be expected to come into wide as a measure of the heat island phenomenon. The actual experiment was carried out for the two classrooms almost as same as the direction, floor and area, and we analyzed measurement data, selecting three days of “Manatsubi” in August, 2013. As a result, the surface temperature of the back side of the green curtain reduced about 4℃, compared with it of the high reflected glass. The difference of surface temperature between with and without the green curtain indicated about 6℃. Because of decrease of the surface temperature, the indoor temperature was also reduced about 2℃ with the green curtain, compared with no curtain. The incident solar radiation reduced more than 80％, and the indoor illuminance reduced more than 30％, at the peak in the daytime with green curtain, compared with no curtain, but the recommended level of illuminance could be maintained in most of daytime.
In this study, the author's aim was to acquire the primary knowledge of how the selections of operation form and the frequency of operations like lawn-mowing and fertilization could exert influence upon the users’ appraisal and actions, in the lawn maintenance in urban park in which designated administrator system is introduced. In “Taiko-yama-land Kenmin Park”, that is Toyama Prefectural Public Park; I divided one of the lawn-open space into 3, and settle each of them as “Standard administration”, “Intensive administration” and “Non-intensive administration” area. During the 7-month between April, through October,2014, I measured 5 items :“length of lawn”, “density”, “leaf color”, “weeds”, “disease”, and asked the users’ appraisal on these 5 items as well. In the “behavioral survey”, I observed “static activity” and “dynamic activity”, separately. In the administration quality research, I observe the difference, according to the administration intensity. In the questionnaire, majority of the users have no interest upon “weeds” and “disease”, however, show the difference on their appraisal according to “administration intensity” on the “length of lawn”, “density” and “leaf color”. In the behavioral survey, I observe the differences like ratio between “static activity” and “dynamic activity”.
Nearly 70 years have passed since the Second World War and very few physical reminders of it are present. The people who remember the war are now quite old. Trees damaged during the war are historical relics; however, their number and distribution are unknown because little research has been conducted on this subject. In the present study, we surveyed three wards—Taito, Sumida, and Koto, which were the main targets of air raids on Tokyo on March 10, 1945, and established the number, distribution, and present condition of the war-damaged trees. We determined the approximate number of the war-damaged trees, which was not recorded in previous studies. Then, we newly discovered 80 estimated war-damaged trees and 114 more trees for which more evidence was needed. We found that war-damaged trees were unevenly distributed and they were mainly concentrated in some public parks, temple precincts, and on the edges of air raid targets. Their distribution was particularly dense at the end of a fire spread. In summary, we conclude that we need to preserve these trees, not only individually, but as specific areas or precincts because of their historical significance.
Koishikawa Korakuen is a circuit-style garden. The objective of this study is to clarify visitor’s utilization form in current Koishikawa Korakuen. This study, focused on “excursion pattern” and “viewpoint” as utilization form. The current utilization was analyzed by using visitor employed photography method, GPS and questionnaire. 101 visitors were asked to take photos in the garden and then select 10 photos that they were interested in among them. And GIS was utilized to identify the photographing point of these photos. As a result, there are differences between pre-modern utilization and current utilization. 45.5% respondents ignored the recommended route and 50.5% respondents used the whole garden. It was also found that there were underutilized areas. In addition, spatial analysis was conducted by dividing the garden into six areas based on documents analysis. The spatial analysis revealed a preference and features of interest in each area of the divided areas. According to the result, Daisensui area was a highly preferred area. The result also showed that eight locations inside the garden had high density of appreciation. The interest resources of those locations were mainly water scenery and buildings such as bridge.
This paper discusses the composition of the residential area, which was planned and built as an exclusive residential ar ea in the suburb of Nanjing, during the Period of the Republic of China, based on the analysis of the exterior space arrangement. First, there are 200 sites been chosen which are in a good state of preservation.Next, arrangement patterns are shown and clarifie d into 4 groups by studying the composition of exterior space and performing a cluster analysis. Then, characteristics of spatial a rrangement are described by examining the influence of each group upon the street construction, and compared with the spatial a rrangement of traditional Chinese residence and western residence. Finally, examine the feature of whole block through the distri bution character of those 4 groups. This residential area is composed by Western-style road system, mansion and garden, but cha racteristics of the territory and some feature of traditional Chinese residence can also be found in this area.
The Kyushu motorway in the Aso national park is one of the important tourist attractions on which visitors can enjoy a dynamic grassland landscape. This study clarified the planning conception of the Kyushu motorway in Aso National Park from the life history of Aburaya Kumahachi. Literature research reveals the transition of The Kyushu motorway in “Aso National Park Plan” and Aburaya Kumahachi had proposed the idea of the connecting road of Kyushu region. As a result, Aburaya Kumahachi made great efforts to the development of mass tourism such as sightseeing buses by the motorization in this area.The concept of Kyushu motorway established by Aburaya Kumahachi was envisioned in 1928 during the period of promoting the national park of Aso. Thereafter, the Kyushu motorway was placed in the national park plan by the residents and Dr. Tsuyoshi Tamura. In this study, it is clarified that Aburaya’s idea of Kyushu Expressways was based on his own deep impression of grassland sceneries in Aso and Kuju. And that the plan of the Kyushu motorway by Aburaya Kumahachi had an influence on the national park plan.
The study aims to identify the relationship between willingness to pay for environmental protection and tourist satisfaction. The Republic of Palau is selected as a case study, where the national government collects the environmental protection fee of US$30 from all the tourists and the state governments collect the entrance fee of US$10~100 from the tourists who enter protected areas. A questionnaire survey was conducted on Japanese tourists. The study identified that more than 90% of the tourists had affirmative opinions on the payment and wanted to revisit even if they pay around US$50~150. However, more than half of the tourists couldn’t satisfy their payments, as they couldn’t realize their contribution to the environmental protection and/or local society. The satisfaction level of the tourists who leaned the payment system by themselves through magazines or websites was higher than those of the others who were instructed by tour guides or who were not informed by anybody. These results indicate that if the governments improve the transparency of their use of money and notify the tourists of positive effects on local society and/or environmental protection, more tourists could realize their contribution and recognize their responsibility as beneficiaries.
The park is resident’s recreation space, the place where creature comforts and community. When an accident has occurred, the park will be the place by resident's refuge and redevelopment activity. Thus, the park became where disaster prevention in the city and an accident are reduced. The regional disaster prevention plan is reviewed in a lot of municipalities after the Great East Japan earthquake disaster, such as strengthening the disaster prevention function and construction of disaster prevention for large-scale park. This study was considered about the function of the disaster prevention in park. By covariance structural analysis, the resident’s questionnaire survey was understood structurally. As result were following：The large-scale park of characteristics (the location condition, the traffic access and the facilities) could be understood from the resident’s consciousness. The factor of satisfied and disaster prevention could be understood structurally by the resident’s questionnaire survey. And, we tried consideration of the state in disaster prevention for large-scale park.
This study aims to examine the possibility of the land use management by residents through the community garden after the Tsunami stricken area. This study was conducted with Ogatsu community garden as the subject, which locates center of the Ogatsu peninsula, Ishinomaki city, Miyagi Prefecture. Through the analysis of this research, the following feature in Ogatsu community garden was made clear. 1)the collaboration activity and land use management by the residents, specialists and volunteer groups established Ogatsu community garden, 2) the regulations for the land use activities and the spatial scale were adjusting for the community garden, 3) Ogatsu community garden has secured high visibility and transparency of the space and activities, 4) the community garden has various spatial structures and features that made by various subjects, 5)the community garden offer the cooperative place for local residents and visitors. Ogatsu community garden suggests a possibility of the land use management by local residents by creating the node of various activities in the low density area.
Myanmar is located at the northwest of Indochina. Yangon, former capital of Myanmar, is the largest city of the country with the land area of 10,275km2 and the population of 7.4million. Due to the population increase and concentration, it is likely that the urban area would expand toward the suburbs, creating problems including urban sprawl with insufficient living conditions and inappropriate social services. In this context, the study was conducted to understand current conditions of urban parks of Yangon from the two perspectives; namely development and utilization status. The utilization status was identified by means of conducting a household interview survey, a park users’ counting survey, and a park users’ interview survey. The study identifies that (a) Yangon has 134 parks and playgrounds with the total area of 211ha, (b) The citizens who are richer or live closer to the city center tend to visit parks more than others, and (c) The parks tend to be used for more regular daily use by richer and elder citizens, in contrast for more special use by younger generation.
The purpose of the present study was to objectively chronicle regional activities, in particular the activities of an organization that is responsible for community development, before the Tomioka Silk Mill was placed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. Based on previous studies, analysis using the text -mining was considered appropriate to objectively examine regional activities that preceded placement of the Tomioka Silk Mill on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. Using the text -mining, the present study examined occurrence frequencies and collocations of words and word classes extracted from articles in Jomo Shinbun, a regional daily newspaper. Subsequently, to verify collocations elicited by the text -mining method, an interview survey was administered to the Tomioka Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Tomioka Community Development Promotion Council, focusing on their activities in the past.The study found that regional activities centering on the Tomioka Silk Mill preceding placement on UNESCO’s World Heritage List included coordination and cooperation among mu ltiple organizations, such as the Tomioka Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Tomioka Community Development Promotion Council.
In this study, I focus on the Nishi-ohdai Regulated Utilization Area (RUA) of Yoshino-Kumano National Park, which was designated as the first such area after the RUA system was established in accordance with the Natural Parks Law. The study was based on the research on trends in visitors to the area and the questionnaire survey results, both of which have been conducted by the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) since the RUA designation was launched. In conclusion this study clarified that, in the area, about 97% of visitors have no perception of crowding and the visitors who expected to see the primeval atmosphere feel satisfied on the whole. I think this conclusion indicates the effect of RUA. The study was also examined from the perspective of the guide use in consideration of the future utilization method of the RUA based on the analysis result of questionnaire surveys.
There are 9 metropolitan gardens in Tokyo．A metropolitan garden is the so-called garden of cultural properties where all cultural assets were designated by Organization of the Country and Tokyo Metropolitan Government ．A metropolitan garden guide volunteer is the organization which was established as the mechanism that a Tokyoite participates in managemen t practice in the garden which is Tokyoite valuable asset directly．It's the established organization a Tokyoite guides a visit person as a volunteer, and for the purpose of handing charm in a garden and the historical value down to a Tokyoite widely ．This research studies what kind of effect a metropolitan garden guide volunteer exerted on a garden．I found out that the effective role is played to get cooperation with Tokyoite's understanding to a metropolitan garden.
This study clarified the factors of spreading wood burials in Germany comparing with Japanese challenges of them. The actual state of wood burials in Germany was figured out through literature researches, fieldworks and interview researches. German wood burial is placed as a new forest use in addition to the multiple public functions of forest. In contrast, Japanese wood burial is a new form of graveyard. In addition to that, German wood burials are managed by private enterprises which contract with forest owners and controlled by foresters in a sustainable nature based forest management. This is the reason why the wood burials in Germany look similar and are continued with surrounding forest areas. Japanese wood burials have already diversified and some forest type wood burials are usually managed by Buddhist monks, which face similar challenges in sustainable forest management.
There are “A-bombed trees” in Nagasaki city, and they are the precious war heritage. The first purpose of this study is to clarify the problems of conservation and the current state of bombed trees in Nagasaki. We investigated on abnormal tree form in Nagasaki, and compared with results of the survey in Hiroshima. The second purpose is to develop a method to search for undiscovered bombed trees in Nagasaki, and to search for suspected of bombed trees. Number of bombed trees in Nagasaki is less than in Hiroshima. We guess that due to the topographical characteristics of the two cities, the forests that exist within a radius of 4.0km were not entered into the recognition target. We superimposed the current aerial photograph, and photographs after bombing and before the bombing. To decrypts the green space that has continued from before the bombing to the current by visual observation, and extracted the location of the possibility of undiscovered bombed trees. And we investigated the location in Nagasaki. The results of the investigation, it became clear that the possibility of existence of undiscovered bomb trees is low in forest zone and high in shrines, temples, educational institutions and pubic facilities. Based on this investigation, we found the problem of the searching process and conservation of bombed trees and possibility of bombed trees in Nagasaki.
Limestones have been playing important roles in offering fundamental materials for construction of public infrastructure. There are many limestone quarries in Japan and they formed the cement industrial cities around them with conspicuous industrial landmarks. Cement industries brought wealth to the city and advanced infrastructures, such as high-graded trunk roads or rich architectures. In addition, huge cement works form characteristic technoscape (industrial landscape) which is cherished by local people as their home landscape. This study manifests the landscape properties of cement and limestone industrial cities, by observing 37 cities in Japan, with in-situ survey of the landscape, bibliographic and folklore survey of lime-originated folk customs, festivals or local songs. The findings of this study are, (1) Prominent technoscape of cement is formed in process of cement production, lime transportation and lime quarry, (2) Landscape of limestone-originated nature, such as karst valley, limestone cave, or karst polje (large elliptical depression) is formed nearby, and (3) Lime-originated natural landscape formed by easy erosion of limestone took on sublime appearance, generated animism, and it has been existing with deformation or relocation by companies after industrialization.
This paper is intended to learn from Okushiri Island which was suffered serious damage in 1993 and discusses tsunami as a key hazard which causes disaster. The purpose of this study is 1) to grasp the attributes, disaster experience, evaluation of disaster reconstruction and the consciousness of islanders and 2) to make the structure of evaluation of disaster reconstruction clear. A questionnaire survey for all 1,433 householders on the island was employed in 2015. As a result, self-help and mutual aid were supported as the most strengthening countermeasures against future disasters. In addition to this, the quick recovery from the damage and the comprehensive recovery process received positive evaluation from the viewpoint of recovery of the basis of their livelihood. However, the awareness of self-help of islanders who resided after the disaster was deteriorated and disaster prevention measures using parks, green spaces and disaster prevention forests were not emphasized in islanders’ awareness. In conclusion, the promotion of understanding of ecosystem functions which are assumed to be used just after a disaster was suggested.
In recent years, regeneration of brownfields can be seen in many places, but like all public open spaces they are competing for scarce resources for their continuing management. This study aims to clarify the landuse changes and formation of partnerships of open spaces by greening brownfields in Northwich Woodlands, Cheshire, UK. Research methods are based on literature review, interviews with representatives of the Mersey Forest and local authority agents, and field observation. From the findings, it became evident that majority of greening brownfields took place in the 1990s and 2000s in parallel with conservation of historical and industrial heritage, which took a longer period of time for environmental improvements in some cases. The main challenge is now to continue the management of the open spaces since the works had been completed. Partnerships with a range of parties is the key factor; because of Northwich Woodlands has a variety of open spaces covering an area of over 300 hectares to attract a variety of sources of funds and staffs, as well as to raising its profile to the public owing to the limited access in the past. Coordination with the community is greatly enhanced through an active group of volunteers.
As far as the work continues, the waterside space where traditional fish catching is carried on possesses the value as the cultural landscape. We aimed at the fish weirs by this research. We considered the contemporary significance and factors in the continuation by investigate the placing on the system, change in the material, the material amount necessary to set up, the situation of technological succession and consciousness of establishment people in Nakagawa River. As a result, we guess that fish weirs possessed several current significances. The first is the significance that fish weirs are continued, changing from the traditional material and form. The second is the fact that there is a fish weir which stuck to the traditional material and form. We regard that diversity of continuation of fish weirs to existence of the form of several kinds of fish weir. In the third, the significances that material of woods and bamboos are being used much. And those materials were obtained from forests in surrounding areas. And we suggest that the spirit and the fulfillment to build fish weirs are important factors in the continuation.
The purpose of this research is to analyze drawings that illustrated Mt. Tsukuba in the early modern period, and to understand how people of that time regarded the mountain. The appearance of Mt. Tsukuba is characterized by two peaks. Since the Nara period, the mountain has inspired Japanese waka. It was also known as a sacred mountain. The drawings did not express the mountain’s characteristics in detail. In Edo period, detailed picture maps were created as guides for pilgrimage climbs. In addition, this mountain was often drawn as a part of the Edo landscape. The types of drawings included guides, records, hanging scroll, and those used for faith. Their compositions were diverse, with the mountain featured either prominently or in the background. Most of the illustrations were drawn from east of Edo. Since Mt. Tsukuba was included in works by celebrated painters and in mass-produced hanga, the mountain became well recognized. These were beautiful landscape drawing that included lakes or rivers; people’s daily lives were not portrayed. It can be inferred that people’s faith in Mt. Tsukuba has continued from the ancient past.
A previous study analyzed 90 cases of historical oblique weirs in 51 domestic watersheds by geological maps, and showed that the relationships of those weirs with both the river channels and the adjacent landforms were reasonable in terms of river hydraulics. Based on the finding, this study investigated how to be seen the weir bodies, the river channels and the adjacent landforms at the intake points of those oblique weirs actually. Analyses figured out the possibilities of viewing the ways of taking river water for irrigation along the flows and the mountain-feet at the intake points of 22 cases in specific. Such places were the viewing points of landscape emerged through the processes of the people's trials and errors for stable securement of water. It was also clarified that visual shields around the intake points such as groves and protrusions of the banks made visibility of the three elements of such landscape lower, and those elements were outside the views in some cases. These findings implied the possibilities of utilizing those intake points of the oblique weirs as viewing points of a sort of riparian landscape emerged from the local people’s lives with the rivers.
Landscape plantings of Chinese and Japanese traditional gardens are considered as natural style. But usually, trees in Japanese gardens were pruned using Sukashi technique. Contrastively, Chinese gardeners prefer to leave trees grow naturally. Previous studies shows that Japanese people tend to view the detail when they observing a plant with Sukashi pruning. Meanwhile impression evaluations showed Japanese like trees pruned using Sukashi technique than those not pruned. The present study was designed to investigate how viewing pruned and not pruned trees affects the psychological and physiological reactions of Chinese individuals. For this purpose, eye movement and semantical difference questionnaire results of 20 Chinese male individuals and 11 female individuals were collected and analyzed. The evidences from this study confirmed that Chinese individuals do different responses to presence of pruned trees and no-pruned trees. The participants paid more attention through eye movements for the pruned trees possibly because more details like branches and trunk of the trees were presented. Meanwhile the results from impression evaluations showed Chinese participants preferred trees without pruning rather than pruned trees.
The image sequences from a person walking through a natural park, which is a protected area that includes natural, semi-natural, and humanized landscapes that are of natural interest, representing the integration of human activity with nature, and multiple quantitative analyses was used to create a sequential landscape for this paper. There are some quantitative analyses in image processing and remote sensing field, and this paper investigates to apply the analyses for sequential landscape. Fractal dimension, diversity and contagion were adopted as quantitative index for the sequential landscape in this paper. Moreover, GPS positioning was also recorded during the walks, and the distance from the start point and the altitude were recorded. Such processing was conducted in 3 times (summer of 2009, 2013 and 2015), and the landscapes from these three instances were compared. As a result, the complexity of the landscape for certain objects and overall could be expressed by using two kinds of fractal analysis. In particular, the differences between these two landscapes or for each position could be quantitatively determined. Therefore, a quantitative analysis of the sequential landscape in Oze National Park was conducted. Consequently, the changing landscape in Oze National Park could be quantitatively expressed.
The study aims to identify the impacts of population decline on the nightscape of Nagasaki City, which has been acknowledged by tourists as one of three major nightscapes in Japan. In particular, the focus was given to hillside residential areas, which frame the landscape of Nagasaki. The study was conducted by following three steps procedure as a) visualizing the present nightscape by using ArcMap and ArcScene, b) developing scenarios on future population decline, and c) visualizing future nightscapes based on the scenarios. The scenarios developed are based on two hypotheses on the future population of Nagasaki as the decline will occur; 1) equally throughout the entire city, and 2) exclusively at the hillside residential areas because of their inconvenience especially for elderly people. The study identifies that the nightscape following the scenario 1 will become deteriorated compared to the present but still may maintain its character, while the scenario 2 will lead the nightscape to lose its identity. It is therefore concluded that taking measures to suppress depopulation of the hillside residential areas are indispensable to maintain the identity of Nagasaki’s nightscape.
The purposes of this study were to test, using a quantitative model, the hypotheses that customer satisfaction of a nature-experience-type facility has effects on the facility, and to examine a new style of facility management. We conducted a questionnaire survey of users of the Nature Center “Forest Kozan” in Noboribetsu City in 2014, and constructed a model of user evaluation by covariance structure analysis. The model developed showed two effects of customer satisfaction on the nature-experience-type facility: increase in the level of intention of new customers to use the facility through word-of-mouth communication of users and increase in the level of motivation of users to solve regional problems.
A shrine forest is decreased and devastated for declining traditional management group in metropolitan area. It is need that effective support for management to shrine forest based on a capturing demand for protection of each management group. We consider a model from review that is defined by problem of management and current using shrine. We conducted clustering shrine by the two factors. We conducted questionnaire investigation for 357 management groups of shine in Nagoya city and outlying four cities. In results, responses of questionnaire investigation were 146 (collection rate: 46%). We conducted analysis of principal component and cluster analysis using main components of questionnaire, types of management group, management orientation, and environment of shrine. We could describe 5 groups by the demand for protection to shrine forest. The 5 groups have each different area, stand site, and perspective for conservation cultural services. The largest type has a conservation policy of various cultural services - recreation, scenic beauty, environmental education etc. The other types have not conservation policy of cultural services. But all types have same conservation policy with traditional event. The results would be used valid for constructing management support policy of shrine forest in metropolitan area.
The purpose of this study is to clarify factors of efforts concerning street trees contribute to the activation of the shopping districts and to consider the direction of the future management of street trees. In this study, first, we carried out a questionnaire survey. The subjects of investigation were shopping districts with street trees in Hokkaido. The contents of the questionnaire survey were “Current Status of efforts for the activation of the shopping districts”, “Effect of shopping districts expect to street trees” and “Satisfaction for the efforts concerning street trees of shopping districts”. Then, we conducted the aggregate and analysis of data obtained as a result of the questionnaire survey. The results are as follows: 1) There is a difference in the efforts for the activation of the shopping districts. 2) There is a recognition for shopping districts merchants that Street trees is a regional resources. 3) Satisfaction with the efforts concerning street trees is 3.5 point (5-point scale). 4) Shopping districts merchants have the expectation and satisfaction with changing properties of people who come to the shopping districts by management of street trees. 5) Shopping districts merchants have begun to expect for the economic effects of their shop.
These days, as each region pursues its own particular style of development and revitalization, the role of people outside and visit there is becoming much more important in preserving its locality. To explore the role of tourism to sustain the uniqueness of each region, this paper examines how much the tourists will pay for encouraging and managing the locality of scenery. This research also aims to analyze how much the tourists pay for their food experiences in the tourism area by taking a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire surveys were conducted to the tourists visiting Yufuin and 366 valid respondents were received. The result suggests that the locality is perceived to be valuable by the tourists and that they are willing to contribute to preserving it. It also shows that there are some differences in each of the evaluation they had of the locality and it derives from the distance between the tourism area and the places they live.
Asahi city in Chiba prefecture was suffered extensive damages by tsunami in the Great East Japan Earthquake. Iioka area where was damaged by the largest tsunami in Asahi city is outside of City planning area. In this area, the form of ”local reconstruction” was taken. It didn’t perform the regulation of land use except the development of a new evacuation routes and towers. The purpose of this study is to reveal how residents suffered damage in affected area by tsunami moved or reconstructed and what kind of conditions affect local reconstruction. Through this study, we revealed that in Iioka area, most households repaired their house in the same area. The recovery rate of building in inundation area is 60.7%, partially destroyed building and commercial-based building were relatively high. Reduction of the building of the city block facing the sea is the most intense. It cannot be said to have improve the living environment in affected area by tsunami. Because the measures for land use and living environment has not been taken, to promote low-densification of the area and making it difficult to community regeneration. Necessity of land utilization program decision of the area level in which an infrastructure building was placed was suggested.
In hilly and mountainous areas, abandoned farmlands are increasing by various factors and damage rural landscapes. This study aims to clarify the characteristics of distribution and landscape of abandoned farmlands in hilly and mountainous areas and also to clarify the residents’ evaluation of landscapes of abandoned farmlands. We conducted the landscape evaluation by the semantic differential method with 9 abandoned farmlands photographs, which selected by the geographical characteristics and the devastation level. The results of this study are as follows: 1) As a result of the semantic differential method, though it shows no significant differences, in the case of abandoned farmlands which are in the piedmont flat or cover the whole rice terraces, the evaluation of landscapes was also getting worse as the devastation level of farmlands became worse. 2) In the case of abandoned farmlands in a part of rice terraces, even if the devastation level became worse, there was no big change in the evaluation. 3) The owners of the abandoned farmlands feel the obscure abandoned farmlands do not damage the rural landscape. It is difficult to use all the abandoned farmlands and it is required to examine the method of the restoration according to the geographical characteristics and the devastation level.
This study grasped conditions of distribution and issues of landscape plants, and examined promotional policies about garden plant industry in santama area. Although distribution volume has decreased significantly since the collapse of the bubble economy, the types of plants being produced have diversified and changes have occurred in the intermediate tiers of distribution channels. And the following points were extracted as issues. 1)difficulty adapting to market needs, 2)easily influenced by economic conditions, 3)adjustments to landscape plant prices based on changes to construction budgets, 4)similarity of product types within the area, 5)declining interest among producers to new initiatives, 6)ambiguous usage requirements for locally-produced products. This study suggested the need of the following promotion policies. 1)strengthen production of short production cycles, compact types, diversification, 2)information sharing between producers and designers, 3) creation of brand for landscape plants, 4)examine new business models, 5) separation of order for cost of building and planting, 6)training and securing successors, 7)clarify usage requirements for locally-produced plants. Over 70% producers felt the need for regional cooperation to promotion of garden plant industry. In particular, indicated a need for producer cooperation in relation to sharing production technique and market information, and improving production in terms of diversity and consistency.
This research identifies the characteristics of urban residents cultivating agricultural products in Nagasaki City, Nagasaki Prefecture, one of the provincial core cities, Japan. The main findings are as follows. (1)The ratio of all the urban residents in the area who cultivated agricultural products in 2012 is 4.5%-33.6%. The ratio of this was different from the place in which they cultivated agricultural products. (2)The ratio of all the urban residents who cultivated agricultural products in some form or another in 2012 is about a little more than 30.0%. Most of the urban residents who cultivated agricultural products were elderly people and lived in urban fringe areas. (3)Most of the urban residents who cultivated agricultural products had experiences of gathering crops or fruits in farms, refusing volume reduction and participating in local community activities. Based on these findings, we propose a list of considerations for reviewing the significance for formation of residential environment and the promotion of cultivating agricultural products by urban residents in provincial core city.
In this study, we clarify a requirement of community-based allotment gardens as a land use management strategy in an urbanization control area. First, a questionnaire survey was conducted, showing about the operational status of the allotment garden system in urbanization control areas of the municipalities in the metropolitan area suburbs. As a result of the questionnaire survey, more than 60% of the local governments established allotment gardens in urbanization con trol area to utilize farmland. Secondly, based on the questionnaire result, we took up “Genki Nouen,” which was the one of the community-based allotment garden system originally operated in Ushiku City, Ibaraki Prefecture. Interviewing the government of Ushiku City and the neighborhood associations about “Genki Nouen,” we found that it had been proactively operated by the associations without assistance from the government. Actually, the role of the government is to borrow abandoned cultivated land, but to invol ve actively in its management. On the other hand, the interview showed a case that “Genki Nouen” promoted not only effective use of abandoned cultivated land but also bamboo forest management activities by the neighborhood association. Therefore, it is necessary to set the environment forming social capital for land use management by community-based allotment gardens.
In Japan, the law for maintenance and improvement of traditional scenery was established in 2008. The plans based on this laws have been formulated by 49 municipalities. Although local governments have to grasp the tangible and intangible resources comprehensively in the planning area for the historic city planning, the positioning of local resources in the historic scenery maintenance and improvement plans has not been clarified. The purpose of this study is to clarify the positioning of local resources in these plans affected by the consultations in planning process. We did the questionnaire survey directed to the municipalities which create the officially approved plans by minister of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism. As results, we found that many cities created the plans mainly to get the much governmental subsidies of the projects. Moreover, we found that some important historic resources are not described in these plans due to the restrictions of this law, especially by the traditional scenery’s definition in the law which requires the set of tangible and intangible resources. In addition to creating these plans, few municipalities create the master plans for the historic city planning of entire town.
Vacant lots are increasing in suburban areas of Japan. Vacant lots, commonly regarded as a nuisance, may become places where urbanites can enjoy harvesting fresh vegetables and organic materials can be utilized as composts, if they are turned into allotment gardens. This study aims to discuss the feasibility of the organic material utilization in three scenarios wit h a different gardenization degree. First, experiments in producing composts were conducted to identify the composition of organic materials for producing usable compost, as well as the amount of compost required for gardenizing vacant lots. Second, the number of households that is needed to cooperate in providing organic materials in each scenario was analyzed. The study identified that the ratio of the weight of kitchen wastes and pruning wastes to produce usable compost was 3:2 and that at least the corporation of 16 families would be necessary to produce the enough amount of compost to gardenize the average size of a housing lot. As a consequence, it was estimated that the scenario which considers only existing gardens on vacant lot s was feasible for the organic material circulation, whilst the other two scenarios, which assumed more gardenization would happen, would need further understandings by urbanites.
The purpose of this study is to clarify land improvement method of early collective housing sites developed by Japan housing corporation during 1960’s-70’s constructed on marshland on Nakagawa lowland in Saitama prefecture - Misato, Yoshikawa, Takesato, and Soka-Matsubara. Those housings are mainly larger scale mid-rise buildings located on Tokyo suburbs and former land-use is paddy field where collective housings had been never built before 1950’s since those areas have deep alluvial layer. Through researching original construction drawings including boring survey data archived by UR, qualitative and quantitative value of the land improvement is evaluated. Many collective housing sites have been improved by soft-ground stabilization such as paper drain method and had earth fill up to higher level than flooding. Additionally, in order to construct more than five stories buildings, long piles were driven reaching support layer under the alluvial layer, which means each building footprint has necessary land strength. As landscaping, additional earthworks have been implemented to keep necessary soil depth for tree planting in open spaces. It is considered that development of a collective housing with larger scale at same time on marshland means to form sustainable ground keeping high capability as a living environment with rich planting foundation.
In this study, we investigated the lot owners’ awareness of their own and neighborhood greeneries, and examined factors influencing their awareness including personal attributions and life histories as well as surrounding physical urban green environment. We also associated these awareness with potential of continuous maintenance of these greeneries. We selected suburban residential district with considerable greeneries in Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture, central Japan as case study area, and carried out questionnaire survey to the residents. We also geographically verified distribution of the greeneries, and examined relationships between the above points. As the results, we found that many residents considered their own greeneries as important elements not only for themselves but also for their neighborhoods. However, the residents whose land parcels were less than approximately 200m2 put less value to their greeneries for the neighborhood. We also identified that there were no direct association between the maintenance cost and holding intentions of greeneries, and greenery owners tended to have intentions to hold it throughout their life in the district. These results suggested that parcel fragmentations and generation changes might accelerate loss of urban greeneries with good maintenance.
"Moidon" is a sacred place of the old folk belief to be left on Satsuma and Osumi Peninsula in Kagoshima, or a deity enshrined at the sacred place. Moidon is not only a large forest, but also a big tree or a small bush, and usually does not have shrine buildings. Moidon is considered an invaluable asset because it leaves the origin of the Japanese Shinto shrine in now. In this study, we investigated location, continuation situation, the spatial morphology, spatial transformation, relation of local residents, having folklore or not, and management system of some Moidon around Kinko-cho, Kagoshima prefecture. The results shows that Moidon tends to disappear, reduce or be moved in recent years for some kind of development such as agricultural field improvement. On the other hand, in some Moidon, development has been avoided by the curse of Moidon. The relation to local residents such as the festival, offering, and cleaning tends to decrease. It is suggested that Moidon is located in the place where is important to the community spatially. It is necessary to regenerate Moidon as the standpoint of the community by addition of public support.