Archaeological evidence of historic gardens and their related remnants (hereinafter, they are called as ‘Archaeologically Excavated Gardens’ in this paper) has hardly ever affected the cycles of nature and human activities since they had been buried. Therefore Archaeologically Excavated Gardens are the standard of historical materials concerning the design, structure, technique, etc. of gardens in the past. The examination of Archaeologically Excavated Gardens is very important in the empirical examination of lost gardens. On the basis that there has been much investigation, study, protection and utilization in Japan and Italy, this paper will examine comparative studies about the difference of the function, composition, form, etc. of gardens, as well as the state of the investigations on the historic gardens in Japan and Italy. In conclusion, from the point of view to recognize that ‘Archaeologically Excavated Garden’ is a category of historic gardens as well as archaeological heritages, it is important to examine comprehensively some concepts and methods of preservation and utilization of Archaeologically Excavated Gardens beyond a conflict between reconstruction as a historic garden and restoration as a archaeological site, through comparing some concrete cases in Japan with in Italy.
Conservation and preservation of landscape heritages in the urban area are often done for the scattered particular space. Also, it is a current situation that the view point with a high regard for the distribution throughout the region and for the regional landscape emphasizing on history has been scant. Considering such a problem consciousness, in this research, by investigating the landscape heritages and comparing regional history and peculiarity, formation and inheritance of the landscaping space (Landscape Heritages) traditionally perpetuated was brought out. Also, how they have been changed and improved at time advances was researched as well. Subject place of this research is Mukojima area running through the east bank of Sumidagawa-River in Tokyo the regional peculiarity was analyzed from two view points, the life history and the spatial history. As a result, fact that this area having landscape characteristic as an agricultural community has been changed and improved by the industrialization in the twentieth century, was pointed out. And, it was cleared that this area has changed in significant influence of the water damage, despite the area of an abundance of water resource and transportation by water. It was found that landscape heritages in Mukojima area are closely connected to the formation background and the changes of this area. Therefore, it is necessary to have viewpoints of the research and conservation for the landscape heritages and their surrounding area.
Isamu NOGUCHI (1904-1988) is a Japanese-American sculptor, whose inspiration for spatial sculpture was influenced by the traditional Japanese gardens. This paper is the sequel to ‘Isamu Noguchi’s Garden Projects, Banrai-sha and Reader’s Digest Tokyo Branch’. Noguchi’s struggle in absorbing the spirits and the techniques of the Japanese gardens became full scale in the Gardens for UNESCO (1956-1958) after finishing the Gardens for Connecticut General Insurance Company (1956-1957). The purpose of this study is to clarify the process and the design of two gardens mentioned above by examining 389 documents, mainly written in Japanese. In the Gardens for Connecticut General Insurance Company, Noguchi confronted the huge scale of modern architecture in comparison with the objects in the garden. In the Gardens for UNESCO, he developed the techniques such as the pictorial ground composition to be overlooked, the sculptured ground, the space created by arranging objects, and the introduction of the stage setting into the gardens. The Gardens for UNESCO became Noguchi’s turning point in relationship with the Japanese gardens.
The paper shows that the gaze of Chinese classical literature - Chinese landscape view - discovered a part of the landscape painted in the Sansui-Kikan by Kyokko Fuchigami in the late Edo era, and the natural sights of both Gokei and Kankakei which were called best 2 strange landscapes of the Seto Inland Sea in the Meiji era, through the analyses of the character of the painter from historical materials, the landscape from the Sansui-Kikan, and landscape evaluation of both Gokei and Kankakei from travel accounts, guidebooks, and so on. Kyokko has acquired the culture of Chinese classical literature. He did not painted old places of interest, but new real landscape such as similar Yabakei and strange rocks. He opened the new landscape world in the Sansui-Kikan. Gokei and Kankakei which were discovered by the gaze of Chinese classical literature were continuously praised afterwards. Kankakei was especially praised by innumerable scholars of Chinese classics. The landscape based on quotation from Chinese classical literature was bloomed fully from the late Edo era to the Meiji era.
Kaki is one of the most familiar fruit trees in Japan and a landscape with kaki tend to be connected with a nostalgic image of an autumn rural landscape. In this respect, a landscape with kaki can be seen as a Japanese “prototype-landscape.” The point we have to focus on here is that common image and feeling about kaki are shared among the Japanese. It is due to our “landscape viewpoints”, a common “way of seeing” shared in a specific social group. This study considers how our landscape viewpoints have been changed by analyzing the representation (waka, haiku and painting) of kaki as an expression of landscape. Kaki might have been one of the most familiar fruits in Japan throughout the history. It was, however, after the latter half of the 17th century, when haiku had been established and spread, that a landscape with kaki started to be expressed positively. This can be explained that our “landscape viewpoints” had been turned from the traditional one, in which waka played the most important part, into the modernized one, through some new cultural activities which began in the Edo era. New landscape discovered by new culture in the Edo era had been combined with rural landscape, and have been regarded as Japanese prototype-landscape.
The purpose of this study is to compose waterside space in Edo through the illustrations drawn by Settan Hasegawa (1778-1843). We took out the 69 pictures of Edo from the illustrations drawn by Settan Hasegawa, and analyzed the correlations between the 3 elements which are drawn in the picture. The 3 elements is; waterside space, viewpoints, and elements of the four seasons. We clarified that good relations between those 3 elements were making the people in Edo enjoy four seasons.Concretly, we developed the situations which the people in Edo enjoyed ; viewing cherry blossoms from a hill, admiring the moon from the seaside,and viewing lotus flowers from the water terrace, and soon. Finally, we extracted 6 sectional plans from the pictures which are expressing good relations between the 3 elements ,and we inserted them bellow. The 6 sectional plan is ; hana-mi section (viewing cherry blossoms in spring), ume-mi section (viewing ume blossoms in spring), fuji-mi section (viewing wisteria blossoms), tsuki-mi section (admiring the moon in autumn), momiji-gari section (viewing the colored leaves in autumn), nouryou section (enjoying the cool breeze in summer).
The earthen wall with brick tiles on the Former Imperial Audience Hall of State Compound in Nara Imperial Palace has incomprehensible outlines. I found once that it was designed with three concentric circles and the eccentric circle. Besides three concentric circles and the eccentric circle are severally equivalent to Zone of Perpetual Apparition, equator, Zone of Perpetual Occultation and ecliptic. On this paper I guessed that the plan of the earthen wall is similar to the fabulous bard “Yatagarasu”, the eccentric circle become the sun which the bard lives in, and the 3:8 inclination of wall was involved in the bard’s character. The twin Imperial Halls of State Compounds in the Nara Palace were related to the configuration “Taibi-kyu”. The central Halls were designed as the five emperors’ seats and the eastern Halls were designed as twelve ministers. The number of the buildings related to the cosmos on the astronomical Chinese literature.
This paper aims to clarify the one aspect of Imperial garden culture after Shugakuin Imperial Villa, by taking a general survey of the change of the relation between the life culture of the Princess Shinanomiya and gardens. She spent the majority in the youth by the Gomizunoo's salon, and played many times in Shugakuin Imperial Villa. And, she obtained the detached residence in Shchiiku, and enjoyed a peripheral stroll based on there. Next, she obtained the other detached residence for Sanjo. On the tableside of the building, the lattice was made to see the street. On the backside, the pavilion (ochaya) was made to command scenery. The structure showed the consistency of the popular culture and the Imperial culture. She frequently went out to suburbs, and entered the popular culture in each body in the fall of life. Her living space has escalated from the garden to suburbs while receiving the influence of the change with the times of popularization of the culture. The Imperial cultural salon and the Imperial gardens rose at the beginning of the early modern times in Japan. But the Imperial cultural salon collapsed by the death of the Former Emperor Gomizunoo. In addition, the Imperial garden culture has changed and declined because it received the influence of the change with the popularization of the culture.
The organization and layout of the ancient Pingyao city are reviewed from the aspect of Chinese etiquette culture. The conclusion is that the city scale, city wall height and road width of the ancient Pingyao city were constructed by strictly complying with the principle of three Li, “three Zhi, three Gui (Li, Zhi and Gui are measurement units of ancient China)” respectively. In addition, the space of the old city layout, public buildings and dwelling courtyards were also deeply influenced by the etiquette culture. The Chinese etiquette culture and ideology has been complied with throughout the space layout design and the construction of the city, reflecting a theme of “five positions and four directions”, “making the center outstanding”, “strengthening the main axis”, and “facing south as honor in the city's space organization and representation, which can be seen as a live fossil representing the influences of Chinese Etiquette Culture on city constructions in ancient China.
Open garden started at the Britain in 1927, which are mainly administered in The National Gardens Scheme Charitable Trust now. Recently, Open Garden is spreading in Japan. In spite of its popularity, their structure of consciousness is not still obvious. So, it's important to clear the structure of consciousness and rating of open gardener, as fundamental reference data for considering the planning, improvement and administration of a vitalization of community. In this paper, the aim of this study is to examine about structure of consciousness and evaluation of open gardeners. The focus of research is quantifying consciousness, resistant, and fear of residents. An investigation method is a questionnaire to residents. An analysis method clarifies structure of consciousness and evaluation with the factor analysis and the covariance structural analysis. The analysis results showed that structure of consciousness consist of six factors, and obtain high evaluation of open gardeners.
Recently, school children sometimes participate in cultivating school turf. Even though as it is, the following case must be an outstanding case. An elementary school child proposed to make school turf. The merit and demerit of school turf were discussed in the class of integrated learning. They decided to execute an experiment to select better turf grass species for school ground. On this process, they contacted with many persons includes specialists and volunteers. As results, they got small but worthy turf plot. After they graduated, the city government gave budget to enhance turf. Now the school children, parents, graduates, teachers, and volunteers are attending workshop to maintain that school turf. On the process of learning about turf grasses, many persons from outside of the school helped the school children. The present social background must be different from the 1970 th decade when many school turf were constructed but disappeared soon. This time the school children studied much about biological and cultural aspects of turf grasses. In addition to natural scientific matters, the children studied much about the importance of the social connections.
In this study, the evaporation efficiency, which is a heat balance parameter necessary for numerical simulation of greening effects, was derived in order to quantitatively evaluate the effects of wall greening panels on improving the thermal environment. The efficiency was determined by monitoring the amount of evapotranspiration from wall greening panels on which either Hedera helix or Euonymus fortunei was planted, calculating the sensible heat-flux from SAT measurements, and determining the convective heat transfer rate, material transfer rate and the difference between the measured and calculated amounts of evaportranspiration. The results showed that: 1) both the convection heat transfer rate and material transfer rate were highly correlated to wind speed, and the derived equations for calculating the rates were functions of wind speed, 2) the mean evaporation efficiency for the monitoring period was 0.25 for Hedera helix and 0.26 for Euonymus fortunei, and 3) the amounts of evaporation from the wall greening panels tested were 4 to 5 mm for both plant species and showed correlations to daily cumulative irradiation.
The aim of this study was to examine mitigating effects of heat environment by wall greenery. An enforcement place of a experiment was the wall of a penthouse on the roof floor of a university building located in Aoba Ward of the city of Yokohama. Lawn grass was planted onto about half area of the wall (height 3500 x width 3600mm). Then the thermal sensors were installed in a lattice-like pattern in order to measure surface temperatures of the planted and non-planted surfaces, and temperature distribution 15-cm in front of those surfaces. A change of 24-hours of temperature distribution in a summer day was recorded and analyzed. No difference in temperatures of the planted and non-planted surfaces of the wall could be observed before dawn, and no significant difference was also shown from morning till early afternoon. Both surface temperatures gradually decreased from evening till night, with those of the planted surface continuously being kept lower than those of the non-planted. In conclusion, wall greenery is effective for the air temperature moderation caused by the plant transpiration, in addition to suppression of heat accumulation.
Field survey was conducted to examine trees and soils in the forested area of the Expo' 70 Commemorative Park for 30 years after reclamation. Twelve sample sites were selected in the forest where the previous studies were conducted. In each site, all trees (DBH>=1cm) were surveyed and soils at 0-5, 20-25, 50-55cm depth were sampled for investigating physical and chemical properties. The canopies reached over 10m and most of canopy species were evergreen broad-leaved trees. Declination of tree density did not occur in comparison with increase of average tree volume and the density was kept high. Regeneration of the canopy dominant species did not successfully occur. The soil physical properties were improved in the most plots, especially at deep soils (20-25 and 50-55cm), to the level of no unwilling influence for the growth of tree root system. Although physical properties of Osaka group soil were bad in the past study, yield per hectare was maximum at the plot on Osaka group soil, where trenches were dug for drainage after the monitoring in 1982. It was suggested that appropriate management can lead to satisfactory forest development even on the site dominated by Osaka group soil.
This research aimed at clarifying proper management of planting demanded from a legal viewpoint. First, Article 2 of State Redress Law was set as keywords, and the judicial precedent was searched, using the internet database "law information database LEX/DB Internet". And the examples in connection with the accident which occurred since planting on a central reservation obstructs the field of view were taken up out of the searched examples. And then, the other judicial precedent was supplemented from a certain literature. Finally, four examples were summarized in the table, observing the regarded fact in the decision. As a result, some management to be taken notice of in planting on an open portion of a central reservation newly became clear. It was clarified that administrators have to restrict the height of tree planting on a central reservation to about 60~70cm in the section of the braking distance by the speed limit in the road from an edge outside a pedestrian crossing and that they have to manage tree planting based on the traffic situation of the road, grasping the situation of the visibility to the opposite lane also in other roads.
For Spiraea prunifolia (bridal wreath spirea), we investigated how differences in the timing of pruning affected sprouting, growth, and formation of buds and flowers, by measuring the number of flowers and sprout growth rate in the following year, to determine how long pruning could be delayed. Our results showed that the longer pruning time was delayed after flowering, the greater the number of buds - but the buds tended to be smaller, and both the rate of new branch growth and the new branch length tended to decrease. We concluded that delaying pruning resulted in fewer buds growing into fully-formed branches. We also found that pruning of branches up to about 30 cm long, representing up to two years growth, resulted in more flowers and more growth in remaining branches in the following year. While the best pruning time is just after flowering, we found that pruning time could be delayed up to four weeks after flowering - i.e. until no later than May - without significantly affecting flowering in the following year. These results probably also apply to other roses related to Spiraea Prunifolia (bridal wreath spirea).
We examined the effects of deciduous tree species on the structural development of the 23-year-old warm temperate forest restored by tree plantation in an isolated seaside area of Tokyo Bay. In order to compare two different afforestation sites established by different planting densities of deciduous trees, we investigated plantation factors through as-built drawings of 1980 and performed field surveys and laboratory analysis for vegetation, microsite environments and birds. We also surveyed one natural forest as a reference site in order to evaluate the floristic and environmental characteristics of the two types of afforestations. In our results, two afforestations presented significant differences in vegetational structure and regeneration patterns and these differences might be deeply related to the planting density of deciduous tree species. Our data supported that the deciduous trees in warm temperate forests can improve the structural diversity and self-sustainability by facilitating the occurrence and colonization of late-successional species. And it was estimated that the vegetation diversity of restored warm temperate forest may be more strongly affected by the planting density of deciduous trees than the total planting density.
A study was carried out on a 1.4-hectare secondary Quercus serrata woodland in the Musashino Uplands that was last cut more than 40 years ago. It was confirmed from maintenance of the forest floor, including cutting of floor vegetation and sweeping fallen leaves in winter, that the number of Cephalanthera falcata is increasing. Furthermore, the species and diameter at breast height (DBH) of every tree over 3m high were investigated in 1998, 2000, and 2005. Analysis of DBH data showed the change of woodland as follows. The trees that had reached the wood's canopy kept growing up, and the diameter increased. Quercus serrata and Styrax japonica that had not reached the wood's canopy height had withered. However, Carpinus tschonoskii and Aphananthe aspera were growing steadily from infant trees to tall trees. In the future, dominant tree species will change gradually as they compete for light. However, the light condition at the wood floor will not change much. In order to preserve the diversity of floor vegetation indicated by the numbers of Cephalanthera falcate individuals, it is necessary to do the maintenance of the forest floor in winter in this secondary Quercus serrata woodland.
Semi-natural grassland maintained by traditional agricultural practices like mowing and burning has been widely decreased due to urban development and abandonment for more than 50 years, causing the loss of habitats of many native grassland species. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the vegetation of Miscanthus sinensis grassland currently remaining in the eastern part of the Kanto Plain by comparing it to the vegetation of the past extracted from data on regional flora compiled in the 1970s and 1980s. As a result, it became clear that the vegetation of the remaining Miscanthus sinensis grassland established on former arable or reclaimed lands was totally different from the species composition of past semi-natural grassland. Miscanthus sinensis grassland still maintained by agricultural practices remains on the steep slopes between uplands and lowlands where there are paddy fields located at the bottom of the narrow valley called ‘Yatsu’. This vegetation, however, was also significantly different to that of the past, lacking many native perennials selected as indicator species for past semi-natural grassland.
The aim of this study is to indicate the relationships between the landscape structure and vegetation types of fallow paddy field, abandoned paddy fields and semi-natural grassland in Kanto Plains by using Rural Landscape Information System (RuLIS). RuLIS developed for regional survey by the Institute for Agro-Environmental Science (NIAES) was built to collect ecological data efficiently because of the conservation of biodiversity in rural landscape area. All sampled stands were classified into 10 vegetation types by cluster analysis and INSPAN (Indicator Species Analysis). Divisions of natural structure were related to some vegetation types, and then we executed determining each vegetation type were detected positively by using multiple regression analysis. These results support the conclusion that vegetation types is produced from landscape structure and landscape history.
To clarify the interrelations between various semi-natural grassland types (verge meadows, ditch walls, paddy levees, fallow fields, abandoned rice fields and farm roads) maintained by traditional agricultural management methods, we conducted vegetation investigation in a ‘Yatsuda’ rural landscape, and compared species richness between the grassland types using the rarefaction method. Each grassland type was characterized by indicator species extracted by INSPAN and life-form composition of the grassland types were compared. The results of rarefaction method showed that the paddy levees located between paddy field and hillslope were species-rich grassland habitat, as rich as the verge meadows which were cutting grassland adjacent to woodland. The abandoned rice fields, the verge meadows and the paddy levees were consisted of different species groups, and similarity indices were not large between these grassland types. Therefore, in Yatsuda rural landscapes, we suggested that the different types of grasslands should be maintained by traditional agricultural management methods for conserving plant diversity.
Since paddy weed communities are declining with the intensification and abandonment of agricultural activities, restoring these species become important. To confirm the occurrence of species assemblages represented in rice paddy fields, we carried out two extensive managements; tillage and puddling for four years in an abandoned paddy field in a metropolitan area. We defined specialist species in paddy fields that were represented in cultivated paddy fields and not represented in abandoned paddy fields as well as other terrestrial habitats in the study area. We also investigated restored paddy fields where rice culture was restarted, and cultivated paddy fields where local farmers practice low-intensity farming as a reference. By comparing ecological properties between experimental fields and referred fields, we sought to clarify the effect of such management regimes. As a result, although ecological properties were more or less different between experimental fields and cultivated paddy fields, the number of specialist species in paddy fields remained high throughout the experiment period in puddled plots, while in tilled plots, these species declined significantly. This indicates that annual puddling is effective enough to restore specialist species at least for four years.
The purpose of this report is to evaluate the relaxation effect and the environmental education effect of natural conservation programs under abandoned secondary forest in summer and winter season. As a result, the following became in the clarifying. 1) It became clear that plural stress scores of psychological condition were significantly low in appearing, and, on the contrary, vigor scores of psychological condition were significantly high after the forest floor management of both seasons, in comparison with psychological condition in the room. 2) Even as abandoned secondary forest, in deciduous tree forest of winter season, it is easy to become space of psychological relaxation after activity of forest floor management and forest exploration, because a crown opens it by fallen leaves. 3) Thus, it became clear that forest conservation work in abandoned secondary forest was reduce psychological stress of a participant, and it is raising interest to imminent green environment, though the abandoned secondary forest was not considered to be a study object of conventional forest bathing.
We surveyed microtopography by a 3D terrestrial laser scanner in the mouse of the Onosato River, Osaka at the ebb in April 28 2006. We made out Digital Surface Model (DSM) from acquired point data, and analyzed shifting in the area of the land and the exposure time as tide level change using the tidal data. As a result, we had been able to survey elevation at a resolution of 1cm interval. The estimated area of the intertidal zone was 3.35ha at the Onosato River, 25.8% of the area was distributed from 30cm to 60cm elevation, and the slope was less than 2 degrees at 36.6% of the area. We found tide level shown the two different tendencies to change by hour and month from the tidal data, and these central elevations were 29cm and 43cm. The monthly gap of the flooded rate was high at the elevation from 30cm to 60cm, and the distribution shows a similarly tendency to the distribution of area be sloped less than 2 degrees.
Coreopsis lanceolata has been invading native grassland on gravelly riverbeds in Japan, and is designated as an invasive alien species of Japan. An ecological study on C. lanceolata was conducted in the riverbed of Kiso River, central Japan. We surveyed species composition, flowering characteristics, seed reproduction and seed bank of C. lanceolata community. The height of C. lanceolata was taller than the indigenous plants, and dominated the upper layer of the gravelly riverbed grassland. The numbers of shoots with flowers were in the range from 15 to 25 / m2. The average of the seed number per head was 98 in the study site, which was more than twice as that of the native C. lanceolata communities in North America. These characteristics show that the C. lanceolata community on the study site is able to produce more seeds than the native communities. There were 460 - 865 seeds / 0.4m2 in the soil of the study site. It is important to give considerations on prevention of seed dispersion and germination, and of seed supply to soil in order to control C. lanceolata communities in Japan.
We investigated the relation between the formation of abscission layer and the leaf shedding of Quercus serrata Thunb. ex. Muuray (the height of test plants were more than 4m, which standing at the height of 80m, 260m, 390m, 630m, 820m above sea level) and Quercus acutissima Carrutherus (the height of test plants were more than 6m, which standing at the height of 120m, 250m, 620m above sea level) on the different altitudes at the south side slope of Mt. Izumi-Katsuragi at Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The measurement items were the chlorophyll content by SPAD value, the percentage of leaves left at the sampled shoot and photomicrographs of the sliced base of petioles. We measured them every two weeks from October 14, 2005 to January 24, 2006. As a result, the periods of autumn leaves, the formation of abscission layer and the leaf shedding on both species were advanced as the standing levels rising. But some leaves were not shed whether the abscission layer enough developed or not. And, those leaves were forcibly shed at the petiole by the strong wind. The factor of this phenomenon was decrease in strength of the petiole because of drying.
Spiraea thunbergii, which grows naturally on rocky sites in river and mountainous areas, is regionally vulnerable in Japan. However, its conservation has not been studied in detail. This study determined safe sites for the germination of S. thunbergii by clarifying the effects of light, temperature, and water on its germination. The seeds used for the tests were collected in the upper reach of the Tama River. Germination was measured under different light exposures (brilliant, shade, leaf canopy shade, and dark), constant (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 degree C) and alternating (5/15, 10/20, 15/25, 20/30 and 25/35 degree C) temperatures, and alternating wetting and drying on a regular schedule (wetting for 1 day, drying for 1 day (W1D1), W2D2, W4D2, W6D2, W2D4, W4D4, W6D4, W6D2, and always wet). The tests of light and temperature suggested that it is very likely that S. thunbergii does not have a light requirement, sensitivity to leaf canopy shade, or a requirement for fluctuating temperatures. The wetting and drying tests showed that S. thunbergii requires continuous wetting for 4 - 6 days to germinate. Consequently, to conserve S. thunbergii, it is important to conserve the existing populations and conserve microenvironments that allow continuous wetting for germination, such as mosses and sand deposited in the interspaces of rocks.
Recently, the urban areas have been expanding in metropolis, and therefore the reduction of semi-natural environment in suburban areas has become a serious problem. In this study, the relationship between land use pattern and the distribution of Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) in the suburban area was investigated for open space effects and factors in several land use types on conserving population and maintaining corridors for the mice. The mice distributions were surveyed by the capture-recapture method of trapping in the Niiharu area, Yokohama City, Japan. As a result, the mice utilized the natural and agricultural land use and the number of captures were large in secondary forests in particular. However, no mice were collected in the urban land use, such as roads and residential areas. It was recognized that the mice could use the river bank and greenways as corridor and agricultural landscape as habitat within 100m from the forest edge. These results indicated the development of biotope mapping and prediction of suitable habitat for urban ecological network. From now on, size and distribution of urban open spaces need to be discussed.
The purpose of this paper is to reveal the relationship between environmental factors and endangered epiphytic bryophyte distribution in fragmented forests in Kyoto city. Endangered species was based on the definition in Red Data Book of Kyoto Prefecture. The study sites were 27 fragmented forests in Kyoto city. A total of eight endangered species were recorded. Two species (Drummondia sinensis, Leskeella pusilla) were found in more than two study sites, giving enough data to reveal the relationships between the distribution of these bryophytes and environment factors, therefore was analyzed in the following calculation. Using TWINSPAN, the study sites were classified into five groups (Group A to E). D. sinensis occurred frequently in Group C, and the other one; L. pusilla in Group A. Discriminant analysis revealed that the Group C consisted of highly managed forests with larger area and lower tree coverage, and the Group A of unmanaged forests with larger area and higher tree coverage. Management intensity is associated with disturbance, tree coverage with humidity, and area with forest interior environment, affecting strongly the distribution of the endangered species.
We examined relationship between bird species richness in urban woodlots and the conditions of matrix areas surrounding the woodlots as a case study. We surveyed bird communities and vegetation structures in 10 woodlots (2.26 - 2.78 ha) and 64 points in their matrix areas in Tokyo Metropolis during both wintering and breeding seasons in 2006. We measured area, latitude, and longitude of each woodlot by GIS, and estimated quality of the matrix areas surrounding each woodlot, using land cover ratios in 500 m and NDVI in 2,500 m buffers of each woodlot calculated from aerial photos and EOS-Terra/ASTER satellite imagery. We constructed multiple regression models explaining bird species richness in woodlots, using woodlot area, latitude, longitude, matrix land cover ratio, and NDVI, and that in matrix areas, using latitude, longitude, and land cover ratio. According to the models, it was suggested that open water in matrix areas influenced positively on migrant bird species richness in wintering season, and that agricultural and grassy land cover in matrix areas influenced positively on resident bird species richness in breeding season. In matrix areas, it was suggested that the amount of wood cover influenced positively on resident bird species richness in both seasons.
The beauty of rockworks in Japanese rock gardens is believed to be attributable to asymmetry. Rockworks have developed over thousands of years as a uniquely Japanese art and are highly evaluated throughout the world. In most rock gardens, an odd number of stones of either 5, 7, or 9 is used (n number of stones), but the reasons for using an odd number and the principles of stone arrangement are not described in classic texts or study reports, and are not fully understood. In this study, the authors investigated the principles of stone arrangement of widely used 5-, 7-, and 9-stone rockworks (rockworks consisting of a moderate number of stones) by analyzing the rules of stone arrangement in terms of the two rules for arranging two and three rocks, which are the basic units for arranging an odd number of stones, and studying classic texts for creating rock gardens and other available references. The investigation showed that all rockworks consisting of a moderate number of stones are formed as combinations of 2- and 3-rock arrangements, which jointly form a consistent rockwork.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the landscape sequence structure in Dai-sensui and Yokobori area of Hamarikyu Garden. The following four points were clarified. (1) The landscape structure is clearly consisted of four different parts and critical points, the middle of Dai-sensui (big pond), surrounding areas of Daisensui, Yokobori area, middle area between Dai-sensui and Yokobori areas , and scenic points. (2) Tidal ponds have a significant role to create the landscape sequence. Diverse methods to create landscape sequence were introduced such as the distribution of scenic points, dynamic changes of openness and closeness. (3) The ocean is the essential factor for the composition of landscape structure. View points to the ocean were carefully created as the focal point of the garden. (4) However, because of the rapid urban redevelopment of surrounding areas, the traditional landscape structure has faced to the crisis of destruction. Based on this landscape analysis, we urge to propose the necessity of the landscape control for the traditional garden.
This study aims at revealing the spatial characteristics of traditional Japanese stroll gardens, through the interpretation of the luminous environment created by the architecture of tree canopies. Preceding studies on the garden spatial design have been typically done by means of observing the formal layout in the plan. Although this approach is successful for European formal gardens and modern landscape design, it could not be persuasive to reveal the special characteristics of Japanese traditional gardens, especially those with the organic layout of planting. Taking notice of the luminous environment under the tree canopies as the significant factor of the spatial characteristics, this study tries to establish the method to express it in the graphical representation. As the result, the study recognizes two luminous environment factors: the canopy brightness and the sunlight patterns through leaves. Observing these two factors, the following points are revealed: 1) four patterns of the canopy brightness and three patterns of the sunlight patterns through leaves are observed, 2) three types of plan organization, background, composite, and complex type, are observed, 3) two factors show different plan organization independently even in one garden, then those combination creates diversity of luminous environment, 4) the sequence of luminous environment along the path also shows particular pattern, and continuity and diversity of luminous sequence are not necessarily in the contradict relationship.
The importance of “places” has been recognized in the field of environmental design, but the methods to plan and design, or to analyze the “places” have not been established in the field of landscape design. Therefore in this paper, it is aimed that the method to schematize the “places” be proposed and be applied to the landscape design precedence of the natural burial ground (NBG) in the U.K. First, the idea of “place” is made clear based on the texts by Y. F. Tuan and E. Relph. Second, the method to schematize “places” is proposed based on the idea of “place memory”, which was originally proposed by E.S.Casey. According to this idea, memory is sustained mainly by “place”, which is then sustained by “landscape” that includes “horizons”, “pathways”, and “things”. Third, the proposed method is applied for the analysis of the NBG precedence. And fourth, the validity of the method is evaluated by how well the resulting scheme can explain the characteristics of the project. The resulting scheme successfully explained the main characteristics of the projects, and the method proved acceptable. It is also found that in analyzing “places”, to clarify the meaning of the landscape elements that may be given not by the physical design but by the program is important.
This study referred the activity of historic parks conservation and renovation by the English Heritage, and got hold of some instructive findings to protect historic parks to the future in Japan. It was the presupposition that the understanding the framework of conservation and renovation of historic parks as a heritage at national level, the result of historic parks registration and grading, and the register criteria and registration process. As a result, it was confirmed some suggestions as follows; i) the comprehensive system for historic parks conservation and renovation in association with national government, local authorities and private charities have been established; ii) the registration activities closely links to the policy making and development control in city planning; iii) the English Heritage has prepared broad and various register criteria and is now challenging to increase the number of the Registration of historic parks to the future; iv) the registration is made possible if it is restored to a former condition; and so on. Above all, it was discussed that we need to establish the registration system of historic parks through expanding existing registration system of tangible cultural properties in Japan.
Recreational use of dog walkers in urban open space is one of the concerned issues by managers. There are complains from other visitors, such as unpicked feces, unleashed dogs, or threatening children. In this study, three different types of urban open space were chosen, then dog walkers’ behaviors and their attitudes were surveyed. In the public park, dog walkers and other visitors were sharing same space and time. In the dog run, dog walkers took their dogs a few times a week, and let them run freely. In the exterior of one public facility, dog walkers took their dogs frequently to let them run freely. Consequently, this public space was used as if a dog run. To prevent the conflict between dog walkers and other visitors, manner training and some rules are needed, and besides various types of open spaces should be offered.
Although Taiji Boxing is an outdoor activity with a long history, it is still popular in urban parks of China nowadays. Studying the relation between space perception and physical components from the viewpoint of Taiji Boxing, a frequent activity with a fixed site, will benefit park design and management. This study selected ten Taiji Boxing sites in two comprehensive urban parks. Physical components of these sites were measured and the users’ perception was also surveyed by SD method. Through Factor Analysis and Regression Analysis, the findings suggest that there are four factors expressing the site perception of Taiji Boxing: relaxation, aesthetics, calmness and naturalness. Furthermore, the relations between the four perception factors and the physical components of Taiji Boxing space are made clear: length of the site sides facing water bodies impacts on the perception of relaxation; width of path impacts on the perception of aesthetics; length of sitting places and tree covering ratio in order impact on the perception of calmness; trees covering ratio, width of path and length of sitting places in order impact on the perception of naturalness.
Ishikari coast, Hokkaido, has valuable natural beaches, dunes, forest and other natural resources. But in the last few decades, serious environmental problems and conflicts among recreational users have occurred because of heavy recreational use of the coastal areas. However, neither new regulations nor management systems have been established in this area yet. The purpose of this study is to point out the effectiveness of the interpretation method (informing visitors) in help of establishing a system to better manage users’ behaviors. Questionnaire sheets were distributed to 72 Ishikari coast visitors to survey their opinions on the recreational use problems and on ideas about the optimum management of the Ishikari coast in the future. The results showed that the opinions were different between visitors who were informed about the environmental problems of Ishikari coast (interpreted groups) and those were not (non-interpreted groups). The interpreted groups were likely to prefer more conservancy oriented management and environmentally friendly use of coastal natural resources than non-interpreted groups. This result indicates that informing visitors about the environmental problems with the help of an interpreter can be an effective tool for the management of public beach resorts.
The planting environment and the growing condition of street trees were surveyed to contribute to appropriate street tree establishment and management. The distribution and site condition in terms of road types and width and land use for dogwood street trees in the 23 wards of Tokyo prefecture were analyzed using GIS. Attributes of roads, sidewalks, planting layouts and background, and tree vigor were surveyed at the 49 selected sites. Dogwood street trees were mainly planted in residential, commercial and business areas. It was found however that they had different backgrounds and that in different growing conditions depended on the site condition. Especially, the number of sites where dogwood trees are planted drastically increased recently on national road and Tokyo metropolitan government roads mainly on the occasion of construction works on the roads. On ward roads, they were planted as improvement of sidewalks especially in commercial and mixed land use areas. Tree vigor showed differences for different site conditions. It was considered that the selection and management of street trees should be based on site condition.
This study is aimed at finding the most effective use of spaces in Tennouji zoo from the perspective of environmental education by examining “habitat experiencing-type displays” which are now under way in the zoo. The survey was conducted to see visitors’ response to two kinds of habitat experiencing-type displays; an African savanna zone for herbivorous animals, and an Asian forest zone for elephants. The results indicated that the Asian forest was rated more highly not only in “site impression” as to whether or not it has a realistic atmosphere, produces great anticipation, and gives a good first impression, but also in “awareness of exhibits” and “understanding of its message”. It was also revealed that the rating of the site impression could be affected by the form of passage routes, the visibility of animals, and the features of viewing spot locations, while that of the awareness of exhibits could be dependent upon the layout of frequently-used paths.
In this research, a Simple Landscape Gardening Design-Environmental Evaluation tool was developed using Vector Works and general 3D-CAD of a plant growth simulation model AMAP. When you design forested land in a city, such as the Namiki Park, tools like this can be used to compile the environmental map of the forested land. Thermal environmental measurement was done inside the government-managed Showa Kinen Park, from the result, we led the expression to calculate MRT and CSE of the environmental Index by using greenery. In addition, it drew up the surface temperature file every of material from the infrared ray thermal imagery, converted to a database and it constructed the kind of system which can do environmental appraisal simultaneously with the design. The forested land was actually designed with the developed tool and an environmental map was drawn up. With sands in the land, we obtained CSE with negative number, the urban area compared to air temperature was 2 degree C or more higher and the forest area with have been converted CSE being correct, the urban area compared to 4 degree C or lower were obtained.
Nature resources and users experience are threatened mainly by overuse, bad manners in natural park. In order to grasp the problem of the park exactly and to solve them effectively, it is very important to introduce of not only the indicators on the ecological components but also the social ones into the monitoring system for appropriate use. The purpose of this study is 1) to examine the users expectations and to establish the indicators for the measurement of the sufficiency of their expectations, and 2) to put them into practice in Aokigahara Jukai Forest in Japan to accumulate information for the park management. As a result, five users expectations were determined from the analysis of their consciousness on satisfaction and 23 indicators were established. Through practical monitoring for four zones, these indicators were influenced by properties and consciousness of users in each zones. In particular, environment friendly consciousness is thought to be important to fulfill their expectations viewed from the park management.
Recently, congestion and overuse are negatively influencing natural ecosystems and causing various problems to natural regions. The aim of this research is to understand people's recreational manners and to assess three proposed plans focused on raising costs to the visitor, visitor limitation and a guide accompaniment system to combat overuse between general visitors and the eco-tour participants. Two forest regions: Jomon-Sugi cedar trail and Shirataniunsui-Kyo on Yakushima-Island, which are famous for ecotourism, are chosen as study sites. As a result of this experiment, it was found that many visitors visited the Jomon-Sugi cedar trail for the purpose of mountain climbing and had good recreational manners. Moreover, concerning the evaluation of actions against overuse, the eco-tour participants highly agreed to all proposed plans in the Jomon-Sugi cedar trail, and they favored the idea of a guide accompaniment system in Shirataniunsui-Kyo. One can conclude the participant's consciousness towards nature conservation was raised after participating in the study along the Jomon-Sugi cedar trail and the eco-tour in Shirataniunsui-Kyo. The study also found that the guide accompaniment system is the most popular method among the three proposed plans to encourage visitors to take on responsibility to preserve the natural environment and also led to the acquisition of repeating visitors for the mid and long term.
In snowy and cold region of Hokkaido, where playing outdoors for long periods of time is constrained, open field-type indoor playgrounds that allow children to play in an outdoor atmosphere have important meaning. In the present study, the significant space characters were clarified through the research of 7 indoor playgrounds with detailed analysis of 3 selected cases. The indoor playgrounds serve as gathering points for people from a diverse range of generations, including infants, elementary and junior high school students, parents, grandparents, and child rearing circles. These playgrounds provide an advanced vision of space that encourages rapport and communication between various people through children's recreational activities. Attractive play points and surrounding plaza, and close relationship between play area and rest area which allow easy visual contact are important characters of space structure. As children can use the indoor playground as a starting point to warm their bodies, close relationship between the indoor playground and outdoor play area such as sledding slope is effective in promoting winter play activities.
At metropolitan areas, where urban environments are given the priority, the farmlands contribution is to maintain and improve the regional environments. One feels easily the benefit of the agricultural landscapes through the residents' impressions. The evaluation mechanism of the landscaping, which is mainly composed by the farmlands at the metropolitan urban fringe, is not clarified enough. So this study aims to clarify the psychological evaluations of the landscape composed mainly by the farmlands at the metropolitan urban fringe of Osaka where many farmlands exist, and to clarify the hierarchical structure of these evaluations by using the evaluation grid method and the semantic differential method. The main results are as follows.1) The main criterions of the landscape which is mainly composed by the farmlands at the metropolitan urban fringe are “Openness” “Nature” “Design of the building ”, and “Humans life”.2) The evaluation grid method is a useful method for understanding the hierarchical evaluation mechanism of the landscape.
Although homestead woodland is one of the most important landscape elements in rural areas, the characteristics of its tree composition has not been elucidated. According to the fieldwork of homestead woodlands in Tsukuba area, we can find 13 patterns of tree composition. But it is not easy to discern what pattern is traditional and worth conserving because woodland has been changing as time went by. In this paper, based on the analysis of copperplate engravings which drew the landscapes of 21 farm houses of the area in 1892, We've clarified that 5 of 13 patterns can be seen in the engravings and can date back to pre-modern times. The five patterns are "Forest of the homestead rear", "Big tree and small shrine", "Wall-shaped hedge", "Square-shaped Ilex integra", and "Residential garden". Therefore they should be evaluated as traditional and worth-conserving because they are indigenous in the area.
This study investigated how local people used forest resources in daily life according to seasons or years in satoyama landscape (local village landscape), and how the seasonal cycle of the uses of forest resources and the landscape changed between 1900 and 1922. The investigation was mainly based on a diary written between 1900 and 1922 by a farmer of a rural village in the western part of Shiga Prefecture. Moreover, governmental and local records were analyzed and some of the elders in the village were interviewed. GIS was used to create a link between the seasonal cycle of forest resources uses and the satoyama landscape. Both the kinds of uses (such as plantation and grass-cutting) and the seasonal cycle of the uses of forest resources changed in relation to governmental forestry and agricultural policies. Changes in the position of the writer in the village and in his family resulted in uses differences as well.
In order to design comfortable spaces for "Shinrin-yoku" (taking in the atmosphere of the forest), it is important to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of walking in various landscapes. In this study we examined and analyzed physiological and psychological effects and user impressions of landscapes using Profile of Mood States, salivary amylase activity, and the Semantic Differential Method. The study areas were broad-leaved forests, coniferous forests, rice fields, seashores, urban parks and urban areas. As a result, we found that users became more active in bright and open spaces and relaxed in sacred and natural spaces. Although differences were not significant, salivary amylase activity in the present study decreased in the bright forests, rice fields and seashores, but increased in the dark forests, suggesting that dark forests induced stress.
Today, small-scale landscape, such as space use or design of the ground is entrusted to the inhabitants. In this situation, to enhance landscape perception of people in the area is demanded for advancing landscape preservation and creation whose nucleus is inhabitants there. So, the first thing we need is to grasp perceptional structure of inhabitants, and to make situations and thoughts of the people who form rural landscape clear. In this study, therefore, it is tried to grasp the Major psychological factors of inhabitants action toward the landscape integration and structurize the factor for Kaneyama-town, Yamagata, where worked on the landscape integration. First of all, I tried setting of a hypothesis structure model of the Major psychological factors of the action toward the landscape integration. Next, I made a questionnaire according to the model, and carried it out for 300 people. From analysis of the findings, the relationship between the factors of sense of values agreement, attachment and sense of moral obligation and the action became clarified. Unlike the hypothesis model, the inhabitants action toward the landscape integration was directly influenced by the perception that was formed from sense of values agreement for the policies and sense of moral duty based on regionalism.
Open-space conservation activities are popular in the suburban area. But they have an issue to continue their group. New member, especially young people, have not accessed to them. We should understand way to participate the ordinary people in the open-space conservation activities. The paper aimed to clear the relation to the open-space use and the distance between the open-spaces and citizens' neighborhood. We researched the citizens at Matsudo city in Chiba prefecture by questionnaire survey. They answered using the open-space and their neighborhood extend within 2km from their residence. In the results, if planning to manage the open-space by citizens where is 300-500m away from their neighborhoods, we should brush up the quality of open-space. Because, they only use that several time. We should create the chance they want to manage them. Another hand, the open-space within 300m away from their neighborhood, they use the open-space usually. And this situation has high potential to manage the open-space with them. Finally, we suggest a unit of area for open-space planning with open-space conservation activities by citizens.