This study clarifies Yasuhei Nagaoka’s design concepts by examining specifications for six of his parks. It compares the parks by extracting the focus of the design policy and instructions and classifying both the instructions and the intentions for those instructions. Instructions were able to be classified into seven types, and intentions for instructions were able to be classified into eight types. These analyses clarified the idea that Nagaoka regarded how visitors would use the park as the most important consideration while respecting the natural landforms and view. He also took into consideration the scenic beauty and convenience as well as making artificial elements inconspicuous, if possible, when designing park facilities. The importance of enjoying scenery or using park facilities changes the design specifications, depending on the location and history of the park. The comparison of specifications for six parks enabled a cross-sectional and concrete verification. This study provides a new understanding of Nagaoka’s thoughts about park design.
This study examined processes by contextual affection to a park from stakeholders with sociocultural perspective. Based on natural properties of Kamokamonakajim located on a floodolain, the history of Nakajima Park began with the holding of a modern event called a product show in 1887 in light with Sapporo residents and wise executive officials regarding the characteristics of the Kamokamonakajima to be early modernism and scenic beauty. After the park opened, the area around the pond was used in a early modern way, at the same time as sports festivals, art exhibitions and other modern usages of the facilities and open space were made to accompany the modernization of society. After an exhibition held in 1918, streetcars were established, athletic field facilities were introduced and 2nd attendance by the Princes saw the development of the southern district in terms of functioning as a place of gathering for sporting games and cultural events. This park conserved its early modern scenic beauty around the pond through the period of confusion during and following the war, and at the same time recovered a diversity of modern facilities for gathering of people, resulting in the establishment within the community of Nakajima Park being a park with multiple functions.
This paper focusses, on the achievements of Shigeru MATSUMURA (1895-1962). The results of document analysis, interviews of the MATSUMURA family and field surveys, led to this papers new findings: The introduction of the idea of imitation trees and imitation stones to parks in Tokyo came from Kiyoshi INOSHITA (head parks in Tokyo city) who saw various examples of imitation trees, stones, and rocks in the Buttes-Chaumont Park in Paris during the late Taisho era. INOSHITA recommended that MATSUMURA study the making of imitation trees and imitation stones for park usage. MATSUMURA’s first imitation tree work, was the Nanai bridge in the Inokashira Park around 1926. He made the monkey mountain in the Ueno Zoo in 1931. This facility was the first monkey mountain in Japan. He also worked to preserve ancient sites with by using imitations. That was the first case of preserving an excavated site in Japan. At present, in Japan an imitation tree is called ‘Giboku’ and an imitation stone is called ‘Giseki’ which are created by MATSUMURA. From the research, we can recognize that Shigeru MATSUMURA was a father of imitation park items in modern Japan.
The aim of this research is to elucidate the background and circumstances of the conversion of the Akita (Kubota) Castle site to a park in modern times. The national government determined the Akita (Kubota) castle site to be essential in 1873. It was administered by the War Ministry, but the land was leased to local residents as farmland or pasturage. In 1890 the site was sold to the Satake family, descendants of the formal feudal lord, who entrusted its administration to the city of Akita. The city allocated income from leasing the grounds, moat, etc., for park improvement and maintenance. Akita Prefecture selected the castle site as a suitable location for rebuilding Shōkonsha, a Shinto shrine dedicated to the spirits of the war dead, that had been destroyed by fire. The prefecture planned to relocate Shōkonsha to the castle site and make it a prefectural park. The prefecture considered it problematic for the city of Akita to administer privately owned land, so the city canceled the administrative agreement in 1896. Afterwards, the prefecture purchased the central portion of the site from the Satake family, and the remainder was leased as a public park.
The campus of Ocean University of China is composed by Daxue road part and Yushan road part. These two parts shows quite different features no matter in the spatial composition or the garden. The campus located next to Daxue road used to be a barracks constructed by the German governors in 1902, while the other part located next to Yushan road used to be a middle school constructed by the Japanese governors in 1919. There was no main building or main axis, in the Daxue road part because of the existing barracks buildings. Sport space was arranged in front of the third schoolhouse near the entrance, which is quite different from the middle school and the general spatial pattern. While the middle school not only had a main building but also a visual axis. As for the gardens, the Daxuelu campus garden was surrounded by western style buildings and totally designed into geometrical style, even platanuses planted on this campus were imported from Germany. By contrary, the garden on the Yushan road campus was firstly built in western style and then changed into Japanese style. Black pine was planted in the center of the garden, symbolizing Japanese garden culture. The reason was possibly because park was considered as a symbol of advanced western civilization in China, while it seems that the Japanese governors intended to emphasize their own culture in its colony.
The landscape in the rural district is strongly connected with the climate in the area; in addition, the area’s natural development is linked to characteristics of the available cultural resources. Therefore, we consider it significant to understand the aspects that have led to the area's rise as a famous tourist attraction, and to study its important features. In this research, we investigated plum blossom viewing in Minabe town, Wakayama Prefecture. Our research showed that cultivation of plums started during the early Edo period in Minabe town. Plum blossom viewing during this period was enjoyed not only for its visual appeal, but also for its scent. The event moved from the central plum plantation to the hillside over time. As a result, plum-blossom viewing, which promoted the area’s visual beauty, became prominent. During the Taisho and Showa period, the plum plantation in Minabe town changed significantly. In particular, the plum plantation expanded via the cultivation of a superior type of plum known as “nanko-ume,” and the establishment of the Minabe-Plum-Valley Development Association, which was significantly influential. Moreover, it can be said that the plum blossom viewing event, which came to be attended by the whole town, became famous because the large plum plantation in the neighborhood took the lead in creating a plum blossom viewing area.
The aim of this study is obtain the character of the rock garden of the Nikko botanical gardens attached to Tokyo Imperial University in the foundation period (1902-1911). Not just as the research facility of alpine plants, as the shelter, Nikko botanical gardens were founded at Hotokeiwa, near the Nikko Toshogu Shrine, in 1902 by Prof. Jinzo Matsumura. In the botanical gardens, the rock garden was gradually made. This rock garden featured some hill tastefully arranged with a cascade, running water and stones. The growth of the alpine plants in the rock garden was good. The botanical gardens were open to public from about 1906. The Nikko botanical gardens moved to Rengeishi because of small site (2,620 tsubo) and floods, but are important as a monumental birthplace of the real rock garden in the modern botanical gardens of Japan.
In late years, flower viewing of Sakura presents the phenomenon of the boom. However, there is few document about the flower viewing of Sakura in China. Therefore, this study is intended to grasp circumstances of "the flower viewing" in modern China. Though the survey of internet, news and document, it could be said that in 1972 the Sakura had been often given to China by various interchange as the friendship, and in 1980’s and 90’s the Sakura was planted as a symbol of interchange between China and Japan. The flower viewing spot of the Sakura has grown to 56 locations by now days. Though the field work, it could be said that plants form of the Sakura has 4 patterns, there are forests, forest along the line of mall, groups, and Row of trees. Each place has its own characteristic that is different from the spots in Japan, and is already gotten high evaluation in China. The Chinese enjoy the Sakura with walking and without drinking or eating. Sakura not only plays a role as the cultural exchange, but also become the new purpose object of recreation and the education of culture between the young people in China.
This study focused on the concept of Yijing as a way to understand the traditional space. And it cleared the structure of the traditional space by Yijing that read from the analysis of poetry related to the space, to be used as one way to understand the traditional space. The structure of the Yijing is analysis framework in this study. The subject of the research in this study is Seongsan-Beoylgok which sang the Sik-Yong-Jung of Gasa-literature and Sik-Yong-Jung that Korea's traditional space. It clarified the landscape structure of Sik-Yong-Jung by Yijing that is read from a combination of Qingjing and Wujing extracted from the poetry of Seongsan-Beoylgok. And the purpose of the study presented as a new “The way of seeing at things” to people to appreciate and understand the traditional space. As a result, it was confirmed that the present as possible on the landscape structure of Sik-Yong-Jung by Yijing of Seongsan-Beoylgok and “The way of seeing at things” for the people who see the landscape of traditional space.
This study was focused on modern fountains in the Japanese garden. The fountain has not previously been emphasized as a garden facility in Japan, and there are not many previous studies on this subject. So, we discussed the hi storical development of modern fountains in Japanese gardens from the Meiji period to the pre-war days of the Showa period. First, considering the examples of the vocabulary of fountain in the landscape architecture-related terms, its transition shows that the fountain which was new in the Meiji period was generalized after 1955 circa. And then, examining the examples of modern fountains in gardens of Japan as much as possible, and the development of garden modern fountains in Japan were considered historically. We collected 449 image materials of fountains and 36 newspaper and magazine articles. Through the analysis of those research material, the modern fountains of Japanese gardens were appeared in the mid of Meiji period. Those fountains were installed at the redeveloped park of precincts of temples and shrines. Also early examples of fountains were observed at the gardens of nobles and authority. Through Taisho and Showa periods, fountains of Japanese gardens were seems to be increasing. And then after the Pacific War era, fountains were getting popular but the fountains of the Japanese garden were losing its popularity.
This paper aims to clarify the character of foreign diplomatic missions during the Period of the Republic of China in Nanjing, by focusing on positional distribution and exterior spatial composition. 30 countries, 51 locations of foreign diplomatic missions have been confirmed from documents. Most of the foreign diplomatic missions are located in NO.1 Residential District which is planed by《Plan of the Capital》, under the influence of district planning and social class. The characteristic of exterior spatial composition can be divided into three groups. In Group A, the main building is surrounded by large exterior space, and entrances are emphasized by portico. Medium-scale exterior space, comfortable and gracious environment which created by entrance and green space, are main character in Group B. Group C makes good use of the combination of garden and traffic line to create a livable condition in limited space.
This study is focusing on the Japanese detached houses with gardens from 1970s till now, aiming to clarify the pattern of garden and composition characteristics of garden based on the arrangement location including the change of times. The result is as follows: 1, the space continuity between gardens with different arrangement locations or between gardens and street appeared in 1990s and the diversification trend of garden arrangement form has been confirmed. 2, the connection between garden and indoor space, connection method between gardens and living room, characteristics of approach space in front garden have been revealed. 3, the differences of composition in accordance with gardens’ scale and arrangement location, the change of ground material by the time change have been clarified.
This study considers the perspective of Japanese Gardens outside of Japan through Sister City relationships, and clarifies how related Japanese local governments think, as well as present situations and issues. The target s of this study are 161 Japanese Gardens with Sister City relationship included the 2005 JILA survey “Japanese gardens outside Japan” and additional new information which is the result of singular investigation. The oldest Sister City Japanese Garden is Sanjose Japanese Friendship garden and Kofu Park at Cali fornia in 1965. The Sister City Japanese Gardens are primarily sited in the United States. The bulk of Japanese Gardens in the world were constructed late in the later 20th Century through Sister City relationships. All of the Japanese local governments which replied to the questionnaire in this study had some kind of continued relations after the establishment of a Japanese garden. However, it became clear that it is difficult to quantify continued "active exchange" between Japanese local governments and the Sister City Japanese garden site. Later, this study will be pushed further forward—questionnaire will be sent to Sister City Japanese Garden, in order to clarify examples and differences between Japanese local governments’ experience, as applied to Sister City Japanese Gardens across the world.
In this paper, the author discuss the change of garden use in Kyoto by retired Emperors and Emperors, from the late Kamakura period to the early Nanboku-cho period. The result of the main study is as follows. The contents of garden use can be divided four period. The first period was that time when the Gardens of Toba-dono and Kameyama-dono prospered. The second period was that the Garden of Kitayama-tei was a time which had begun to prosper. The third period was when the Garden of Kitayama-tei which prospered declined. In the fourth period, the gardens mainly had been used for the villas of court nobles until the late Kamakura period, but in the Nanboku-cho period, a style of the Zen gardens of Tenryu and Saiho Temples had begun to be utilized. There is cause of this change in the following factor. Tenryu Temple built as a Zen temple was designated as a temple exclusively for the emperor’s family, and all of the gardens of the villas went into ruin. The study results indicate that even though the time changed into the Nanboku-cho period from Kamakura period, retired Emperors and Emperors still enjoyed boating, appreciating gardens and listening to Japanese court music in the Zen gardens.
Yokoyama Taikan Memorial Hall was used as a residence-atelier during 1909-1945 and 1953-1958 by Taikan Yokoyama (1868-1958) who was a representative of modern Japanese-style painter. There is a characteristic garden in the former Taikan Yokoyama residence. In 1909, Taikan built a residence-atelier at Ueno Ikenohata on the banks of Sinobazunoike where was a famous cultural and scenic place of Tokyo. However, unfortunately the residence-atelier had destroyed by an air raid on Tokyo in 1945 and the garden had damaged also. After that, Taikan's residence-atelier was rebuilt and his garden was restored by his strong intention. We had on-site surveying the garden, considering Taikan’s career, analyzing relationships between his representational paintings and the garden features, and interviewing to Mr. Jiro Fujii who was involved in the restoration of the garden. In the result, we found that Taikan ordered to plant the trees and shrubs in the garden, just like he painted on his pictures. The garden was landscaped to have more spiritual meaning than natural landscaped garden by his intention. This attitude toward to the garden was different from the gardens created by the other representative of modern Japanese-style painters.
Shirakawa-suna is a white gravel quarried in Kyoto and is widely used in temples of Kyoto. Ever since the quarrying was forbidden, landscapes formed with Shirakawa-suna have been changing or lost. This study aims to determine the current types, uses and maintenance methods of Shirakawa-suna in Kyoto temples, and to discuss ways to preserve its landscapes. We conducted surveys on types and maintenance methods, and performed field investigations on the use, position, depth, grain size, and raking patterns of Shirakawa-suna based on the aerial photos. Three types of Shirakawa-suna (river sand of Kitashirakawaarea, gravel of Shirakawa-ishi, and substitutes) were used in 341 areas of 166 temples in Kyoto on a surface of over 29,000m2 in four forms (spread gravel, gravel terrace, gravel pile, and garden path) and three positions (entrance, main garden, and corridor area). Areas smaller than 100m2, gravel depth of 2-5cm, and grain size of 9mm were most. More than four raking patterns (line, wave, scroll, and check) were seen. Maintenance was done mainly 2-3 times per month by gardeners or monks. To preserve Shirakawa-suna landscapes, it is essential to protect gravel of Shirakawa-ishi and use substitutes based on similarity of gravel characteristics, choose the appropriate depth and grain size, preserve raking patterns, and discuss on the reuse of Shirakawa-ishi.
Street trees have some problems. One of these problems is street tree root growths that rift up and break many pavements and curbs. The purpose of this research is to know the relationship between surrounding conditions and the incidence of the pavement/curb failure by street tree roots in urban area of Kyoto city. We focused on some kinds of planting plots and pavements, the solar radiation as the factors of surrounding conditions and chose three species of street trees: maidenhair tree, trident maple and tulip tree. Sites of this research were some main streets running north-south in Kyoto city. In this case, a type of street trees that Maidenhair tree and trident maple planted in short planting plots on asphalt pavement have the high rate of incidence of the pavement/curbs failure by tree roots in Kyoto city. In addition, relatively wide roads have a low incidence of the pavement/curb failure, whereas the incidence on narrow roads is relatively high. Meanwhile, the solar radiation as the factors of surrounding conditions barely has influence on the rate of common short planting plots and common long planting plots.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the difference of the thermal environment at the outdoor balcony, such as mansions and so on, with or without the green curtain, which could be expected to come into wide as a measure of the heat island phenomenon in the near future. The actual experiment was carried out for the two classrooms almost as same as the direction, floor and area, and we analyzed measurement data, selecting three days of “Manatsubi” in August. As a result, the velocity of the wind reduced 40％ behind the green curtain, compared with in front of it, and both values collated strongly. The value of MRT also was reduced about 30℃ (40 %) with green curtain, compared with no curtain. The value of WBGT reduced 0.7～1.3℃ at the peak in the daytime with green curtain, compared with no curtain, but the former showed tendency to be 0.7～0.8℃ more over than the later from midnight to early morning. It was suggested that using the thermal indices of MRT and WBGT, we could evaluate the improving effect of the outdoor thermal environment behind the green curtain.
The purpose of this study is to examine the direction of park design and management on the basis of a quantitative evaluation of the carbon cycle in an urban park, in order to develop a low-carbon-emission and recycling urban park focusing "Green Recycling". Actually, we collected data related to the flow and amount of carbon in an urban park, in order to construct a carbon cycle model by system dynamics. The results are as follows: 1) In the study park under present conditions, the carbon recycling rate was 100%. 2) It is possible to predict the change in the amount of carbon in the study park using the constructed carbon cycle model. 3) The annual amounts of carbon in 30 years are 18,826 [kg-C/year] (recycling rate=0%), 22,364 [kg-C/year] (recycling rate=50%), and 25,903 [kg-C/year] (recycling rate=100%). 4) "Green Recycling" is useful for developing a low-carbon-emission urban park. 5) It is important to consider the park design and management balance of both recycling rate and processing capacity. 6) It is important to discuss landscape planning that considers low-carbon-emission and recycling, including the role of the community.
The purpose of this study is to clarify how motion verbs influence human perception of spatial sphere shared by majority of people through an experiment. First, the experiment was conducted to draw spatial spheres using the Japanese motion verbs “Hairu” and “Deru” outdoors. Second, the spatial sphere samples are divided into two types, considering the directionality that the verbs connote. These groups were called respectively “inside type” and “outside type”, and cluster analysis is applied to each type, and layered shapes of the grouped spatial sphere samples are created to represent the ranges of the spatial spheres that are perceived by people. Finally, through the comparison of the two types of the spatial spheres derived from the experiment, it was confirmed that it is fair to say that visual elements of elevation basis that surrounds the place influence perception of spatial sphere outdoors on “inside type”, while more planar visual elements tend to influence perception of spatial sphere outdoors on “outside type”.
Mt. Fuji was included in the list of World Heritage (WH) sites in 2013 and visitor management became an important preservation issue for WH sites. The purpose of this study is as follows: 1) to know the ratio of the number of climbers who are motivated by Mt. Fuji’s designation as a WH site, to the total number of climbers; 2) to draw up a comprehensive list of risk factors based on an understanding of the risk perception of climbers; 3) to find a way to implement the Mt. Fuji Environmental Conservation Fee that climbers will find acceptable; and, 4) to explain how awareness can be built, based on the above findings and related psychology. Findings show that 21% of climbers were motivated by the designation of Mt. Fuji as a WH site, and they do not have any specific risk perception. The most commonly perceived risks were acute mountain sickness and climbing techniques. The most accepted way of using money collected through the new donation system was garbage treatment and cleanup. However, promotion of safe climbing was not a common expectation, and it seems there is a need to bridge the gap in perception of this issue between local governments and climbers.
Aiming at obtaining basic data for creating architectural guidelines to plan and design outdoor and semi-outdoor space of multi-storied housing complexes, an observational research by behavioral mapping with interviews (for ten hours each day, and two days for each survey area) and a questionnaire survey by mail (351 units) were conducted in two housing complexes in Tokyo Metropolitan City. The following major findings were obtained through analyzing features of behaviors and consciousness of the residents: a) Nature and greenery have significant influence on residents' consciousness to the outdoor space. b) Amount of greenery and feelings from nature improve residents' satisfaction to the outdoor space. And c) Items in design guidelines for outdoor space and veranda as semi-outdoor space in housing complexes including the view from window were shown: 1) Planting flowers and trees, which can be touched directly, encourage residents’ activities in the outdoor space. 2) The number of residents who are satisfied with views from windows increases, when the ratio of greenery to building viewed through a window is 1:2.2. Further, some other items were identified. These items promote activities by residents in outdoor space and make views from windows preferable.
The principal role of National Parks are providing unusual scenery and recreation opportunity and conserving biodiversity. Promoting utilization of them also contributes to visitors’ health and culture of our society. Visiting parks might make a lasting impression on visitors, and then satisfied visitors could affirm loyalty to parks and get psychological benefits. There have been less investigations regarding with the psychological benefits of National Parks in Japan. Thus, we conducted a questionnaire surveys at four popular Mountaion National Parks in Japan, Shiretoko, Nikko, Kamikochi, and Tateyama, to identify the relationship among visitors’ impressions, satisfaction, loyalty and benefit. As a result, “nature appreciation,” “enriching the mind,” and “environmental awareness and understanding” are considered as great benefits due to visiting parks. Types of benefits are different by activities visitors attended. We also found the significant relationship between impression and satisfaction or benefit. The benefit has larger influence on their willingness to revisit and recommendations to others than satisfaction. Promoting National Parks utilization should pay attention to offering impressive experience in parks and the effect on visitors’ loyalty.
This study focused on the influences of the green spaces of the condominiums to their prices in the residential area of Wangjing in Beijing. Data of 88 second-hand apartments among the 33 condominiums were applied to the regression model analysis in order to estimate their prices. It became clear that the ratios of the green space area, the green space area adjacent to the residential buildings and the common green space area to the site area, and the level of maintenance of the green spaces exerted positive influences to the prices. The model estimated that the price rose 0.3% when the ratio of the green space area increased 5% specifically.
In this study, we conducted an investigation on administrators designated by local authorities for managing and maintaining public parks in the country to find the implementation system, their types of revenue sources and their use of revenue. Then, we identified challenges in creating park management and designated administration operation systems which enable administrators to offer high-quality maintenance and management with their business know-how, and lastly showed the direction for dealing with the challenges. The study revealed that the fact that their own revenue must be allocated to the expenses for managing and maintaining the park without enough the expenses only for the usage fees and designated administration fees is a big problem related to the foundation of the systems. The study also found important challenges that the re-investment should be evaluated in the annual evaluation of the administrators’ performance based on the situation that designated administrators of more than half have re-invested in the park maintenance. The study also found that, to obtain their own revenue sources, deepening the cooperation by utilizing the advantages of each, such as the advantage of getting revenue from businesses in profit organizations and the advantage of receiving contributions in non-profit organizations, is the effective direction.
The Nature Restoration Project in Kushiro Wetland is a leading national project in Japan. Ten years have passed since the project was initiated according the general restoration plan, covering the entire river basins of the Kushiro Wetlands. The progress of the project was assessed and analyzed from the view-point of “adaptive management based on scientific data” and “cooperation among regional diversified actors and public involvement,” which are key principles in the Law for the Promotion of Nature Restoration. It was clarified that effective methods and procedures of adaptive management, such as scientific understanding of the current situations from a local to regional scale, passive restoration and a monitoring using reference sites have been established under the project. Also, extensive efforts to provide opportunities for discussion among diversified actors, as well as public involvement initiatives have been made. However, linkages between the project and local industries such as agriculture, forestry and tourism, are weak. For future steps, it is essential to find ways to further cooperation among diverse regional actors by putting emphasis on the people’s daily life and revitalization of the region as a whole.
The uniqueness of Inner Mongolia Hulun Lake Nature Reserve is its large area of grassland and the presence of indigenous people. There have been conflicts between the nature reserve policy and the residents within the Nature Reserve; and two solutions have been implemented: 1) “Ecological Migration” policy which forces residents within the Nature Reserve to move outside the reserve area; and 2) “Joint Conservation Agreement” which involves residents to participate in the management of the Nature Reserve. In this study, the current situation of “Ecological Migration” and that of “Joint Conservation Agreement” have been clarified. In addition, effects of the nature Conservation policy led by the Nature Reserve residents and the evaluation of the ecosystem and scenery have been captured. The research involved the following activities: interviews with residents and workers (n=44), bibliographical research at a municipal government library, a questionnaire survey on Joint Conservation Agreement (n=496), another survey on Ecological migration (n=109).
This paper aimed at clarifying the seasonal differences of nursery schools’ urban park usages in snow cold district, and analyzing the urban park attributes that promote or suppress nursery schools’ urban park usage. As a result, following points were revealed: 1. Nursery schools’ urban park usages obviously showed seasonal differences, in that frequency, means of migration and moving distance, 2. Types of infants’ urban park usages were classified into six according to their age, 3. Urban park usages of Type II and Type III not required the area of urban parks, but required the child-care workers’ visibilities in urban parks escorting the infants. And, based on these findings above, several issues of urban park planning which contribute to the promotion of nursery schools’ urban park usages were figured out.
The purpose of this research is to propose direction of regeneration plan in planning perspective for slope forests preservation urban park by identifying how utilization pattern and user satisfaction are influenced by the spatial composition changes which preserves and utilizes park assets that is natural environment of slope area based on regeneration of slope forests preservation urban park. Based on the result of listening research on residents & designers and two rounds of survey on park users & residents’ association, regeneration method preserving and utilizing park assets of Slope forests preservation park is considered in planning perspective as following. First of all, Preservation of park assets like slope forests, a regeneration method adding space components to existing park assets such as new facilities which is suitable for users’ needs and solution of problems, and a regeneration method intending succession of park assets through restoration of destroyed park assets by establishing facilities are confirmed that affect increase of user satisfaction and park evaluation. Secondly, review on the preservation and utilization method of park assets should be made in the early stages of the regeneration process through a workshop and the result is needed to be reflected in the regeneration plan design.
This study focuses on alun-alun which is traditional open space in Indonesia. There is not enough open space in Indonesia, so alun-alun is precious place. Recently alun-alun has disappeared because of government policy. In this study, it reveals the influences to people’s understanding and action by the change of alun -alun. The object of this study is students of Bogor Agricultural University. The research methods are questionnaire and interview. As a result of this study, the following facts have been revealed. The first point is about alun-alun’s familiarity and specialty. More than 90% students know alun -alun and have been there. And 76% students think alun-alun is special space compared to others. The followings are chosen reasons:“meeting place”, “special place”, “feature characteristic”, “relationship with city”, and “history”. The second point is aboutchange of alun-alun’s structure. 65.2% students think alun-alun structure’s change is good. That reasons are “variety of activity”,“improvement of design”, “improvement of facility”, and “passage of time”. The third point is about people’s activity. Then, it isfound that especially the activities such as ceremony and sports that need wide space shows difference.
Recently rooftop greening has natural elements, for example, tall trees, ponds, meadows increase in commercial facilities. But much natural elements may make visitors unpleasant. The most important thing to commercial facilities is the comfort of visitors, so introduction nature elements effectually to rooftop greening is difficult challenge. In this paper, we research visitor's consciousness of space and natural elements including such wildlife as insects and birds by a questionnaire survey in Namba Parks with various characteristics of natural elements. Main results are as follows. 1) Visitors needed green and flower like elements for convenience such as benches. 2) Visitors are easy to feel nature so that there is much greenery in the field of vision.3) Birds and insects were not almost recognized by visitors and were not regarded as necessary elements.
The Japanese public now has access to vast amounts of geographical information produced by many government agencies and media outlets on the tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. Many maps and images not only inform the public about the tsunami damage area, but potentially help the public and policy makers understand the landscape damaged by the tsunami, and plan reconstruction. However, large amounts of publically available data still remain underutilized. This paper reports the results of time-series land-use analysis for selected cities along the Sendai and Sanriku Coast of Tohoku, Japan, based on currently available maps and aerial photographs, with two goals. First, the paper reports on GIS analysis of tsunami flood areas to quantify historical land use. Second, the paper examines the quality and problems of the spatial data now available for GIS analysis and public information. Landscape researchers need to consider whether the spatial data now publically available contain the information that answer the questions interesting the public, while exercising care that GIS analysis informs the public and policy makers without preempting public debate and allow various policy outcomes.
The purpose of this research is to clarify, via document survey, changes in how people might perceive Mt. Tsukuba as a result of making alternative mountain-climbing routes. Mt. Tsukuba has two peaks, Mt. Nantai and Mt. Nyotai. Gods are enshrined on both peaks, and Tsukubasan Shrine is located halfway up the mountain where it serves as a front shrine. Climbing pilgrimages for mountain worship have been popular; over time, however, there has been a gradual transition from mountain pilgrimages to tourism-based mountain climbing. The chief climbing route starts at Tsukubasan Shrine, goes via Mt. Nantai to Mt. Nyotai, and then back to the shrine. This route remains the same for tourist climbers. However, as visitors coming by car have increased since the Showa era, traffic congestion at the mountain base has become a problem. To help ease this, roads were established through Tsutsujigaoka from the mid-1960s on, and many new tourist resources have been created. While this has enabled diverse entertainment options, conversely, tourism resources not appropriate to the original spirit of Mt. Tsukuba have also been constructed. Mt. Tsukuba has a very long history. Needed is multifaceted preservation suited to Mt. Tsukuba, such that its ancient history is neither damaged nor lost.
River is a factor which determines environmental characteristics and scenery of an area; therefore, it is important to clarify the history of land use in old river channels in order to understand its local characteristics. In this study, the middle stream to downstream area of Arakawa River which is being vast floodplain is investigated. The objective of this study is investigating the correlation between Arakawa River’s topography and land use history in its old river channels. The land use history analysis was conducted by analyzing topographical map with scale 1/25,000, the old version of a topographical map, and aerial photographs. The GIS data was developed from topographical classification of the Arakawa River basin in order to clarify the relationship between topography and old river channels. Furthermore, a field research was conducted to obtain actual land use data. The result shows that the combinations of topography and old river channels can be classified into four types. From the study above, the land use of old river channels was changed caused by its land form and social factor in that area. It is also found that the history of land use in the old river channels from the Taisho Period to the present has been changed.
Terraced paddy fields landscapes are evaluated as typical of the cultural landscape, the importance of the terraced paddy fields in terms of environment and landscape conservation have been described. However, in recent years, the continuation of the conservation of the terraces paddy fields landscape is getting harder with the reduction of farmers due to depopulation and aging in agricultural settlements. This study focuses on visibility of terraced paddy fields landscape and management agent of terraced paddy fields in large areas such as municipalities. Based on its results, this study also considers the conservation strategies of paddy fields on slope land in the future. The visibility of terraced paddy fields landscape are identified by slope angle of the paddy fields, view of the paddy fields from the main roads, and cohesiveness of lots of paddy fields. 17% of the paddy fields with good visibility were managed by the certified farmers. On the other hand, 57% of the paddy fields with good visibility were managed by small-scale paddy fields farmers whose total management area is less than 1ha. From the case studies of selected agricultural settlement, importance of mechanism to continue the agricultural management by small-scale farmers was considered.
In Japan, the law for the conservation of cultural landscapes was established in 2005. 43 areas are selected as “Important Cultural Landscapes” by the Minister of Education. Cultural Landscapes are strongly influenced by the local people's lives and livelihoods. Therefore, residents’ participation is essential to promote the conservation of cultural landscapes. However, the residents’ perception of cultural landscape value is not so high, and that cause the problems to proceed the activity of landscape conservation and local revitalization. Therefore, this study aim to clarify the effects and the problems of conservation activity from the view point of residents’ participation and recognition toward Cultural Landscapes. We did Hearing survey with the municipal office and community organizations in Takashima City. As results, it is needed for many residential people to share the image of landscape creation and its need at the stage of before making the conservation plan of important cultural landscape. Moreover, through the half-forcibly participation of conservation activity organized by traditional council, residential people can foster awareness toward the conservation activity.
This study is based on the Forest’s Owners designated by the Matsudo City Green Regulations. It aims is develop the current Conservation Policy State on Privately Owned Forests and those forests open to the local residents, as well as to examine the achievements and tasks of public visit management and cooperation with citizen’s organizations. In this survey we gave a questionnaire to the landowners, and conducted an interview with the personal from the local government offices. As a result, we discovered that more than 40% of the landowners want support of citizen’s organizations of Matsudo; as well too they expect reduction of maintenance costs, guaranteed maintenance, as well as reduction of complaints from the neighborhood residents. The most interesting subject is the Opening the Privately Owned Forests to public people, with this visits earn benefits, as natural places walking and anti-crimes measures. However, now the forest's owners they have several issues that they need, for example, consider the reduction or cooperation of forest's management and stop the illegal garbage dumping around their areas .
The conservation of urban biodiversity has been promoted under international processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity. Thus, municipal governments in Japan are each required to plan ecological networks in a "Green Master Plan” (GMP). In this study, we have discussed current trends and issues in methods of creating GMPs for the conservation of urban biodiversity, by examining 20 plans which had been selected as the best examples of excellence. Specifically, we aimed to answer the following questions: (1) How do the present GMPs deal with urban biodiversity? (2) What problems are there for conserving urban biodiversity by means of a GMP? (3)What kind of scientific knowledge can we apply in order to solve those problems? Our examination revealed that there are few GMPs in which an ecological network is planned concretely and effectively, and that there are several problems for each planning procedure. In addition, a variety of previous works on urban ecology in Japan was collected and looked at from the viewpoint of finding solutions for these problems. Future research tasks were then argued.
Green space conservation activities in Japan have been supported by citizens’ volunteer work on their off-days; yet these citizens are also aware of the problem that they do not have enough time to spare for conservation activities. In this study, the likelihood of participation in green space conservation activities among these citizens has been uncovered by studying their willingness to work (WTW) in such activities. In addition, based on their preferred participation styles and attitude toward participation, a method to convert their WTW to actual participation has also been identified. An attitude survey was conducted in February 2014 (n=2,000). The subjects were citizens who were interested in participating in green space conservation activities. A question was asked: How many days in a year are you willing to participate in green space conservation activities utilizing your off-days? Preferred participation styles, key factors to participate in conservation activities, and opinions about problems had been also asked in the survey. As a result, the average number of days of WTW among citizens was 11.6 days. Unique characteristics in WTW were detected according to ages and occupation. Respondents who have been recognizing advantages with participation in conservation activities scored higher in WTW.
Recently, the number of climbers has been increased. Especially, “Bouldering” that is one of the style of climbing is rising in popularity. However, complications between local residents and climbers are occurring at a lot of bouldering area because there is not a cooperation with them. On the other hand, at Mt. KASAGI Climbing Area in ENA city, Gifu Prefecture, local residents utilize bouldering for regional promotion positively. Accordingly, a purpose of this study is to clarify the management way of climbing area with collaboration between climbers and local residents at Mt. KASAGI climbing area. Through this study, it is thought that can get the knowledge of the effective management method from regional promotion. As a result, it clarified that the cooperation of climbers and local residents was important, especially clarification of the division of the roles was very important. For example, the climber took the excavation of the climbing route and local residents took the environmental maintenance of the area in Mt. KASAGI Climbing Area.
For making appropriate plans for urban gardening, both planners’ and users’ viewpoints should be taken into consideration. This study investigates the change of urban gardening in Japan focusing on the viewpoints of the abovementioned stakeholders through literature reviews and discusses the findings in light of the current urban gardening situation. As a result, three periods of change were elucidated. Firstly, since the 1920s, planners accepted the concept of European allotment gardens and established allotment gardens on agricultural lands or in parks. However, they did not consider users’ demands and consequently allotment gardens did not gain in popularity. Secondly, since the 1960s, allotment gardens were spontaneously established on agricultural lands by users. Planners supported this movement in the beginning, but gradually put more emphasis on interests of owners of agricultural lands with the decline of agriculture as industry. Therefore, the laws for allotment gardens were established in order to primarily utilize agricultural lands efficiently instead of considering the demands of the actual users. Thirdly, since the 2000s, various lands started to be used for various garden activities based on users’ demands, which cannot be met in the existing framework of laws. Thus, it can be said that the diversity of the current urban gardening in Japan is a result of the gap between planners’ and users’ viewpoints.
Ever since 2007, when the use of Sasa leaves as a natural resource in rural areas was newly recognized in the Tango Region, local residents have been providing commercial Sasa leaves to the Gion Festival and traditional food industries in Kyoto City. This study aimed to clarify the current state of preparation and distribution of Sasa leaves delivered to Kyoto City from the Tango Region, and to examine under which conditions related small businesses work, and what challenges they face. We interviewed leaf collectors in the Tango Region and processors in the Hanase Bessho and Kamigamo areas of Kyoto City, and observed and analyzed the collection, processing and distribution of Sasa leaves. Sasa leaves were mainly collected by two families in traditional satoyama woodlands where the use of natural resources for daily life had existed before. Users in Kyoto City highly appreciate Sasa leaves from these woodlands due to their high quality. Moreover, the traditional culture of Kyoto City requires a sufficient supply of Sasa leaves that have been carefully processed by hand. We concluded that in order to achieve a higher appreciation of added cultural-natural value and to promote small businesses related to the sustainable use of natural resources, the distribution system of Sasa leaves should be further developed, and urban-rural exchanges should be enhanced.
Trails are places to pass through and their networks have developed as people and objects transport. They also have been places for interaction of people and cultures, traditional events, recreations and evacuation. In this paper, Minamisanriku Town, a coastal town in northeastern Miyagi Prefecture, was selected as the study area in which we investigated changes that have occurred throughout time in existing trails and in the relations between trails and people. We analyzed topographic maps, historical documents, and hearing surveys of residents and related organizations. The results showed that trails in Minamisanriku Town have traditionally been used for transport, trade, procurement of food and wood, and religious events, and that they have changed along with changes in people’s lives. Main routes have moved from trails in the mountains to coastal paved roadways, a move that increased the impact of tsunamis. Mountain trails have become ruined and are currently disappearing, but they work as emergency routes when a tsunami hits. The results showed that keeping mountain trails in good condition and preserving mountain trail networks is important not only for environmental education and for preserving traditions, but also to provide emergency evacuation and transportation routes during disasters.
New technology which enables the evaluation of habitat quality in macro scale using the information of species distributions and environmental factors is developing rapidly. Raptors’ habitat requirement and ecological characteristics remain to be clarified because they have wide home range and are often low density. Especially, most species of raptors are rare and umbrella species in Japan, whereas there is little information of the habitat quality on a regional/national scale. Thus, it is important that not individual but also habitat of raptors are protected and conserved appropriately thorough the evaluation of habitat quality. In this study, we estimated Goshawk’s habitat suitability for nesting site using species distribution modeling based on geolocation data of nest across the country and GIS data (e.g., vegetation, land use). In the result, we showed the important environment factors varied in spatial scale (i.e., national/regional scales) and among regions (i.e., Kanto/Tohoku regions). In conclusion, we discussed the potential and problems of habitat evaluation for raptors using species distribution modeling.
Cicadas and their songs are deeply rooted in the Japanese culture. In this study, we aimed to investigate the distribution of cicadas in suburban areas, and to analyze the factors influencing the distribution of the evening cicada Tanna japonensis (also called higurashi). We used the quadrat method to count the cast-off skins of cicadas in 59 forests. In addition, vegetation structure and soil conditions were recorded in the field and the normalized difference vegetation index was obtained from satellite images (defined as 100–1000-m buffer zones around the quadrat central point). The relationship between the number of cast-off skins of T. japonensis and the environmental factors was analyzed using generalized linear models (GLM). The largest number of cast-off skins found was from Graptopsaltria nigrofuscata followed, in descending order, by those from T. japonensis, Platypleura kaempferi, Meimuna opalifera, and Hyalessa maculaticollis. In planted forests, the dominant species was G. nigrofuscata, whereas in evergreen and coniferous forests the dominant species was T. japonensis. GLM analysis revealed that the distribution of T. japonensis was affected by the percentage of evergreen and coniferous cover, due to differences in canopy layer, soil hardness, and patch size of the forest. For the conservation of T. japonensis, it is therefore important to take into account vegetation type and soil conditions.
Application of seed-containing plant material is a successful technique to transfer plant species onto restoration sites. However, this restoration method is almost confined to semi-natural open habitats. Plant material mown from understory and edge vegetation of a secondary Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parlat.) forest was taken in three different dates (September, October and November) to assess the ability of propagule recruitment in such closed habitats. Both the number of seed-produced species and the amount of seed were small in September compared with those in October and November. This is due to the fact that most species were under early stage of their flowerings, suggesting that September is inappropriate for harvesting seeds from plant community in this study site. Although many grassland species were recorded in both understory vegetation and edge vegetation, the number of produced seeds was clearly smaller in understory vegetation for most of grassland species, demonstrating that understory vegetation was inappropriate for the seed-containing plant material, due largely to the shortage of photon flux density.
On beaches, there is generally the vegetational zonation distributed into five zones in order of drift line communities, dune grasslands, dune dwarf shrubs, dune scrub and dune forest in the direction from shoreline toward inland. In the warm-temperate zone between the central Honshu and Kyusyu, Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) forests are commonly deployed in zones of dune scrub and dune forest. Because most Japanese black pine forests are planted by artificial means, other plant communities originally existed in the distribution areas of those forests. In this study, we investigated the distribution of dune scrub that remains on the beaches. The results show that Quercus phillyraeoides communities are recognized as dune scrub. Species composition of Quercus phillyraeoides communities on beaches was similar to those on rocky seashores, where Quercus phillyraeoides communities are commonly distributed. It is suggested that Pittosporo-Quercetum phillyraeoidis is one of the natural vegetation in distribution areas of Japanese black pine forests on beaches between Izu Peninsula and Tanegashima Island.
To clarify the growth characteristics, recruitment, mortality and relative height growth rates of seedlings of Celtis sinensis, Aphananthe aspera, Zelkova serrata and Cinnamomum camphora, dominant species in the canopy layer of Tadasu-No-Mori forest, a large-scale mature urban forest in Kyoto city, we set up 1055 quadrats (1055m2) on the forest floor of this forest. There were differences in the growth characteristics among four species seedlings. Recruitment rates of A. aspera seedlings, native and original dominant species of this forest were relatively low. But low mortality and high growth rates were observed in this species. Although there were high recruitment rates in the C. sinensis seedlings, mortality rates were high and growth rates were low under the dark condition. It suggested that C. sinensis seedlings is more shade-intolerant than other three species. Recruitment rates of Z. serrata seedlings, anemochory species were slightly high only at high population densities of mother trees. Recruitment and growth rates of C. camphora seedlings were significant higher than other three species at high diffuse site factor more than 13.7%. It indicated that if large canopy gaps are created in this forest and understory light environments are improved, emergences and establishments of C. camphora, non-native species of this forest will be promoted.
We are anxious about fixing of an alien species Snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina in the park with the waterside. In Kanagawa Prefecture, the snapping turtle was breeding by Hikichigawa shinsui park Obayusuichi and Komatsugaike park and we conducted capture investigation from 2008 to 2012. We dissected the captured snapping turtle of 78 individuals, have grasped feeding habits from gastric contents, and compared with the habitat environment. Although most large-sized individuals have been exterminated because we continue capture for several years, many of small individuals were not able to be collected. We thought that american crayfishes and aquatic plants are main food for them. Not only extermination of the snapping turtle which has a possibility of inflicting harm on people, for the improvement in the health of the ecosystem of a water-front park but proper management of the visitor aquatic life and aquatic plant used as the food is important.
Urban matrix is often considered to be an area contributing to urban biodiversity quite a little. Recent studies indicated, however, some small patchy habitat such as private gardens, pocket parks and other kind of small vegetative patches may support certain ecological communities. We surveyed avian species composition in 125 small (50 - 20,000 m2) wooded patches within urban or suburban landscapes during both wintering and breeding seasons in and around Tokyo, Japan. The results indicate that the most apparent community gradient can be considered to represent urbanization gradient that has a significant relationship with patch size and vegetation coverage of tree layer. The distance between the small patch and the nearest large (5ha or larger) patch and landscape scale urbanization estimated from satellite imaginary showed a significant relationship with the community gradient only in wintering season. This result could be explained considering the fact that the mobility of avian individuals tends to be higher in winter than in breeding season.