Kotonoura Onzanso Garden in Kainan city Wakayama, is the modern plutocrat NITTA Chojiro’s villa. A key distinguishing feature of this villa garden is that a lot of imitation stones and imitation trees are used in this garden as landscape materials. They are stepping stone, shore stone arrangement of pond, garden furniture and so on. Thus, this paper analyzed landscape historical positioning of Kotonoura Onzanso Garden from the point of view of landscape architectural use genealogy of imitation stone and imitation tree focusing on modern Japanese landscape. As the results, this paper led two points on landscape historical position of this garden. Firstly, Kotonoura Onzansou Garden is pioneering example introducing imitation stone and imitation tree. Secondary, about imitation stones and imitation trees in this garden, it is not copy of foreign technique and foreign products but original materials invented by NITTA Chojiro himself.
Following the descriptions concerning the use of gardens will lead one to notice that many of these descriptions relate to temporary fixtures, decor, and performances that are not permanent features of the garden. In other words, transient or temporary elements tend to co-exist in settings where the garden is used actively by people. This study verifies the value of gardens in three points by examining the meaning of temporary elements in a garden. First, temporary elements play a mediating role in gathering people. Second, temporary elements that appear foreign in the modern sense are intrinsically present in nature. Finally, the prominent decorativeness created by the temporary elements in the feature of special uses of the garden. This study presents a foundation for explaining the diversity of gardens from a perspective different from their form or technique.
This paper shows a modern Japanese-style painter Gyokudo Kawai's view of garden presented through his gardens of Nisho-an villa (built in 1917, at Tomioka, Yokohama), and as references, through residence (1939, at Ushigome, Tokyo) and also Gu-an villa (1945, at Okutama, Tokyo). All of the three gardens were built by Gyokudo together with gardener Ryuji Ohgo, both of whom agreed with making a natural coppice garden. The research was conducted through analysis of theme of his paintings and sketches, documents by his gardener Ryuji Ohgo, and interview to each of his own and his gardener's grandson. As a result of research, his view of garden is recognized as a presentation of the full-scale of rural and coppice nature which he showed in his work of painting. The garden for him, to be linked with surrounding natural landscape, could be a place not only to get the subject of a painting, but to put his passion into painting. In conclusion, his gardens might be added to a genealogy of Japanese modern natural “coppice” gardens and also added to a series of the natural gardens by modern Japanese-style painters in Taisho era.
This paper shows the story and background of Ashizuri-Uwakai National Park. This national park was designated as a quasi-national park in 1955. Its area was extended in 1964 and designated the 26th national park in 1972. This national park was designated basically by marine park zone system introduced with the amendment of the Natural Parks Law in 1970. This system made the local activities accelerate toward the national park's designation with a harmony, especially of Kochi and Ehime prefectures. In accordance with this system, nine marine park zones were designated in this quasi-national park. These zones added new landscapes to this park and heightened the quality of this park. However this park was required to have more quality only with its terrestrial area for a new national park, like other typical seacoast-type national parks such as Rikucyukaigan, Saikai and San'inkaigan designated before marine park zone system started. At last the marine park zones' designation led this Ashizuri-Uwakai area to a national park, promoting to designate strictly protected area such as special protection zones, and more national park area.
The Ohata Stream Sand Erosion Controlling Zone by Green is the land where the influence of sulfurous acid gas, the harvesting timber, and the forest fire has made naked ground. The general volunteer's reforestation activity was executed from about 1993 to 2006 by accepting the administration. The purpose of this research The purpose of this research to clarify the reforestation volunteer defined it in the space with what idea and the plan. As a result, the reforestation activity in a sand erosion controlling zone by green started circa 1993.It has been understood that 'Ashio ni Midori wo Sodateru Kai' exists as a local civic group. It has been understood that reforestation volunteer's thought based on a soil and water conservation opinion expressed by Shozo Tanaka. He expressed the protection opinion in the standpoint of the downstream region. As for this thought, deep perception of history in the Watarase river valley was formed by the civic group in the downstream region. The perception of history became a memory of the place. It was received as planning concept to act by the reforestation volunteer.
The aim of this study is to clarify the transition of the motive of conservation of bodies of“Non Profit Organization The Japanese Association for MACHI-NAMI Conservation and Regeneration”. Authors paid attention to 1) when regional bodies for MACHI-NAMI conservation were organized, 2) objects of conservation, 3) the social background includes laws and municipality ordinances. So, 63 bodies of“Non Profit Organization The Japanese Association for MACHI-NAMI Conservation and Regeneration”, 57 former bodies, literatures were researched. The first regional body for MACHI-NAMI conservation is“TSUMAGO-WO-AISURUKAI” at TSUMAGO-SYUKU in 1968. And bodies for MACHI-NAMI conservation were organized in the temples and shrines-town, the castle-town, the merchant-town and village, the stage, the port, the mine-village, the hot spring-village, the traditional industrial-town, the farm or mountain or fishing-village, the region where there is the specific object of conservation. The MACHI-NAMI conservation has been developed by regional bodies for MACHI-NAMI conservation. So, MACHI-NAMI must be the object of conservation of regional bodies. MACHI-NAMI is not only the structure of architectural heritage. That is to say MACHI-NAMI is the regional landscape made up of newly recognized precious things which there have been in the region.
The effects of pair planting of Italian Cypress on the visual characteristics of geometric garden are discussed with the analysis of eye movements of 16 subjects. The distribution of eye fixation and eye movement speed inspecting French Garden from its east end are compared before and after the planting of pair trees which locate symmetrically at the western extension of east and west axe of the garden. The center of eye point distribution tends to concentrate on the central area including flower base after the planting of pair tree. And, the number of eye movement in the upper part of central area significantly increased in the male subjects. Contrarily, the number of eye movement in the lower part of central area significantly increased in the female subjects. Therefore, the characteristics of eye movement mentioned above are considered to indicate that the pair planting has a visual effect to conceive the axe of geometric garden.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects on reducing temperature by improving the pavements and planting turf or trees. The "water retention pavement" and the "reflective and permeable pavement" were settled on the car park. Turf with protecting material against the weight of cars was planted on another area. In addition to these three types of surfaces, gravel surface, regular asphalt and the area under shading trees were selected as other three types of surfaces. Surface temperature and underground temperature at 7cm depth were measured at those six types of the surface areas during summer in 2008. The lowest temperature was observed at the area under the shading tree. The next lower area was the turf. At the area of the "water retention pavement" and the "reflective and permeable pavement", the temperature were about 17degree C higher than the area under the shading tree, but about 10degree C lower than the area of the regular asphalt pavement at the hottest hours in mid summer. The globe temperatures were measured by using globe thermometers. The globe temperatures under the shading trees were almost as same as the air temperature. But the difference of globe temperature between the area under the shading tree and other area were more than 10degree C during mid day hours in sunny summer days.
This research analyzes the proficiency improvement of gardening skills by measuring 30 examinees’ time required to complete each practical test tasks in the Grade 2 Landscape Gardening Exam. The examinees are comprised of four college students in 2006, seven college students in 2007, seven college students in 2008 and 12 unspecialized students in the open college course. The findings of this research are threefold. 1. After four test experiences, all the examinees reach to the level to complete the test before the timeout. 2. The degree of proficiency improvement varies in the type of skills. The examinees succeed in reducing their working time beyond the standard time limit in the following six tasks; “Setting up of Posts for Bamboo Fence”, “Installation of Natural Stones”, “Installation of Stepping Stones”, “Tree Supports”, “Planting” and“Ground Leveling”. Meanwhile, the examinees' speed performances are less improved in the following five tasks; “Setting Horizontal Braces for Bamboo Fence”, “Banding Vertical Members Together for Bamboo Fence”, “Karami-musubi (traditional quick and simplified tie) for Bamboo Fence”, Curbing” and“Flat Stone Paving”. 3. More than three times of test experiences fill the technical gaps between college students and unspecialized students.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the present situation and problems of landscape construction industry in this 'market reduction era' following the burst of bubble economy from the aspect of its sales. We sent out questionnaires to 600 landscape construction enterprises. We also obtained their business evaluation data from the web site of Construction Industry Information Center. By analyzing the above data, it turned out a third of the sales of landscape construction industry came from landscape construction itself, but the rest from businesses other than landscape construction. It also emerged that as the value of sales increased, the proportion of the sales obtained from businesses other than landscape construction increased. However, it seems that few enterprises try to expand businesses other than landscape construction. Landscape construction industry should develop new businesses to cope with the needs in the modern society.
This study aimed to clarify the transition of the vegetation landscape of the Meiji era to the current vegetation, and the relation to between the vegetation landscape and environmental conditions in the southwest region of Hiroshima Prefecture. The vegetation landscape maps were made using the topographical map of the Meiji era. The vegetation landscape maps, geological maps, and altitude were analyzed using GIS. In both the ages, the main vegetation was the coniferous forest, which was distributed on granite, while the broad-leaved and coppice forests enclosing Quercus serrata and Q. acutissima were distributed on sedimentary rock. About 60.6% of the broad-leaved forest on sedimentary rock in the Meiji era has changed to afforested vegetation, and coppice forest has transformed to a Quercus forest. Coppice forest was distributed on a low-altitude area close to human inhabitation, and it was managed as a firewood-charcoal forest. After it was abandoned, the forest has grown as a Quercus forest. During the Meiji era, wasteland and bush were distributed on land at altitude of 500 m to 800 m; the bush on the sedimentary rock was an exclusion. Almost the entire vegetation grew on rhyolite, about 60.0% of has changed to afforested vegetation. The dwarf pine forest of the Meiji era was distributed on coarse-grained granite, and 88.0% of this forest has now changed to pine forest.
In the mountainous regions of Shizuoka prefecture, the tea industry occupies an important position as a key industry. However recently, it has been increasingly difficult to manage the tea industry and maintain the tea field landscapes, as there has been a decrease in the number of farmers and market prices of tea have gone down. The purposes of this study are to understand the features and appearance rates of tea field landscapes in the middle reaches of Oi river basin area, and to compare the landscape evaluation between local and urban residents. Investigations of the landscape of the area, indicates that the percentage of tea fields observed in the scenery from the car window is higher than other tea-producing districts. Landscape evaluation by residents shows large differences between local and urban residents' opinions of the fields. We discovered that local residents favor “wide-open” and“orderly” impressions; urban residents' prefer a sense of “silent” and “natural”.
Pteridophyte communities established on levees modified by slope protection using iron cage frames in Heiwadai Park, Miyazaki City, were surveyed to understand the habitat conditions suitable for pteridophytes. In this study, 2 types of levees were compared: levees with cage frames and those without slope protection materials. The number of pteridophyte species and the coverage of pteridophytes were higher on the levees with cage frames than on those without slope protection materials. The occurrence frequency for many pteridophyte species was also higher on the levees with cage frames than on those without slope protection materials. The species composition of the levees with cage frames was characterized by a higher proportion of pteridophytes and a lower proportion of seed plants. The number of pteridophyte species per unit area was also higher on these levees than in the surrounding lucidophyllous forests. Although epiphytic pteridophytes were rarely found on the levees with cage frames, these results indicate that the levees with cage frames function as suitable habitats for terrestrial pteridophytes. The possible factors that promote the development of pteridophyte communities on levees with cage frames are vertical soil surfaces and soil stability.
The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of cloning from stem segment in Poaceae species for WRA modeling. For the purpose, forty-two Poaceae species causing trouble as weedy or invasive plants in Japan were obtained, and stems of these species were cut into several segments, 20 cm length with one node. The segments were then soaked in the distilled water at 25degree C with 12 h of lights for 28 days. Checking the cloning from stem segments, among the forty-two Poaceae species tested, the cloning was observed in the seventeen species (40.5 % of all). These results would indicate that stem segments of some Poaceae species became a medium for their propagation and/or dispersal like rhizome and seed. Therefore, it would be useful as a measure of WRA to check the cloning from stem segments of Poaceae species. On the other hand, many species that formed clone were occupied by the exotic species possessing moisture tolerance and turf type. Moreover, the cloning from stem segment was observed in many exotic species, which listed in 100 of the Worst Invasive Alien Species in Japan by the Ecological Society of Japan and/or regulated under Invasive Alien Species Act by Japanese Ministry of Environment.
Forest fragmentation has serious negative impact on epiphytic bryophytes on trees. However, few attempts have been made at their conservation because of the difficulties in identifying them. To advance their conservation, we identified what kinds of fragmented forests are effective for epiphytic bryophyte conservation. To reveal these forests, we focused on the effects of several environmental factors in fragmented forests on epiphytic bryophyte species richness, bryophyte life-forms, and the dispersal type. The study sites were 27 fragmented forests in Kyoto. Using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), we showed that management type was significantly and strongly correlated with the DCA1 axis, whereas patch size only with the DCA2 axis. The DCA1 axis was also significantly and strongly associated with the relative species richness of three life-forms and that of asexually dispersed species, whereas the DCA2 axis with the species richness, the life-form richness, and the relative species richness of one life-forms. Considering the ecological traits of the life-forms and the dispersal type, we revealed that these environmental factors affect the bryophyte species composition through the changes or heterogeneity of moisture availability and light intensity in fragmented forests.
Linear landscape elements, such as those colonized by roadside vegetation maintained by regular mowing, are recognized as key habitats for semi-natural grassland plant species. This study aimed to find out whether forest edge vegetation along roads mowed twice a year could be comparable to those of semi-natural grassland by focusing on compositions of grassland plant species classified by several plant traits like flowering season. A total of 37 typical grassland species were recorded and 27 species among them occurred in the forest edge vegetation along roads. The average grassland species richness and the abundance of early summer and summer flowering grassland species were significantly lower in the forest edge vegetation than semi-natural grassland. Nevertheless, the linear landscape element such as forest edge vegetation along roads might have functioned as habitats for many native grassland species under the condition of regular mowing for traffic safety reason. Grassland species diversity in forest edge vegetation may be enhanced by more suitable mowing regime, and contribute to conservation and restoration of semi-natural grassland communities especially in highly fragmented agricultural landscapes.
This paper analyzed forest structure include wild Rhododendrons in comparison to a managed forest's stand at 25 years ago and an uncared forest's stand during 50 years in the secondary forest floor of Hyogo prefecture in Japan. As a result of the analysis, the number of the plant in a management forest's stand were 42 species, and 20 of 29 species of trees were deciduous broad-leaved trees including Rhododendron reticulatum which does not have a flower. In addition, there were 13 species of herb at forest floor. On the other hand, there were a small number of the plant with 23 species in a uncared forest's stand, and 8 of 20 species of trees were deciduous broad-leaved trees without wild Rhododendrons. And uncared forest also had only 3 species of herb at forest floor. Hence this paper implies that the dominant trees and an evergreen broad-leaved tree of forest floor in the early success ional stage had a conservation effect for biological diversity of deciduous trees and herbs in spite of past 25 years uncared.
In this study, the relationship between vegetation changes, forest management, and topographic factors were analyzed in order to clarify the long-term trends in vegetation changes in the satoyama ; this analysis was performed by comparing the vegetation maps that were created in 1971 and 2007. From 1971 to 2007, 64% of Pinus densiflora forestation has been converted into Quercus serrata forestation in the Musashi Kyuryo National Government Park. As a result, only 39% of shinned P. densiflora and 20% of non-shinned P. densiflora are currently found in the forest. The electivity index for each pattern of vegetation change with respect to topographic factors was analyzed for the unregulated P. densiflora forest in 2007. The results indicate that the P. densiflora vegetation present on the ridges was better maintained than that on the slopes. Moreover, it was evident that Pleioblastus chino tends to grow more on the slopes and valleys than on the ridges. P. chino grows as a bush among Quercus myrsinifolia Blume trees and prevents the growth of Q. myrsinifolia seedlings. Hence, the succession of the Q. serrata vegetation on the slopes and valleys may not be likely.
This paper aims to make clear the growing and flowering condition of Prunus jamasakura under succession of broadleaved evergreen forest in an abandoned coppice woodlands, for conserving the seasonal landscape and bio-diversity in urbanized area. In 2008, we conducted the follow-up survey in“Kohnosu-Yama Forest Reserve”, and compared the data collected in 1999. The results are as follows: (1) Number of P. jamasakura decreased from 272 to 235 mainly ascribed to suppressing and shading of surroundings such broadleaved evergreen trees as Castanopsis sieboldii, Neolitsea sericea, Cinnamomum camphora and Machilus thunbergii. The height of died P. jamasakura was less than 14m (average was 9.6m) and the DBH was less than 20cm (average was 14.3cm). (2) The average tree height of existing P. jamasakura increased from 11.0m in 1999 to 11.7m in 2008, and the DBH also increased from 20.9cm in 1999 to 25.0cm in 2008. The most growing tree's height and DBH increased 6.5m and 13.7cm respectively. (3) Total flowering somewhat decreased in 2008 compared in 1999. (4) Removing the surrounding evergreen trees by volunteer activity was effective for encouraging P. jamasakura.
It is clear that mowing to Pleioblastus chino contributes to the plant variety diversity in herbaceous layer. But, the research of the influence that reaping undergrowth gives to the animal kind is not enough. Then, this research aimed to clarify the influence of weeding in the under to birds. I selected the broad-leaved deciduous forest four places in Yokohama city which is 10ha or more. About one set the investigation district of 20~30m to the green tract of land by 11 places. The investigation district was set for the height of Pleioblastus chino to change gradually from Cutting every year area to Leaving area of 11 years or more. The research did vegetation investigation and birds investigation. Birds' appearance layer did not have bias in the number of seeds at the breeding period, and there were a lot of numbers of individuals in the upper layer. The number of seeds and the number of individuals were biased to the lower layer in wintering term. As for the relation between birds' distribution and the height of Pleioblastus chino, it was suggested that the living condition become excellent when the height of Pleioblastus chino became 50cm or more.
We conducted bird surveys (breeding and wintering seasons) and vegetation surveys on thirty plots in secondary forests in Minami-Yamashiro area, Kyoto Prefecture, to determine the effects of vegetation factors on forest bird communities. We carried out regression analyses to evaluate the factors influencing the bird species richness for each season. The overall bird species richness became higher with the increase of the basal area in the breeding season, and so it did with the increase of the tree height in the wintering season. The factors that explained species richness of nesting-site guilds were the basal area for the canopy nesters; the tree height for the hole nesters; and the foliage height diversity for the ground nesters. Those of the forage-on-tree guild were the basal area in the breeding season and the tree height in the wintering season.
We conducted a survey on vegetation change and performed a germination test for the topsoil seed bank after vegetation management of the herbaceous community dominated by the invasive alien species Coreopsis lanceolata on the riverbed of the Kiso River. We observed that although a large number of C. lanceolata seedlings were established, few flowering shoots emerged in the year following vegetation management (removal). The extended summed dominance ratio of C. lanceolata decreased, while that of Potentilla chinensis and Galium verum-domestic species growing on the gravelly riverbed-increased. However, the number of alien species of annual and biennial plants markedly increased after the removal. The germination test showed that this increase was caused by germination and establishment from the seed bank in the disturbed area after the removal. The test also showed that the seed supply of Artemisia capillaris and Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus-domestic species growing on the gravelly riverbed and, in small numbers, in the surveyed and surrounding areas-was low. In this study, the removal proved effective in controlling the flowering of C. lanceolata; however, the problem of increase in the number of alien species of annual and biennial plants remains to be resolved.
The nature restoration of wetlands is strongly required as they have been severely altered. We focused on the drained lands, widely spread in the 20th century. It is important to study the diaspores of aquatic plants in the soil to grasp the regeneration potential of the drained lands. The purpose of this study was to reveal the vertical distribution of diaspores of aquatic plants in the soil of Oguraike and Yokoojinuma drained lands, where more than 50 years passed after the reclamation. The soil cores with the length of 50 cm were collected from nine locations. The cores were cut into five sections and studied on the germination ability of the diaspores in the soil under 0-cm and 5-cm depth of water. As a result, we found that the number of species and individuals exponentially decreased when depth of soil sampling became greater. Six endangered plant species were germinated in the experiment and the two among them were the species that could not be found on site at the locations of soil core samplings.
Current status of freshwater turtles inhabitation was surveyed in the Miura peninsula, Kanagawa Prefecture. 317 individuals of turtles were captured by a trap in summer from 2007 to 2008. The faunistic composition was summarized as follows: Trachemys scripta elegans recorded 173 individuals (54.6%), Chinemys reevesii recorded 97 individuals (30.6%), Chelydra serpentina serpentina recorded 14 individuals (4.4%), Mauremys japonica Chi. reevesii recorded 13 individuals (4.1%), Mau. japonica recorded 8 individuals (2.5%), Pelodiscus sinensis recorded 4 individuals (1.3%), Che. serpentina osceola recorded 3 individuals (0.9%), Macroclemys temminckii recorded 2 individuals (0.6%), Mau. mutica kami recorded 1 individuals (0.3%), Ocadia sinensis recorded 1 individuals (0.3%), T. scripta scripta recorded 1 individuals (0.3%). It was thought that almost all the T. scriptas were released individually, because juveniles were observed a few. It was concerned that C. reevesii in this area was an alien invasive species, because C. reevesii is available to intercross with Mau. Japonica and it cause vanishing genetic variation. Mau. Japonica, which is native species, was observed at few sites and that is why it was clarified that Mau. japonica was under a critical situation. We conclude that the inhabitation of freshwater turtles is influenced by the existence of an emerged plant, pool, and without bank protection at the habitat of rivers and ponds.
The present study was conducted to clarify hydrarch community structure on the Nobeyama Plateau and characterize plant succession characteristics over a period of three years. The aim of the study was to develop plant conservation strategies for habitats that support the threatened Primula sieboldii communities. The results of TWINSPAN analysis showed that the study area contained four community types and that identified species could be classified into five species groups. Two community types contained valuable species group that have Primula sieboldii and Viola hirtipes. Sasa nipponica, a species characteristic of dry environments, and Phamnus davurica var. nipponica, a species characteristic of Phamno nipponicae-Alnetumjaponicae ass. nov., increased, and the degree of succession increased particularly well defined in these two communities. In general, while an increase in succession decreases the levels of Therophytes (Th) and Helophytes and Hydrophytes (HH), the degree of the decrease in Th and HH wasn't marked; this observation appears to be a characteristic feature of succession in this community. Although the rate of succession in this community was low relative to other mesic communities, given the marked increase in shrubs over a short period of time, any vegetation management strategy may need employ mowing to remove potential competitors.
Senjogaraha is an area designated as a special protection zone of Nikko National Park by the value that the scene and the moor ecosystem are high. With Senjogahara, a problem in the conservation including the desiccation is pointed out, and various measures for moor conservation are taken from 1970's. In this article, I analyzed it about the change of the moor conservation measure with Senjogahara and tried to clarify its policy in the background. As a result, it became clear that conservation measures began in 1970's, and much research was carried out in 1980's, and general conservation measures were taken based on them in 1990's. Conservation measures for the influence by the deer were taken in 2000's, and it was not carried out about the other conservation measures very much. In addition, desiccation of the moor whole was considered to be a problem until 1970's, but it was healthy in total, and the conservation measures understood that it was handled as a local problem after it.
Yamasaki Lebensgarten is environment-harmonious housing, which takes hold of the consciousness of its residents about the bio-garden that forms the center of its concept, and provides the kind of garden that the residents want. Approximately 90 percent of the residents were aware of the bio-garden close to their home, and they appreciated it. Furthermore, we found that 80 percent felt this garden to have a “natural atmosphere of wild birds, and pleasant moisture from the current and water”. Many people use this bio-garden to take a stroll and have a look around. The rate of interest among elderly people 70 years of age or older was high, at 90 percent, and we think that the residents have become used to the bio-garden. We believe the reason why the bio-garden was highly evaluated by the residents is that its setup and its intended use for daily life are consistent with the needs of the residents. Possibly proper management and enlightenment will enhance the value of its existence.
Each case study for examining visitors' perception is often based on the fragmented information obtained from a sampling investigation that has been conducted at a certain place and time. Moreover, this method cannot monitor the secular variation and trend in population; and, as a result, we cannot help limiting the interpretation of the results obtained from the investigation. However, until recently, the secular variation and trend within the population has not been examined using the method involving the collection of data from a certain place at a certain time. Furthermore, the subjects in the investigation technique that is applied to capture the secular or seasonal variation in the population have hardly been discussed. This study was conducted in order to examine the problem involved in the method for investigating visitors' perception in a protected area and to obtain the pointers for further improvement. In this research, the reproducibility and stability of the results of sampling were verified on the basis of the questionnaire from a mail-back survey. The survey was part of an annual investigation conducted in Shiretoko National Park, where the recreational conditions have been changed.
Recently, many environmental education programs are being held in natural parks in Japan. Attractiveness and value of parks are brought to users through guidance of interpreter and information boards. But, there is enough ground for controversy of what and how to bring to users. In order to protect both park resources and visitors experience, it is very important to deal with information on not only the ecosystem but also the ideal use which park stakeholders desire. Hence, this article handles image of park. The purpose of this study is 1) to grasp the image of park resources and use which users has as expectation, and 2) to discuss roles of image. The field of this study is Mt. Fuji, a symbol of Japan and questionnaire survey is employed as a method. As a result, presence or absence of image affected environmental friendly consciousness, awareness of the problems of Mt. Fuji, support to management action and opinion about World Heritage issue. In addition to that, it was thought that image could be useful to argue about ideal park management and planning and to put argument into shape.
As recreational activities in nature field have diversified, the usage of the field has also increased complexity having different activities in the same field, or with multiple activities combined. Under such diversified usage of the nature, the conflict between administrators and recreationists has become an issue. In order to solve the conflict, natural areas need to be managed with understanding of each activity and its relation to the natural environment. It is also required to establish a framework with users' rules and guidelines as well as monitoring their implementation for the sustainable usage of the nature. In this study, mountain bikes and MTB riders are taken as a model of a recreational activity and recreationalists, reviewing their characteristic features in terms of utilization to the nature, and conducting a questionnaire to MTB riders so their consciousness as a role player for environmental conservation can be clarified.
The purpose of this study was to examine the park management in national government managed park as an institution which offers the outdoor experience service, paying attention to the outdoor experience program users' expectation, the evaluation and wish to return. Therefore, it was inquired from a viewpoint of the consumer behavior studies. The results are as follows. Many of users are repeaters to the park and there are many users with children. 44.1% of users decided to use the outdoor experience program, after coming there. 56.0% of users use the outdoor experience program first. The factor used as the index of evaluation of the park as an institution which offers the outdoor experience service are diversity of the outdoor experience program, easy to use, sense of security by being a public facility and cost. The factors, which influence the degree of total satisfaction, vary with use experience of the outdoor experience program in the park and other institution. National government managed park as an institution which offers the outdoor experience service is bearing a role of an institution for beginners.
National Government Parks (NGPs) contain abundant nature such as the forest, the shore, the river and the country-side area. Therefore, NGPs have not only a function to supply recreation, but also roles to have users get close to natural environment and understand environmental conservation. It is said that ‘Interpretation (Ip)' is the effective park management technique for the function and roles. But Ip had not examined yet in comparison with associated fields such as natural parks, tourism, environmental education, museum, and urban parks. Though there is a difference uses of Ip, we can still find a commonality in application and development factors of Ip by contrast with associated fields. Consequently, this study shows that Ip is consists of four elements like Sender, Data, Medium and Receiver. In NGPs application and development circumstances of Ip is affected by multiple fields. For example, field trip, guided tour and environmental education programs are held. For this purpose, it is confirmed that following knowledge is development factors of Ip in NGPs help its: 1) to solve a problem in the park management, 2) to correspond to social needs.
The designated manager system was introduced due to the revision of Local Autonomy Law in 2003. The system covers urban parks as well as various public facilities owned by local governments. It appears to bring a turning point to park administration in face of an age of financial deterioration. From a standpoint of user-oriented park management, this study considered impacts of introducing the system through comparison of some groups classified in by types of parks, invitations (open or closed), and corporations (public interest corporation or privately owned corporation) in nationwide park user satisfaction surveys before and after the system introduction. The result showed that user satisfaction surveys reflected public opinion effectively. It confirmed changes around the system introduction and competitiveness in open invitations of a part of public interest corporation group.
This study investigates the transformation of the spatial composition of Luxun Park in Shanghai, in terms of its hills and water system, facilities, pathways and functional zoning. These are studied in six stages: the initial design stage (1901-03) and the design implementation stage (1903-12) during the Qing Dynasty, the early stage (1912-22) and the late stage (1922-49) during the Republic of China, the early stage (1949-66) and the late stage (1966-present) during the People's Republic of China (PRC). The initial layout of Luxun Park was primarily based on the lake and island along its boundary, sports facilities in the centre and extended area, which is supplemented by landscaping facilities nearby and the pathway which is consists of the ring road at the entrance and the main stroll-type ring road. These composed the sports and scenery park from the Qing Dynasty until the Republic of China; During the PRC, the spatial composition of this park was considerably changed because of the various functions applied. The centre turned into a pond (the lake) and three hills (islands). Additionally, memorial-cultural facilities were designed on both sides of the lake, with landscaping and rest facilities nearby. The pathway comprised the memorial-cultural recreational park with the ring road at the entrance and a net-like ring road.
The study clarified what kinds of activities civic groups have performed to conserve their local piedmonts, and examined the future direction for civic groups registered with the Mino public piedmont conservation fund. The results show that the main activities by registered civic groups are piedmont management in Satoyama, a natural rural wooded area, including thinning, which is the most frequent activity, followed by activities nurturing culture in Satoyama. Less frequent activities include preparation of mountain forests for management and utilization, such as setting boundaries, inter-group exchanges for piedmont conservation, and responding to unlawful dumping. Programs in which people are directly involved in piedmont conservation are dominant, therefore, promotion of information dispatches, is of importance in order to stimulate various kinds of activities and develop them into civic movements with more residents involved.
To arrest global warming, it is also expected that the effect of carbon storage and sequestration of urban green spaces will be an important factor. On the other hand, the life cycle CO2 (hereafter, LCCO2) evaluation to reduce CO2 emissions is watched with interest by each sector. Because of this situation, the purpose of this study was to discuss the method of LCCO2 evaluation to urban parks, to apply that method to an actual urban park. The study parks estimated in this study was selected neighborhood park in Sapporo City, Hokkaido. The results are follows: 1) The method of LCCO2 evaluation to urban parks could be constructed, and it was possible to apply the constructed method to the study park. 2) In the study park under the present conditions, the amount of LCCO2 was estimated about 66.5t-C. 3) In the study park changed basing on a landscape planning considered to reduce the amount of LCCO2, the amount of LCCO2 was estimated about 46.1t-C. 4) Therefore, we grasped that it important for landscape planning to discuss reducing the amount of LCCO2.
Recent years, tree planting of construction is diversified. And the atriums are no exception to this case. This study is aimed at clarifying the role and the state of the plants which a user expects the atrium to provide. The method is the evaluation and the analysis of the photograph, taken during both daytime and nighttime, which has the scene created by the photo montage method. Consequently, it became clear that trees are filling the main role as an artificial feeling reliever and a provider of comfort, while it makes less contribution to this role in the night. It also showed that the user prefers the trees with high permeability and the particular forms of planting. Moreover, the difference in the recognition to planting is found among the users with different attributes.
Recently, accidents arising from the use of playground equipment have frequently occurred in urban parks in various areas of Japan and are recognized as social issue. Osaka Prefectural Park Association, which manages 14 prefectural parks in Osaka, has been promoting a “Zero-Accident Plan on the Use of Playground Equipment”, and undertaking actions to prevent such accidents since 2004. In this study, we conducted an aural survey of the consciousness of playground users at the Adventure-Land in “Osaka Prefectural Oizumi-Ryokuchi”, located in southern Osaka, central Japan, and analyzed the data mainly based on age and the frequency of use, to consider methods for preventing these accidents. Consequently, recognition of fun and danger with regard to the equipment was significantly different among groups classified by age and/or frequency of use. From our results, we were able to construct recognition characteristics for danger in the use of the equipment.
In order to carry out a time-series analysis of rural land use change covering 120 years in a research area in southern Ibaraki Prefecture, this study carried out a GIS overlay analysis of maps representing the 1880s, 1910s, 1950s, 1980s, and 2000s. The earliest were the Rapid Survey Maps and the latest were the Ministry of Environment vegetation maps. Land use changes that occurred between time periods were classified into no change, change among rural land uses (such as between woodland and fields), and change into urban land uses. From the 1880s to the 1950s, most land use changes occurred between rural land uses. From the 1950s, land use change into urban uses became prominent. The rural land uses differed in the temporal trends of increase or decrease, and in the time periods when they reached the maximum proportion in the map area. Large grasslands appear prominently in the study area in the 1880s, but no longer appear in subsequent time periods. Woodlands and rice paddy reach the highest proportion of the study area in the 1910s, fields in the 1950s, and residential areas in the 2000s.
In Japan, there are some nature parks in the mountain area around the country. These parks are valuable as walking and hiking places for many people who are not only keeping health but also enjoying the own view and landscape. In order to record such landscapes, video image sequences for walking direction are obtained by visitors using camcorder. However, the camcorder can record only 2D plane images therefore capture of real situations for the nature parks is difficult. On the other hand, the situations for any places can be expressed by landscape simulation. The landscape simulation is constructed by 3D information for the landscape components, and the 3D information should be acquired. Generally, 3D information was acquired easily for liner and primitive objects e.g. buildings or urban spaces. Therefore, 3D measurement for complicated objects will become possible, and landscape simulation for nature parks will be realized. In these circumstances, 3D measurement method by using walking direction images was developed in this paper. In addition, 3D modeling for the nature parks was performed for application of landscape simulation.
In environmental education, the video is considered to be an effective teaching material to understand the change in the environment for a long term. However, to produce the effect really, it is necessary to use multi-year environment monitoring video. On this study, using digital archives of multi-year forest monitoring video (filmed by the Robot Camera in the university forest in Chichibu, the University of Tokyo), contents for environmental education are developed along the class idea that the teacher of the elementary school actually made. ISn the process, it is intended to clarify effectiveness of the digital archives and preferable contents for environmental education by the digital archives. As a result, it is clarified that digital archives of multi-year forest monitoring video are novel and effective in terms of becoming possible to produce contents for environmental education in response to the requests from educational sites swiftly and flexibly. And it is also clarified that contents, which emphasize video of diverse seasons (e. g. foliage season) and raise“awareness”, are preferable as contents for environmental education using the digital archives of multi-year forest monitoring video.
The purpose of this study is to grasp actual conditions of high school students' understanding of environmental problems from the viewpoint of moral values by a questionnaire survey. It has already been cleared by sociological studies and social psychological studies that high morality (which has almost same meaning as moral values) are very important and useful in solving environmental problems which have become a social dilemma for many people. The targets of this study are students of Kanagawa prefectural high school. Their actual conditions were evaluated by five evaluation standards of moral values, i.e. 1 Justice Reasoning, 2 Role-taking Ability, 3 Respect for Life, 4 Normative Consciousness and 5 Moralistic Action Force. Environmental problems were classified into four categories, i.e. “Regional and Global Environment”, “Nature and Creatures”, “Resources/Energy” and“Others (Common Consideration) ”. Results were given as follows: 1 The score of“Nature and Creatures” was clearly higher than those of other categories. 2 However, as for the questions regarding tax and others which are levied forcibly, even they were belonging to“Nature and Creatures”, the score was clearly low.
Trampling sensitive vegetation around nature trails is one of the most serious problem of destroying some alpine or sub-alpine grassland vegetation in Japan. And trampling occurs in case visitors don't know the weakness of the vegetation, or avoid some dangerous situation or crowds. To solve this problem, we researched the relationship between the sense & knowledge and the attribution of visitors after climbing Mt. Shibutsu, of which trails are suffered from serious destruction because of trampling and erosions. As a result, we cleared that difficulty on the trail from the peak to Yamanohana was felt regardless of the attribution, and almost all visitor felt the danger on it, and particular age groups and size group had feeling concerning trampling. These suggest there may be potentials of trampling because of it. We concluded this difficulty must be informed to all visitors in order to avoid entering this trail. Similarly we also concluded coordination of flow of large-size visitor groups and on-site lecture are needed to conserve Mt. Shibutu.
The comprehensive protection of cultural and natural heritage has been an issue and has also been discussed by the World Heritage Committee. Through an analysis of the current situation of forests in the World Cultural Heritage Sites, the following points are clarified. In general, 74% of all properties and 77% of properties and buffer zones are covered with forests. Within the forest area, 36% of the forests are planted forests and 20% are national forests. Most of the forests have been under the influence of human activity, which has resulted in characteristic vegetation. A local-government level forest management plan that corresponds to the character of the forests and provides comprehensive protection to the cultural and natural elements is essential. Moreover, the evaluation process for cultural heritage should incorporate specific description of the vegetation as this will lead to an objective assessment and effective management plan.
This study examined natural landscape characteristics at three time points : the 1900s, 1970s, and 2000s relationships between changes in landscape characteristics and the history of regulations and laws of Kyoto basin. The study also clarified the roles that historically-important areas have played in creating a better landscape in the basin. As a result, the following are clear. In the 1900s, forest-piedmont and forest-hillside surrounded the study area in three directions and created a surrounding landscape, which ensured great views from urban areas. Farmland-lowland widely spread between urban areas-lowland and forest-hillside, played a role in creating“Hiki Kuukan”or a clear view toward the mountains. By the 1970s, almost all the forest-piedmont and some forest-hillside were conserved by laws and regulations, but farmland-lowland was replaced by urban areas, and so the landscape characteristics changed from urban area-farmland-forest to urban area-forest. In the 2000s, not only the forest-piedmont, but also all the forest-hillside were conserved by laws and regulations, which indicates the preservation of the surrounding landscape and panoramic views, and that landscape characteristics, such as of the urban area-forest, were enhanced due to a decrease in forest and farmland areas.
Cultural landscapes with particular regional characteristics where agriculture- and forestry related traditions are still being practiced are important elements of regional planning. Recently, international tourism promotion services have started to show an increased demand for sightseeing services that take place in regions in which traditional industries and other cultural elements are rooted. Using Visitor Employed Photography, this study was conducted in the middle reaches of the Oi River Basin in Shizuoka Prefecture, a region dominated by tea plantations. It was investigated which kinds of landscapes Chinese and Japanese visitors respectively considered as particularly appealing. The result of the comparative investigation showed that the Chinese visitors mainly appreciated geographical natural features such as the forests, rivers and mountains, while the Japanese treated elements such as forests only as background and most appreciated sights that had to do with the tea plantation industry.
This study aimes to clear the configulation of the ground, the natural water system, and characteristics of land use and artificial watercourse system at Tsumago. We investigated the actual problems to concerve them. As a result it became clear that Tsumago, designated as Important Preservation District for Groups of Historic Buildings including forest and farmland of outskirts, is a catchment area by a network of water including the watercourses and the garden ponds. And farmland and garden ponds which have a role for fire prevention and inhabitants life, and watercourses which connect them, constitute a characteristic landscape. In addition, it became clear that thete are backyard and waste farmland of inhabitants evaluate low. In conclusion, it is important and necessary to review the value of a network of the water which connected those landscape elements.
In Shirakawa Village described the World Heritage site in 1995, the rethatching has been performed by reciprocal help called ‘Yui' traditionally. Originally it functioned in the various collaboration of the village. From the latter half of 1950s. ‘Yui' as rethatching began to decline, and from the former half of 1980s. the new position of ‘Yui' that is the object to preserve appeared in Shirakawa Village studies. Through that, the diagram called ‘Yui' = ‘rethatching' was born. And it changed into a viewpoint that ‘Yui' itself was important by described the World Heritage site in 1995. In addition, by newspaper articles and the media, ‘Yui' was taken up as a symbol of Shirakawa-go, the World Heritage site after describability. ‘Yui' meant not only rethatching, but also reciprocal help in the various collaboration of the village. A thing brought up by the cooperation of people and succeeded to at the present is a landscape of ‘living heritage' Shirakawa Village. We do not have to mind the present meaning of ‘Yui', and it is necessary to pay more attention to preservation all the things which formed the World Heritage site, Shirakawa-go.
In this research, we tried to clarify the relations between the measured environmental factors and the evaluation factors extracted from On-site Forest Environment. we chose the 31-forest environment where have variety aspects in each had kept in good condition for the forest strolling as grounds for the investigation. In those, the impression evaluation experiments in the on-site were conducted by assuming the college and the postgraduate students, who were the first half in one's twenties, to be a respondent for the investigation, and by using the semantic differential method (abbreviated as SDM; 21-adjective pairs and 7-standards). As a result of the factor analysis, five evaluation factors were extracted such as [preference] as the integrated evaluation, [solemnity], [visibility], [liveliness], and [serenity]. In general, it was difficult that the result of obtaining by the SDM applies to the space design. However, due to the visibility seemed to have high possibility for it, we analyzed the relation between the forest structure and the result of SDM, especially for coniferous forests. In finally, though it seemed that a visibility was related to a preference for the forest environment surely, it was not easy to operate the visibility by only increasing and decreasing the environmental factors.
This study investigated how children used natural space and natural resources for play in satoyama cultural landscapes in the early Showa period. The site of the investigation was Moriyama Village, a rural community today part of Otsu City in Shiga Prefecture, where villagers who were elementary school children in the period between 1925 and 1955 were interviewed. The investigation showed that 72 main kinds of play used to be played. Among these, 69 were plays that took place outdoors or in which natural resources were used. 42 kinds of play dealt with collecting flowers and animals in the village. Tools that were used in the plays included many natural resources such as bamboo, flowers and the fruits of various plants. Through child play, children got into contact with various natural spaces such as the mountains, the river and the lake.