The earthen wall with brick tiles on the Former Imperial Audience Hall of State Compound in Nara Imperial Palace has incomprehensible outlines. After the examination of the method of the plan, I found that the starting points and the infrection points of the earthen wall were situated at a point of intersection of three concentric circles and the eccentric circle. This structure is similar to the astronomical chart of mural of Kitora Tomb. Three concentric circles and the eccentric circle are severally equivalent to Zone of Perpetual Apparition, equator, Zone of Perpetual Occultation and ecliptic. Besides the situation of the Imperial throne, the center of the Audience Hall, the well in the front yard are respectively equivalent to the north pole, the polestar, one of constellations on the ecliptic. According to the ancient thought in China, the designer of the Former Imperial Audience Hall of State Compound had the design concept that the layout of establishment in the area indicatedimitate the cosmos.
This research investigated the relationships between people and landscape elements in the Japanese late medieval era. “Masamotoko Tabihikitsuke”, the diary of a noble, was analyzed as a historical document. Compared to now, people in agricultural communities had keen relationships with landscape elements. Mountains, rivers, waterfalls, gardens of shrines and temples, animals and plants all had meanings in their lives. Certain actions, such as prayer, seeking refuge from paying heavy taxes, performing rituals for summoning rain, dancing and art changed the meaning of spaces and landscape elements. Masamotoko’s songs also show that he classified various landscape elements in the rural town into groups.
I make clear character and existence significance of a Imperial Prince Toshihito salon at dawn of the Kanei culture from main activity and member of a salon so that early modern times early days Imperial Court garden cultural history positions existence of Imperial Princes Toshihito Hachijou-no-Miya aloft. As a result of I collected evidence of activity and a member of a salon from a handwriting of the Imperial Prince Toshihito and the inside of a diary class of the same period, and having compared it with “the Imperial Prince Toshihito annuals” that I could judge will of the Imperial Prince Toshihito to be reflected powerfully, the salon did an activity of composing a poem with the subject, and the original character that a renga poet Satomura family was a main member became clear. In addition, it was a member of the royalty, and this salon which the Imperial Prince Toshihito who was an aspect biography person of ancient and modern times instruction sponsored was able to point out the important significance that was existence to take a one axis of classic revival activity in the Imperial Court.
The former EZUKADAN(SUNATORI-TEI) garden remains exist in SUIZENJI-EZUKO Park in Kumamoto City. A few books introduce this garden as a valuable site built in the late Edo-era in Kumamoto. The prefectural government that is responsible for managing the park does not treat it as a historic Japanese garden. The records on this garden are few, and some of them have fragmentary descriptions. A lot of facts of the garden are unknown and unclear. This paper is a summary of many information sources about the building period, the characteristics of the garden, and the transition of ownership. This information will aid the preservation or conservation of the garden. Through interviews, literature study and observation of the garden, the major results of this study are: 1) it is highly likely that the garden was originally owned by Higo-Hanshu, in the Edo-era, and, 2) the subsequent ownership history of the garden was identified.
Sencha flourished from the middle of the Edo era, and it was in fashion from the late Edo era to the Meiji era. The influence of Sencha is seen against this background in Modern Japanese garden. The purpose of this thesis is to clarify the special feature of Gardens of Sencha, to extract the common features with Gardens of Ueji, and to consider Ideas of Sencha in Gardens of Ueji. As a result, the following things became clear. One is that the common features in Gardens of Sencha and Gardens of Ueji is the good location of a view and the stream of the clear water. Another is that the influence of Sencha is seen in the design in connection with water.
Tokyo Metropolitan garden of Kyu-Iwasaki-tei garden (former Iwasaki’s residence in Taito Ward, Tokyo), constructed by Hisaya Iwasaki the third president of Mitsubishi Group, is today known as one of finest examples of gardens of Meiji period. This paper examines the initial spatial composition of the garden during Hisaya’s ownership (1885-1945) and the original design of Shiba-niwa (lawn garden), which has been a decisive characteristic of the garden, under a restorative approach based on interview to Hisaya’s bereaved family, examination of existing drawings and old photographs, and comparative study with the other Meiji gardens. The examination clarifies that the garden was chiefly comprised of four areas; the lawn garden, the Shoin (Japanese style house) garden, the approach and rotary, and the flower garden. Particularly, this study notices significant characteristics of the lawn garden that deserve to title this garden a standard model of Meiji gardens in Tokyo. The result also indicates that the site itself formerly formed Japanese and Western landscape axes, corresponding to the coupling of Japanese and European style houses.
This paper aims to clarify the following 3 points through the analysis of the Tourist Guidebooks for foreigners written in English which are published in Meiji era; 1) the history of publishing tourist guidebooks, 2) which touristic sights are introduced with what kind of view, and how they are presented, 3) the difference among the authors. The conclusions are as follows; 1) There are 3 types in the guidebook according to the author’s nationality and author’s character, such as, private publisher or public organization’s one. 2) In the ‘A Handbook for Travellers in central and Northern Japan’ and ‘Tourist’s guide and interpreter’, there is much explanation of natural resources. The same tendency is seen in cultural resources which indicates that foreign travellers were interested in the history before Meiji era. 3) Hot spring sights are introduced as a suite points for western activities, and there is no description about Japanese traditional appreciation style for scenic areas, although there is few description about the Japanese traditional tourist style. 4) As a diplomatic policy, the public organization promoted the inbound tourism by showing Japan as a modern nation in the ‘The Japan guide’.
The paper shows how the two landscape painters, Alfred Parsons and Tojiro Ohshita, discovered Japanese natural landscape, depicted them in their landscape paintings, and had a large influence on Japanese people in the late Meiji era, and considers their landscape view —the gaze at wilderness—, through the analyses of their travel destinations and drawing themes from the travel accounts and the landscape paintings. Alfred Parsons traveled around natural districts such as the Seto Inland Sea, Yoshino, Nikko, Mt. Fuji, and Hakone. These places became Japanese national parks later. He had great influence on the discovery of natural Landscape in Japan. Some Japanese painters, who had watched landscape paintings of Parsons, tried to depict the landscape of mountains and wilderness, and generated new gaze at nature. Tojiro Ohshita, who was one of those affected by Parsons, made his way into back coutry such as Kamikochi, Oze, and Towada Lake, and depicted beautiful landscape paintings of these wilderness for the first time. He therefore popularized the gaze at wilderness to a great extent through exhibitions, magazines and so on.
This paper shows the characteristics and background of the designation of national parks in Japan from 1955 to 1964. The national park authorities limited the number of national parks of Japan to 20 in 1955. Based on this 20 limitation policy and the national sight-seeing policies, Hachimantai area was attached to Towada National Park and other expanses of national parks were going on such as Joshin’etsu Kogen National Park etc. in Japan. On the other hand, the new movement was caused to designate Hakusan Quasi-National Park as a national park because of the protection from waterpower generation construction etc. And in the context of the activities of Nature Conservation Society of Japan and the movement of Wilderness Act in the U.S.A., the movement was accelerated to promote primitive landscape through from the designation as national parks. After that, at the end of 1964, the area of special protection zones was extended and the number of national parks came to 23. 20-limitation policy was changed.
The present study aims to consider why such only three gardens as the Kokyo-Gaien, the Shinjyuku-Gyoen and the Kyoto-Gyoen became the National Garden after the World War II, and hence clarifies their planning concepts for the National Garden in Japan. Therefore, we are to examine their historical background, the improvement situations as a National Garden, and their receptivity by the people so as to reveal the Meaning of the Place with respect to those three National Gardens. As a result, this study offers empirical evidence of the similarity as well as dissimilarity-particularly in the Meaning of the Place-of those three National Gardens, which were laid out as a cultural apparatus to develop the democratic way of thinking of the ordinary people shortly after the last World War. The former (i.e., similarity) might be derived from the fact that they were all Royal-Enchi (Garden) before the War and hence had the same Meaning of the Place, while the latter (i.e., dissimilarity) might be ascribable to the fact that those three National Gardens had the different receptivity by the people according to the different historical background.
Outer yards of Imperial Palace was opened as Kokyogaien National Garden (hereinafter referred to as Kokyogaien) in 1939. A fundamental figure of Kokyogaien is the same as the time of the beginning. Therefore, it is pointed out that Kokyogaien doesn’t cope with a change in the age. In this paper zoning is performed based on the structure and the characteristic of its each space, in anticipation of contributing to improvement of Kokyogaien. As an consideration material for that, investigations about present situation of use, institution and management were conducted. The result is as follows: Kokyogaien showed clearly that it has structure roughly articulated by two space with the different characteristic. One space is the front garden which complements the function of the Imperial Palace, and the other space is green open space for relaxation of a citizen.
The purpose of this study is to make clear the life history of New Taipei Park, Taiwan during the Japanese Colonization by analyzing the events held in this park. During the Japanese Colonization, the life history of New Taipei Park could be divided into three stages. On the first stage, with building foundations under the Japanese rule (1899-1919), many facilities were built in the park. On the second stage under the assimilation policy (1920-1936), active and pluralistic uses shown in this park. And on the last stage under war footing (1937-1945), the entertainment uses decreased instead of military events. The uses in this park were influenced by Japanese colonialism and many institutions from Japan were shown in this park. Depending on the purpose of the events held in this park, the Park had multi-functions in the colonial period. Some were for enlightening the colony people, but some were for social demands. Meanwhile, lots of citizens also used the park as a recreational facility and attended the events. This park must influence considerably on the leisure life of citizens during the Japanese Colonization.
For centuries the karesansui garden had mainly been a symbolic representation of the natural landscape. Then the Kyoto artist and scholar Shigemori Mirei (1896-1975) set out to explore ways to transform this traditional Japanese Garden type. His background as a painter allowed him to see several new ways to do so. Shigemori introduced lines, shapes and colors to the karesansui garden. Also he departed from the usual reference to a historical or natural landscape and based some of his new gardens on a story or the images a place’s name evokes. The result is a new type of karesansui garden.
We define “Ro-space” as a general term to represent subsidiary space to buildings or rooms such as Ro, gallery or arcade. We analyzed Ro-space in the Japanese classical garden at the shrine and temple by survey and video observations of users’ actions. As the result, We can recognize several effects of perspective when thinking about Ro-space. Ro-space above water or ravines from which people can have an extensive view makes them stop there. If such Ro-space has a projecting part, it makes people’s stop more remarkable. If people can get the view of Ro-space with flat perspective and central parts from some specific place, people’s stop would happen there. And there are also long Ro-spaces which show the way to the main building or best view point. In Ro-space, We can see the actions mostly related to the view. But if there is bench or so in Ro-space, people will stay longer and do various kind of actions whether it is related to the view or not.
This paper will examine how the function and design of the London Square was shaped by broader social and cultural change, in the period between the development of Covent Garden in the seventeenth century, and the establishment of the archetypal Garden Square by the beginning of the nineteenth century. The study examines how changing management of urban open spaces influenced their design and functions, while also considering the development of ideas of natural landscape in the city. In particular, the paper argues that management regulations on the central part of a Square and on the secondary street in a Square formed the central open space to be a privileged communal space for the Square residents’ use. At the same time there was cultural tendency to admire horticulture among the gentry, leading to attempts to bring natural elements into the design of squares-particularly lawns, shrubs and trees. These modifications culminated in the mature Garden Square of the late-eighteenth century, which had a relatively fixed form. The paper charts the diffusion of this form of urban open space.
This study aims to clarify the spatial components of the school playground along with the issues that affected the playground’s transition, from the Meiji-era, considering that this is the place children spend most of their time. The method of this study is done by reviewing the documents and the regulations of schools from Meiji-era, and actual people concerned in schools were interviewed. In result, the transitions of playground were divided into nine periods and each of characteristics was clarified. One of the main issues that influenced the transition of the playground was the educational guideline made, based upon the social backgrounds. With the decrease of nature and changes of the child’s atmosphere, the playgrounds are very much behind from the present demands. This delay was caused from the influence of the guideline from the past, which planned the school building prior, making no space for the other outside components in the school site. There has never been a guideline that indicates the importance of the playground. To make greater use of the playground, further investigation, such as involvement of specialists from various fields, and improvement of the playground for the usage of the playground in practical studies.
In recent years, maintenance and improvement of study environment are called for. Majority of environmental maintenance which uses nature (plant) depends on the viewpoint of science education, environmental protection and social-studies education. Although, it is a national language that there are a lot of class time numbers in the curriculum. In this research, to know how the student touched the plant, in the textbook investigation and the questionnaire survey were done. Consequently, it is a Japanese language to treat the plants most frequently in curriculums. And, to enhance the vocabulary, it has been understood that it is important to touch the plant directly. Based on these, a new proposal is presented regarding school planting in consideration of the practical use to the Japanese language education in the junior high school.
As the changes in social conditions which result from urbanization and decrease of childbirth, the way of thinking about how should the play and the educate environments relating infants has been changed. The semi-outdoor space in kindergarten is proposed space to play free, to have interests to the outdoor, to feel and touch the nature. The purpose of this study is to clarify the general conditions of the semi-outdoor space in kindergarten and the utilities of the space and the relations between semi-outdoor space and children’s play, based on the analysis of questionnaire survey at 106 kindergartens and observing research at 5 kindergartens. The facts finding study on semi-outdoor space in kindergarten are as follow: Every kindergarten has almost 14% (semi-outdoor space/total floor area), 60 m2per 1 semi-outdoor space. Depth of the semi-outdoor space has related with children’s play, the wider the space is the more played children are. And other elements like pet, play furniture, how many passing people are, have effected on children’s play.
In December 2001, Osaka City built and opened an emergency shelter for homelessness that has been living with pitching tents in Nagai Park. I did interviewing with them about their situation, their wish, and also how they thought of the city policy and the support programs of the shelter. It is figured out as follows; (1) the main purpose of the shelter construction was to remove the tents from the park. On the process the city staffs persuade them to remove from the park or enter the shelter, there seems to be many homelessness who moved to other parks or streets. (2) as for the explanation and behavior of the city staff are not so appreciated by many people. (3) even though some people entered the shelter, they have anxiety for the next step and their own future. On the other hand, there is a few enthusiastic staff who makes effort to connect homelessness to social welfare system. These staff actions make me think that the homeless issues and conflicts in the park are not the issues of park management itself. We need to figure out a new policy for total park management linked with social welfare system, medical care support system, community business and community developement. In order to do that, a round table would be necessary where all stakeholders (homelessness, city staffs in all department, local residents, homelessness support groups and NPOs) can figure out what they could do for total park management and support programs for homelessness in order to get their own community more revitalized.
The authors investigated on the boat basin, a facility of Yamashita Park that looked on Yokohama Port, by means of the literatures and drawings. The foreign residents brought various western sports and recreation cultures to Yokohama since the 1860’s. Sports, recreation with yacht and boat were made by foreign residents in old Yokohama Port. Yamashita Park, one of the urban parks during the reconstruction period after the Great Kanto Earthquake, was constructed in 1930. The boat recreation in Yokohama Port was permitted at that time. The boat basin of Yamashita Park was set up as a base of boat recreation in Yokohama Port, and as an entrance for boats on a disaster time. Another boat basin was made in Sumida Park, which was constructed at Sumida riverside, Tokyo in 1931. Yamashita Park was used as the site of Yokohama Reconstruction Memorial Exhibition in 1935, and the boat basin was turned temporary into a play boat pond. After World War II boat recreation in Yokohama Port was prohibited because of the navigation confusion. Therefore the boat basin of Yamashita Park was closed in the 1950’s. The site of the boat basin was filled up with earth, and remade into the symmetrical sunken garden.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the historical evolution of the riverside common space, Uo-kashi in Nihonbashi from the point of view of the land use and land ownership. The official documents of kashichi licenses in 1882 and 1889, and kashichi maps in 1882 were used for analyzing the original characteristics of Uo-kashi before the modernization. The history of kashi is divided into four periods; pre-Shikukaisei, post-Shikukaisei, post-Big Kanto Earthquake and post-WWII. Three points were clarified. Firstly, there existed diverse open spaces in Kashi up until 1920’s, and it took important roles to connect the river and city. Secondly, after Big Kanto Earthquake the fish market removed, the original open space system rapidly disappeared. Thirdly, in spite of those situations, the land ownership of kashichi had remained to the public-sector until 1978. This means kashi had been regarded as the important common spaces, and the users should get the permission from the public. This system continued for over 350 years. It was only 30 years ago that this unique system had collapsed.
This paper aims to clarify the following points through the analysis of guidebooks published from the Edo era till World War II; 1) the famous sights developed in the Edo era, 2) the characteristics of their location and appeal, 3) the changes of potential abilities as a famous sight after the Meiji era and 4) the factors which influenced the changes of the sights. The conclusions are as follows; 1) 25 traditional sights, which were famous during the Edo era, are discovered from representative guidebooks of the Edo era. Their locational characters are divided into 3 types; “Religions precinct type” whose lot is large, “Suburban type” has many physical attractions, and “Town type” has non-physical attraction, such as specialty and lottery, 2) since the Meiji era, some famous sights remain the same as in the Edo era, but some lost the value as a famous sight which remains as a historic spot. Among the former some sights keeps the same appeal, but the others strengthen the appeal or changes it. It can be said that the change was influenced directly from the spread of leisure area, the establishment of the park system, and the carrying out of campaign for preservation of the historic spot and the beauty spot.
This paper involves the planting design and using of Musa spp., an important and a special plant for Chinese gardens. Through literature studying and observation on gardens of Suzhou, the major results of the findings are: (1) It began from at least 2100 years ago to plant Musa spp. in imperial gardens in the Han Dynasty (B.C.206-A.D.220). Then, this plant was being used in imperial and private gardens from the Jin Dynasty (255-420). (2) Musa spp. not only have special tree-form, fresh and green stems and leave, but also can demonstrate the landscape in tropical subtropical land rather than Cycas revolute and Trachycarpus spp., etc. And Chinese cultured people like enjoying the sound beat by rain, the form swung by wind and the shadow by sunlight in day and by moonlight in night. (3) The typical methods of planting design were usually planting Musa spp. together with strange rocks, with Firmiana platanifolia, with bamboo, etc. (4) The places planting Musa spp. were inside the gardent’s doors, near the front of windows, under the side of roof and corridor, near the railing, near the steps and near the stream, etc.
City of Hachioji was the first municipality that introduced the Sculpture Symposium as part of the Sculpture in Public Place Program. This paper analyzed the development process of the ideas, concepts, and outcomes of the Sculpture Symposia before the first Hachioji Symposium held in 1976, and how Hachioji city administration combined the symposium with the public sculpture policy. In conclusion, Hachioji city administration was not interested in the underlying ideas and concepts of the sculpture symposium. Their major concern was the administrative advantages of the symposium scheme. Therefore, important ideas and concepts of the sculpture symposium developed during 1960s and 70s were lost in the subsequent sculpture symposia initiated by the local governments. Sculpture in Public Place Program and Sculpture Symposium were not successfully combined.
The purpose of this study is to clarify that the turf covered ground has cool-spot effects in city and could mitigate the intense heat in summer. The field measurement was performed from July 27 to 28, August 29 to 30, and September 25 in 2002. Thirty-two times of observation has done at Izumi elementary school in Suginami-ward, Japan. The turf covered ground and sandy soil dressing ground were selected as the field measurement objects. The infrared thermo-vision camera (Neo-Thermo Tvs-700) and the instruments WBGT index value (WBGT-103) were used to measure the surface radiant temperature and wet bulb glove temperature. The results obtained through the measurement and data analysis can be summarized as follows: 1) By the Olgyay’s Bio-Climate Chart, the thermal environmental comfort of turf covered ground can be permitted on windy cloudy daytime and after sunset on August and September, but exceed the legally permissible level on July. 2) By the WBGT and preventive measures recommended. The significant differences were found between sandy soil ground and turf covered ground. 3) Compared with asphalt or concrete covered road, turf covered ground, the significant decrease in radiant temperature were obtained especially in shade. 4) These results suggest that turf covered ground could make cool-spots.
Vegetation in Miyake Island was severely damaged by the 2000 Miyake Island volcano eruption. Four satellite images were analyzed for the purpose of grasping the long-term and extensive effect on vegetation of Miyake Island. The first visible vegetation damage was extinction of vegetation on the top of the mountain along with a caldera formation. During the main phases of volcanic activity occurred from July 2000 to August 2000, almost all vegetation in the Island were damaged mainly by volcanic ash. The vegetation damege was extremely severe around the crater where volcanic ash deposit was thick. On the foothill of the mountain, vegetation damage caused by volcanic ash was gradually recovered. However, vegetation damege was spreading out to the eastern and southwestern area of the mountain since autumn 2000. The main possible factor of this vegetation is volcanic gas emitted since September 2000.
The purpose of this study is to examine the intensity of pruning on top-growth of Quercus myrsinaefolia Blume. We compared the top-growth and the ability of photosynthesis among three sections; severity pruning, slightly pruning, no pruning;. As a result, the slightly pruning was considered to hasten the shoot elongation from early spring to summer and not to affect the growth of trunk. The reasons was considered that the carbohydrate accumulated in last winter was consumed for the shoot sprouting in spring and the spring leaves with high photosynthesis ability were developed. On one hand, the severity pruning was considered to controll the shoot elongation and the growth of trunk. The reason was that, in early spring, much carbohydrate accumulated in last winter was consumed for the formation of the new bad and not for the shoot sprouting, and furthermore, in summertime, so many spring leaves were not developed, in spite of high photosynthesis ability.
This study aims to verify influence the water-stress treatment would affect on drought resistance and to find possibility of Ophiopogon japonicus Ker. forma nanus hort. to be utilized as a plant for the afforestation on the roof. At the same time, it is also intended to verify influence the submerged cultivation would affect on drought resistance. The method chosen has provided three experimental sections, that is, water-stress treatment, water-stress un-treatment and submerged treatment sections respectively, measuring water-potential of leaves, roots and soil for the purpose of comparative analysis. The result through the water-stress treatment has indicated that (1) water-potential value of leaves has become lower (2) water-potential of soil where water-potential of leaves starts to fall has gone lower (3) water-potential value of leaves and roots to be damaged has fallen (4) submerged treatment has had no effect on the lowering of drought resistance. Therefore, it appears evident that the water-stress treatment would be effective for enhancing the possibility of introducing Ophiopogon japonicus Ker. forma nanus hort. under the severe environmental conditions wherein the thin-layered ground is unavoidable in terms of load limit problem such as afforestation on the roof having the slant.
It was confirmed by the existing studies that, when it was exposed by only radiant heat, leaves of many species of trees ignited without flame but Juniperus chinensis cv. Kaizuka flamed lower than the tolerance limit of radiant heat. (It is said the lowest heat flux level of glowing as to coniferous trees was 13.95kW/m2.) The research on such danger is not progressing but which should be verified, for utilizing the fire prevention function of trees and for planning landscape in narrow residence, such as city. So, in this experiments, the concentration and transition of unburned combustible gas and the temperature under the leaves were measured about 23 species of trees, in this time the hydrocarbon was mainly measured as the unburned gas. The following results were obtained: (1) The states of hydrocarbon generating and temperature transition were obviously different depending on the species. (2) Three species of the family Cupressaceae discharged much hydrocarbon from the first stage of heating as well as J. chinensis cv. Kaizuka. (3) Aucuba japonica, Prunus mume, Phyllostachys bambusoides, and Pleioblastus chino generated hydrocarbon few from beginning to end. (4) Viburnum awabuki, Ginkgo biloba, and Hydrangea macrophylla generated few in first stage compared with the total quantity.
Two Phragmites species, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. and Phragmites japonica Steud., have drawn public attention worldwide as a plant material for waterfront revegetation and riparian buffer zone. These plants have excellent functions in cleaning water quality, preventing soil erosion in addition to offering various habitats for wild animal communities, fishes, birds and mammalia. However, sites where Phragmites australis and Phragmites japonica are planted often suffer from disturbance of erosion, sedimentation and lodging, etc. In this study, therefore, growth response to lodging of Phragmites australis and Phragmites japonica was examined as one of the disturbance. As the results, lodging tolerance of Phragmites japonica was higher than Phragmites australis. In addition, it was also proved that the disturbance and bare field formation by river water itself was the most important factor in promoting epigeal stolon elongation and establishment of Phragmites japonica. Therefore, for creating stable waterfront vegetation and riparian buffer zone using Phragmites species, Phragmites japonica is preferable for strand line with frequent disturbance, while Phragmites australis is preferable in the hinter-field with little disturbance.
Supports (braces) are attached when roadside trees are planted, but leaving them attached for a long time may result in damage to tree trunks. This report is a survey of the types of supports used, and damage caused by the supports, for roadside trees planted around Shibuya station in Tokyo. This report reviews the purposes of the different types of supports and the best timing for the removal of supports, including observations on the use of supports overseas. This survey found that half of the roadside trees in the surveyed area had supports, but their quality and form varied considerably. We judged that supports had no effect in about 54% of the cases, and they harmed the trees in about 39% of the cases. Documentation of procedures did not clearly specify when supports should be removed. We recommend that further study be given to the use of tree supports.
This paper attempts to extract data for forest crowns analysis by the determining same color regions method of image processing. For the analysis of crown size aerial photographic RGB images of broad leaved forest, also of Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtuse forest, of a Northern Kyushu Satoyama Rural Forest were utilized. The Image color distribution was used as an image feature. At first, the circle was calculating at every pixel less than the range of the determined standard value (h) of the color. Next, diffuseness information such as shadow areas and overlapping circles were eliminated from images. Remaining dot images were the processing data for the crown. In each of the research plot, verification data of crown width and number was ascertained by observations, and then compared with processed data. As a result, broad leave forest was determined have the best accuracy for extracting crown width at h: 40, and Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtuse forests were h: 15 to 20. However crown numbers were counted at less than 50% of the original images, because of the characteristics of this image processing method.
It is important to identify and understand the actual state of the coppice forest called “Satoyama” in Japanese including the tree species, tree height and tree crown in order to manage and utilize it while making the best use of diversified functions of public interest that the Satoyama has. In this study, we selected Tama Forest Science Garden where the forest type close to Satoyama are preserved, we discussed the measuring accuracy and its possibility of spatial measurement of tree height by analyzing the data of airborne laser scanner observed before and after defoliation and attempted to identify the stand structure of deciduous broadleaf trees using the digital surface model (DSM) before and after defoliation. As a result, we were able to measure the ground height within an error of 1 m and the tree top height within an error of 2 m comparing the data of actual measurement. Also, the airborne laser scanner data are found to be effective in identifying the stand structure such as the classification of high tree layer and low tree layer at deciduous broadleaf forest from the change of treetop height before and after defoliation.
In order to find out the methods of increasing species richness of lucidophyllous-artificial forest, we investigated that forest in Nanko power station on littoral district, Osaka city. As the result of comparison of life form spectrum between lucidophyllous-artificial forest and lucidophyllous-natural forest, it became clear that lucidophyllous-artificial forest lacks in dwarf shrub, perenial herb, climber, epiphyte and others. The 693 plants of 44 species belonging to those life forms were planted on three testing sites as a seed sources in plant species flow for species richness in the forest from November 1999 to June 2002. We investigated growth condition of those plants. By the reason of little precipitation in summer in 2000, 2001 and 2002 or winter in 1999, 48% of the plants withered. The withering ratio of Cymbidium goeringii, Ardisia japonica, Ardisia crenata, Liriope platyphylla and others were low. It seemed that planting of dwarf shrubs and perenial herbs which had tolerance to aridity was effective, as a method of increasing species richness of lucidophyllous-artificial forest.
Pteridophyta is valuable as an environmental indicator within the city matrix. In this study, the relationships between the species composition of pteridophytes and environmental factors (especially micro-landform types) was investigated using DCA, TWINSPAN and ANOVA in fragmented forest patches within the city matrix of Kyoto. In consequence, differences of pteridophytes species composition corresponded to differences of micro-landform types. Lower side slopes and bottom lands were suitable for many species (e.g., Polystichum polyblepharum, Dennstaedtia scabra). Upper side slopes and crest slopes were also suitable for some species (e.g., Dryopteris championi, Dicranopteris linearis, Gleichenia japonica). Therefore, sets of these micro-landform types should be conserved for preservation of pteridophytes species diversity.
Expectations have been placed on scenic thinning in recent years in recovering the environmental conservation function and promoting recreational purposes of the increasing uncontrolled artificial forest stands. Although there have been recent reports on scenic thinning, there are very few examples of implementation. This study was conducted for the purpose of examining the possibilities of scenic thinning by investigating its impact on the place where Ito et al practiced it within the Shinshu University in 1992. We conducted the study by complete enumeration and vegetation survey of the tree and bush layers against the forest where scenic and ordinary thinning were carried out stand (scenic and ordinary thinning areas) and made a comparative review. As a result, there were no significant disparities of tree layers between both areas and no difference were found in the growth, which was expected in the scenic thinning area. However, with the bush layer, the average height of bush layer of arboreal vegetations was significantly taller with the scenic thinning and the differences in the distribution of tree height were great as well. This suggests that woodlands managed by scenic thinning can be lead effectively to multiple layered forest stands in comparison to ordinary thinning and indicates the forest’s stability and the possibility of natural scenic cultivation.
Field surveys on plant species richness and soil chemistry were carried out at 30 study sites in “Satoyama” deciduous forests and coniferous plantations in Ichikai Town, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. In deciduous forests, tree (height > 1.5m) species richness showed significant positive correlation with the period after abundance of vegetation management, and with soil electric conductivity. Herb-layer (height < 1.5m) species richness showed the just opposite tendency to tree species richness. Analysis of covariance indicated that soil electric conductivity could cause difference in species richness of both trees and herb-layer species regarding the period after abundance of vegetation management as covariate. Soil electric conductivity was lower at the sites where litter was removed in the last vegetation management than the other sites. Two possible underlying mechanisms behind the observed correlation among soil electric conductivity, species richness and the period after abundance of vegetation management were discussed: one is nutrient accumulation by decomposition of litter that may increase interspecific competition, and the other is safe site elimination by litter deposition. It is concluded that removal of litter in vegetation management plays a role in keeping herb-layer species richness relatively high.
The object of our study is to explain the relationship between felling and the growth condition of 7 forest herbs in a mixed forest, and to consider an appropriate means for vegetation management. We set four study sites, for which different periods had passed since felling. These periods were respectively 0 years, 5-6 years, 14 years and over 30 years in 1999. We researched individual sizes of 7 species for 3 years, and the total number of individuals and the number of adult individuals of 7 species for 2 years. The results are as follows: Sex reproduction of all species depends on individual size. The degree of dependence is different for each species. It tends to be impossible for a close dependent species to achieve vegetative reproduction. 6 summer green species whose individual sizes, number of individuals and number of adult individuals tended to increase at the site where 0 years had passed since felling, and tended to decrease at the sites where 5-6 years, 14 years and over 30 years had passed since felling. However, 1 evergreen species did not have this tendency. These results suggest that felling improved the growth condition of 6 summer green forest herbs.
In this study, we carried out an experimental restoration of the floor vegetation of the secondary stands of Quercus serrata which became uncovered caused by trampling. The study sites were located in a suburban district of Tokyo, and the experiment was carried out from June to September in 1998. We collected data before the restoration compared them with those obtained at the end of three-month experiment period. The results revealed that the height and the coverage of herb layer did not change significantly. However, the number of recorded species in herb layer increased after the restoration and it showed a correlation with the area of the studied stands and with the calculated stand area available per person living within 250 meters of the examined stands. Furthermore, the number of trampling intolerant species having non-rosette and non-turf forms, considered as characteristic species of the secondary Q. serrata stands, increased after the restoration. This also correlated with the area of Q. serrata stands around the examined stands that existed in 1974. These relations show that not only the area of the present stands but the past landscape in their surroundings should be incorporated as an index when evaluating restoration potential of stand floor vegetation.
Much attention is now being paid to secondary woodlands because of their high biodiversity. Especially in hilly areas, variations in both micro-scale landform and vegetation management are important factors in maintaining plant species diversity. Our objective was to clarify the influence of the two factors on the species composition of the herbaceous layer of Quercus serrata secondary woodlands and their verges to paddy fields in the western Tama Hills, central Japan. Seven transects were set on hillslopes that had typical arrangements of micro-scale landform units, and 159 quadrats measuring 2 m × 2 m were set along them. Plant species that appeared in the herbaceous layer were recorded, and the relative light intensity and soil moisture were measured in each quadrat. Ordination by Detrended Correspondence Analysis showed that two environmental factors had significant effects in determining the species composition: light condition, which was influenced mainly by vegetation management, and soil moisture, which varied along the arrangement of micro-scale landforms from crest slopes to lower side slopes and head hollows. We found that micro-scale landform affected vegetation structure. The effect is more complicated on the lowermost slopes adjacent to paddy fields in the valley bottoms, because these slopes are disturbed by the unstable land conditions and intensive management.
There is a necessity to clarify the present ecological situation of the abandoned Satoyama-forest in northern Kyushu that has been loosing the bio-diversity and its qualities as a fine seasonal landscape. We analyzed a time series of aerial photographs and surveyed the forest structure. Interviews were also conducted with elderly local residents. The results are as follows: 1) Broad-leaved evergreen trees such as Castanopsis cuspidata var. sieboldii and Machilus thunbergii dominantly covered every forest canopy, and except for Zanthoxylum ailanthoides, broad-leaved deciduous trees could rarely be seen. 2) The 15-year regenerative stage of the forest has a higher tree stand density of Z. ailanthoides, than the 30-year staged forest. Despite this the 30-year regenerative stage of the forest has a higher canopy of trees and DBH than the 15-year staged forest. 3) The 40-year stage forest showed gaps in the canopy, and more species are accounted for compared with the 15-year stage forest. However, since trees were shade-tolerant species, there is considered to be a necessity for forest management procedures such as thinning and branching.
In this study, the relation between the structural changes of bamboo forests and the distances from the bamboo forests to the nearest residential areas was investigated in order to evaluate the relationship between human activities and the structural changes of the bamboo forests over two time periods. The results obtained from 1968 to 1978 demonstrated that the percentage of bamboo forests having a residential area within a radius of 250 m was higher in Group B, in which the area of the bamboo forests increased over the time, than in Group A, in which the area of the bamboo forests increased over the time. This indicated that the expansion of the bamboo forests was restricted. On the other hand, the results obtained from 1978 to 1992 showed that the percentage of bamboo forests having a residential area within a radius of 50 or 100 m was slightly higher in Group B than in Group A, and that of bamboo forests having a residential area within a radius of 250 m was lower in Group B than in Group A. These results indicated that bamboo forests were poorly managed at a 250-m distance from the residential areas, and then the poor management has gradually come closer to the residential areas, resulting in the expansion of the bamboo forests.
This study aims to discuss the effect of forest management on species composition after wilt disease. The study was conducted in Higashi Hiroshima City Hiroshima Prefecture. Forest under the different management were classified into ten types. Sixty eight plots through vegetation survey were classified into 8 vegetation types, 270 species were classified into 10 species groups by using TWINSPAN analysis. Although species composition was changed after the plantation, species characterized in the pine forest appeared in the under story. In the case of plantation or cutting dead pine trees, some pioneer species appeared. After the pine wilt disease, in the case of plantation, the species composition depend on the competition between species characterized in the pine forest, pioneer species, and plantation species in the under story. In the case of cutting the dead pine trees after wilt disease, pioneer species temporarily appeared and the species composition depend on the forest succession.
Management is necessary to maintain actual situation of pine woods at coast areas, which Japanese have felt familiarity with, because they are in a seral stage of succession. In this study we investigated eight pine woods in various region at the viewpoint of vegetation science. Seven of them are specified places of scenic beauty under the law for protection, and one of them had been. As a result, it is clarified that pine woods in young stages have similar tree forms because of excessively dense plantation and succession. This means that characteristics of each pine woods have been decreasing. On the other hand, the forms of old big trees have characteristics particular to each pine woods, which is considered as results of climate and management. In order to conserve the traditional pine woods at coast areas, the characters of each pine woods should be recognized and objective vegetation should be set up.
This study aimed to evaluate the physical and artificial characteristics and beach types of 30 beach areas of the Bay of Osaka, which have possible effects on the flora and coastal plants, as well as to determine the relationship between the number of coastal plant species and each of these three environmental factors. The results indicated a tendency for beach areas, artificial pressures, and beach types to affect the number of coastal plant species to the same degree. Among the environmental factors studied, the main factors contributing to increases in the number of coastal plant species were (1) not less than 4.5 ha of beach area, (2) moderate artificial pressures on beaches such as moderate use and management of beaches, and (3) open-type beaches. In addition, it was found that the areas of the beaches and artificial pressures on them affected the composition of beach plants as well.
These days, urban planning in Japan has been influenced by that of Europe. Therefore, only structures of inner city tend to be emphasized, ignoring Japanese traditional planning which considers relations between hamlet and natural features in general. In this study, we analyzed spatial and scenic relations between hamlet and mountain that has social relations to the hamlet such as belief, through the survey executed in Murayama Basin in 2001-2002. As a result, we categorized them into 5 types according to characteristics of the mountain; 1) castle hill type, 2) independent type, 3) backward mountain type, 4) forward mountain type, and 5) edge mountain type, in which the hamlet is placed on the most ideal viewpoint to see the mountain. In addition, it is clarified that the relations are build with various methods according to various natural features. Furthermore we could classify the methods into 4 patterns; 1) pattern of operating distance, 2) pattern of cutting off, 3) pattern of operating view direction, and 4) pattern of covering small hill. These findings are summarized that the relations are based on not only spatial relation but the landscape from the hamlet.
The local natural environment greatly transfigured since modern times to the present in Japan. The interview survey, to elucidate its change factor, was taken with a hypothesis assumed in the changes both of occupation activities and life style of local inhabitants. Classified the investigation results according to main use types of the biological resources use and compared with the land use change in chronological order. Transition of occupation activities was caused by the resources use change in forest and grassland then all type of use acts disappeared gradually since a certain time. While a lifestyle of the inhabitants influenced by these resources use change took complicated change process, it may be finally caused the natural environment transfiguration as a result. Therefore, authors considered that the main factor of the occupation activity change which had been thought of a natural environmental transfiguration brought the management and cultivation abandonment at first, and the logging and access roads dilapidation linked it next influenced the local life custom change with more accelerated the natural environment transfiguration.
To clarify the relationship between the present status of the Satoyama forest and its multiple social functions in a suburban area, research was conducted in the Matono area, of Shingu Town, Fukuoka. Based on a series surveys, every forest was examined from 4 aspects; forest type (conifer plantation/broadleaved forest), land ownership (common/private), age and management situation, and the database sorted accordingly. We then evaluated the multiple social functions of the forest. The result were as follows; 1. Well-managed forests were few; and depended on forest type, 2. Multiple function uses were fully available only in 7% of total forest area. Especially, conifer plantations were evaluated low for stability of vegetation, amenity, biological diversity, and as a river water-source; suggesting the necessity to improve the forest structure. 3. From an interview with the forest owner, it became apparent that it would be impossible to manage both private and common forests for both their family interests and those of the community. Consequently, it was considered necessary that a linking system be established between the rural community and city dwellers for purposes of conservation to restore a sustainable environment and sane resources utilization.
Much data of National Census on River Environments has been accumulated. In order to utilize those data for river works, we studied the method of analyzing the characteristic of natural environment at Inagawa River. At first, the river was classified into 9 blocks by the river channel characteristic and the distribution of vegetation and birds. In the next step, 11 types of environment units were classified by combining natural environmental element such as location, flood frequency, soil types. We defined these 11 type as biotope, and we chose some species which prefer each biotope. At last, biotope types in each block were counted. From those results of this analysis, the characteristic of Inagawa River was clarified. And the guideline of the river works could be proposed.
This research explains a change about the water quality and the volume of water as a case from the resident’s subjective evaluation, and the structure of the present river environment evaluation about Suzhou river of Shanghai CHINA. Recently, it faced Suzhou river in the process that a resident in the neighborhood reached the present from the past in Suzhou river which a river environment repair project, and it was used how, and the matter whether it will be hoping for what kind of use in the future was cleared directly by the questionnaire investigation by the interview. As for this investigation, when it was the worst about ten years ago, though it was aware of the water quality of Suzhou river however as for good, it had become clear gradually that it began to change to the evaluation for several years. It was shown that it was most strongly aware as “symbol” of Shanghai City in the structure of the river environment evaluation which a resident to present Suzhou river.