Teiji Uchida,a doctor in Hamamatsu City during the Meiji period wrote volumes of diary named Meiji-nenchu-zatsuroku, which includes concrete explanations and records about the construction of his own garden. The construction of the garden started in Meiji 20th and nearly completed in 24th. The majority of the garden plants were purchased in the neighborhood. Noticeably, the cherry trees were transplanted from the neighboring private garden. The record about the engaged people and pay proves the situation of the apprenticeship in gardening business at the time. The research on a gardener Niwahei that took a leading part in construction, his other garden projects, and the comparison between the other gardens of doctors' offices in the district clarified the cultural character of the gardens in Hamamatsu in the middle of the Meiji period.
The purpose of this paper is to consider characteristics of space use of recreational facilities with gardens depicted in Meisyo-zue. The facilities were mainly divided into two categories, such as restaurants and hot spring inns. The restaurants thrived around the Kyoto and Osaka areas, while the hot spring inns were represented by Hyogo, Nagano and Hakone areas. The restaurants were mainly enjoyed in the group, while the hot spring inns were mostly used by individuals. Neverthless, the restaurants and hot spring inns shared a number of common characteristics in terms of recreation and space structures. Recreational facilities had major options, such as scenic appreciation, igo, kemari, shamisen, cha-no-yu. Hot spring inns also had lending libraries and outdoor recreational options in fields and rivers. These recreational options were complemented with excellent scenic locations, gardens with high buildings for scenic appreciation, ponds and springs for refreshing in the cool air,fields for playing kemari and tea ceremony rooms with the adjacent gardens for enjoying cha-no-yu. The recreational facilities with gardens were characterized by a space structure with elements not for personal pleasure, but to fulfill various kinds of pleasure considering many and unspecific customers.
This paper examines the characteristic of the view in the space construction of the Saien garden and the meaning of the view in Daimyos garden in Edo city. It is resolved through the clarification of the location and creation of the views in Saien garden of the Kii Clan during Edo period. Saien garden makes use of the natural topography, in its space construction, the design of the view is strongly emphasized. The view from Bougakutei to Mt. Fuji is a typical example. The design is to cut the scene of Mt. Fuji through the frame of window. And this scenery design reminds us an ideal Chinese poetry expression. The act of viewing then changes from the stationary action of merely watching a picture to the action of utilizing the natural space to create scenery.
Japanese gardens, mainly built on natural materials, have special needs for particular kind of maintenance and care, as their landscape is very susceptible to both natural and human impact. In Japan, strenuous efforts have been made and resources have been allocated for the state-designated gardens of cultural properties. This study aims to investigate the actual changes of landscape of Katsura Imperial Villa garden from the Meiji era until today, and analyze techniques and philosophy on its daily maintenance and recovery from natural disaster like typhoon damage. The study relied on interviews and materials including photograph records and the restoration investigation design material.
Shigemori Mirei (1896-1975), who was the famous scholar and gardener in Showa era based his theory about Japanese traditional gardens upon a great many on-the-spot investigation of gardens. He described four existing gardens at Jhouei-ji, Manpuku-ji, Iko-ji, and Kyu-kameishibou, as designed by Sesshu. The aim of this paper is to clarify Shigemori's understanding about "Picturesque Stone arranging by Sesshu". Through detailed investigation into his description in An Illustration Book on the History of Japanese Garden, vol.3, 4, and Japanese Garden History Survey, vol.5, 6, 7, we made it clear that Shigemori pointed out following three characteristics which show the influence of landscape painting of North Song (1) - (3), and two characteristics, which show the same style and touch peculiar to drawings of Sesshu (4) - (5) : (1) the right-handed movement of stone arrangement ; (2) the emphasis on lines of stone ridge ; (3) the form of stone arranging brought from a landscape painting ; (4) the slanted line to lower right from the stone in the center ; (5) the movement of stone arranging unique to Sesshu. Finally, the picturesque characteristics in these gardens are divided into three aesthetic category of plastic art : composition, form, and movement.
Japanese gardens are visited by many people, but the reasons why there are so many visitors and how these visitors evaluate the gardens are not so clear. This study aims to observe the new type of evaluation of Japanese gardens through the "text mining" of blogs. Firstly, the blog sites related to the evaluation of Japanese gardens were found from the Yahoo blog search. Secondly, a set of data of evaluation was extracted from these blogs. Thirdly, the contents of these blogs were analyzed using the text mining techniques. The results of these analysis found many curious responses. Evaluation of Japanese garden consists of complex elements. They are "nature" and "design" as a core, additionally "surrounding scenery", "feeling", "architecture" "action" and "history". This study found that Japanese garden visitors understand the artistry and advanced techniques of garden. From text mining of blogs by Japanese garden visitors, various aspects of evaluation of Japanese garden were obtained.
In 1934,an area of Seto Inland Sea was nominated as National Park depended on the discover of the view from the top of the mountain,Mt.Washu in Shimotsui-cho by Dr.Tsuyoshi Tamura et al. However,the panoramic view from the top was prepared by Shimotsui-cho government and Shimotsui Train Co.Ltd. There is a leaflet on the view of the top of Mt.Washu published by the Shimotsui Train Co.Ltd.before the visit of Tamura.The view of the top can see around the whole area of Bisan Seto,islands and running ships. It was the discovered landscape by Dr.Tamura,but also prepared one by the local government and other stakeholders. Ushimado-cho government also prepared the landscape from the top of a hill,Kameyama that was developed as a view point. Dr.Tamura did not adopt the landscape and estimated not to be panoramic view. This paper discuss on the performance of the Committee of National Park represented by Dr.Tamura and the preparation by the local stakeholders.
This article attempts to ascertain the relationship between names and spaces of the Kangxi 36 and Qianlong 36 scenic spots in the Chengde Summer Resort of China. Through document research and fieldwork, the study deciphered and analyzed the connotations, ways of naming, expression contents, and elements of names and spaces of these scenic spots. It was found that the names of the 72 scenic spots mainly describe the natural scenery and buildings in the resort and reflect the aesthetic, ethical, and political thinking of Emperors Kangxi and Qianlong. This study defines the close relationship between the names and spaces of the scenic spots, and shows that an understanding of their relations is essential to renovation, protection and reconstruction of the Summer Resort.
This paper shows the processes of designating Rishiri-Rebun-Sarobetsu National Park and Kushiro-Shitsugen National Park,and the relationship between them on the national parks designations and the significance of their designations as national parks.Rishiri-Rebun-Sarobetsu National Park was first designated in 1950 as a prefectural park. It was subsequently designated as a quasi-national park in 1965, and finally as a national park in 1974 along with the major part of the Sarobetsu-Genya Moor area. And the latter, Kushiro-Shitsugen National Park designation started with the Quasi-National Park Plan of 1971, at the same time as Rishiri-Rebun-Sarobetsu National Park designation was officially decided.As the result, the two designation processes were not directly connected. The Environment Agencys initial conclusion was that a new national park was unnecessary in the Long-Term Plan on Environmental Protection decided in 1977. And Kushiro-Shitsugen progress to a national park was accelerated after it was designated as Japans first Ramsar site in 1980. As consequences, both national parks designations reflect the evolution in the roles of national parks from initially that of protecting scenery, then to nature protection, and subsequently protection of ecosystems. Their designations can be linked with the priorities existing at the time. And Kushiro-Shitsugen National Park designation indicates the Agencys policy change.
The starting point of the pollution of our country is an Ashio mineral pollution event of the 19th century. Shozo Tanaka described flood control theory about the necessity of the protection of natural environment through practice by this event. The purpose of the present study is to consider how to succeed to from Tanaka's flood control theory to a modern citizen volunteer concretely. As a result,Shozo Tanakas flood control theory has four sides of Traditional river technology by character of geographical features and water, Erosion control as the head of a river training, Flood control the mountain and river on earth, and Ideal way of the man activity that enjoys the life of the natural gift. At the present period, Watarasegawakenkyukai, which was succeeded to through elaborate study of Shozo Tanakas thoughts, was the center of the group that developed with the activity as a recovery of natural environment. Tanaka described the ideal way of the flood control and the man activity along working of natural environment. On the other hand, it was considered that a present civic group aimed at the recovery for past natural environment, and was adapting oneself to present natural environment.
The puprpose of this study is to compare the subjectivity judgement of the condition of compost made from plant waste with the result of the analysis of ingredients (carbon, nitorogen, C/N, moisture content, humus, EC, pH (H2O), microbia activity). We showed 5 kinds of compost taken from the different factories to 76 subjects who work as a landscape architecture and asked them those condition in seven grades. Our results show that the compost that contain a lot of nitorogen or humus and the lower C/N compost are considered available. On the other hand there is compost that is considered unavailable, though it has the available result of the analysis of ingredients .And career have little effect on the judgement of compost condition.
The effects of trunk wrapping and leaf removal at the transplanting of Prunus yedoensis Matsum. in vegetable season are experimentally studied. Transplanting were held in June of rainy season and in August of mid summer, and in each month trunk wrapping, leaf removal,both treatments of two, and control sections were set in the experimental field, and the growth after planting were analyzed until November. Five individual trees of three years after grafting were planted in each treatment, and their height were around three meters. Leaf removal sections show significantly lesser growth including root system than trunk wrapping and control sections in June transplanting. Contrarily in August transplanting leaf removal and trunk wrapping are effective to keep alive, but tree form is changed compared with the ordinal form and root growth becomes also poor.
Turf surface moisture (TSM) of Polytrichum commune Hedw.,stretched in traditional moss gardens of Kyoto,would be affected by urban climate.TSM was measured for a total number of 33 days with microclimate observation in naturally cultivated habitat in a campus of Kyoto University.The mean TSM was 13.2 g m-2 among 28 no-rainfall days while there was only 5 days when it exceeded over 21.1 g m-2, which value is the total that standard deviation (7.9 g m-2) added to the mean value in the dry period.Relatively higher TSM for the dry period can occur due to water droplet formation process on leaves by nocturnal radiation after increases of turf humidity and soil moisture by rainfall, named as Rainfall-Distillation Process (RDP), in these 5 days. Positive photosynthesis condition may appear on account of simultaneous presence of both higher TSM and bright sunlight at clear morning with RDP. We concluded that it is more necessary to preserve and maintain moss-suited microclimate condition related to RDP. The control method of horizontal wind and vertical space, neither to blend inner and outside air nor to disturb accumulation of calm cool air mass, should be recognized to develop for moss gardens surrounded with urban changing climate.
Forest occupies most of Japanese domain. Nevertheless there is not enough area of flat forest park. Thus a forest footpath is an important element as the space of contact of city people and forest. Yet,a research which analyzed the relationship evaluation of forest footpath and the relaxation effect of walking in the forest is not enough. Thus,this paper analyzed the relationship between the relaxation effect of forest bathing by POMS and the evaluation of the forest footpath. The evaluation of the forest footpath : A number of photographs of favorable space during walk, an error in assessing time and distance in the walk. In the result, amount of stress reduction and vitality increase of the participants are likely to be improved in the footpath which was as follow. : Higher diversity of forest landscape, easier walking road, many attractive scene.In addition, The number of pictures of the good scenery is related to the value of the stress response before walking and frequency forest trail.
Uncultivated periods are important in rice paddy fields for the survival of species favoring unaerated soils. Clarifying the mechanisms affecting the floristic diversity of in-field habitats is a key part of sustainable agriculture. We hypothesized that the timing of crop harvest influences the flora in the subsequent uncultivated period in rice paddy fields. To confirm this hypothesis, surface soils were sampled in cultivated paddy fields at the beginning of August.The sampled soils stored in ≤ 5% relative light intensity were exposed to direct light at different periods varied from late August to the beginning of October. Germinated seedlings were counted until spring the next year. Observation in autumn showed that the numbers of species, germinated individuals, and flowering individuals differed as a function of the duration of light exposure, although these differences were less clear in the subsequent spring. These differences can be explained by differences in ecological traits such as maturation rate and optimum germination temperature. Timing of the rice harvest is closely linked to the timing of rice planting, which in turn can affect the germination of species maturing before the rice is planted.
We aimed to investigate the control effect of season and time of mowing on Coreopsis lanceolata. To this end, we conducted a 2-year mowing experiment on the vegetation of gravely beds of Kiso River. Mowing was conducted either once, twice, or thrice a year, in June, October, and/or February, since 2007. We observed that the number of flowering shoots decreased in the plot mowed in February (once) ; in plots mowed in June and February and in October and February (twice) ; and in plots mowed in June, October, and February (thrice). In addition, overall, mowing had no effect of reducing the number of individuals, but the number decreased in plots selectively-removed only in June. This experiment shows that mowing in February is effective in decreasing the flowering of Coreopsis lanceolata, and mowing more than once (in February and another season) enhances this effectiveness. Moreover, in this 2-year experiment, we found that mowing does not decrease the number of individuals of Coreopsis lanceolata.
The earth hummock in the Utsukushigahara highlands in central Nagano Prefecture in Central Japan has been a valuable example of this type of rare micro-topography of the mid-latitude. The loss of species from the plant community of the earth hummock as a result of the influence of alien plant species and human activities is of much concern.Because of their ecological value, these plant communities must be conserved. Therefore, the plant communities and the environmental conditions on the hummock and its immediate surroundings were investigated to determine the relationship between community structures and environmental conditions so that conservation strategies could be developed. The results of TWINSPAN analysis showed that the study area contained mainly two community types and that the species identified could be classified into nine species groups. The height of the representative community type on the earth hummock was higher than that of the community type of the surrounding area. Soil moisture percentage and the amount of snow cover in the hummock were lower than in the surrounding area. The results suggest that alien plant species were able to invade and become established in the representative community type on the earth hummock as a result of these characteristic environmental conditions.
A study was conducted on Orthoptera (Acrididae, Tettigoniidae, Gryllidae) in 56 sites of reclaimed land of Kanazawa District, Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture through May to October of 2008. 28 species and 1941 individuals were recorded during this study. By using TWINSPAN and partitioning, classifications of the Orthoptera and study sites were made based on the results of this study. Also we investigated concerning vegetation, soil, distance from original land,and area coverd with vagetation around field as environmental factors. The study sites were sorted into 5 groups and the Orthoptera were sorted into 4 groups by using TWINSPAN. Based on 5 study site groups, partitioning analysis was conducted.Results suggest vegetation height, coverings of evergreens and deciduous trees of middle to high height, and distance from original land are related to Orthoptera inhabitation. However, it has not been clearly understood the distance from original land was selected as explanatory variable. A further verification is necessary because of the possibility that area coverd with vegetation around the field is related was suggested.
In our country, it is reported that a decrease in the rice field in various places causes the extinction of frogs populations. Fresh large-scale development of a rice field by the reclamation by drainage development is being done on one side. It provides important information as an example for the conservation biodiversity to grasp the distribution movement of the frogs in the creative area of the new rice field environment. We explained the tendency of the inhabiting distribution of the frogs in the reclaimed land of mouth area of the Kiso river which reclamation by drainage proceeded through gradually from the Edo Period middle, and added a consideration about that regulation factor. The whole distribution tendency was divided into three of the type that it is distributed in the whole of the reclaimed land (Hira japonica, Rana limnocharis), the type that it is distributed by the fixed tendency (Rana nigromaculata, Rana porosa brevipoda) and a type to be confined for just a little distribution (Rana japonica). Specially, we thought that the existence of the shrubbery zone was the regulation factor of the distribution of nigromaculata and Rana porosa brevipoda.
We investigated distributions of 3 species of crabs,Uca lactea, Macrophthalmus japonicus and Helice tridens, and soil conditions at random 364 plots in the mouse of the Onosato River, Osaka in September 2008. We also surveyed microtopography using a terrestrial laser scanning system in this area and made digital elevation model (DEM). Classification tree models were developed using distribution data of crabs and soil and topographic condition dataset. Deviance weighted scores (DWS) of explanatory variables at these models suggested that the most influential variables for distributions of crabs was the ratio of sediment particles which diameter under 0.250 mm. DWSs of explanatory variables at other classification tree models without using soil condition dataset were indicated that influential variables were distance to vegetation, distance to tidal flat and elevation. Prediction accuracies of distributions of crabs at later models were almost same compared to prior models. Mapping predicted suitable habitats of crabs on later models generally worked well, but had some mispredictions, because these models could not represent soil conditions adequately.
Japanese gardens had been widely created outside Japan and may also have generated various levels of awareness and impressions overseas. It is therefore interesting to study how foreigners understand Japanese gardens to unfold ideas for the future development of Japanese gardens outside Japan as instrument for cultural exchange. This study was conducted to determine and understand the awareness and impressions of Filipinos on Japanese gardens and analyze the factors of appreciation. A photo survey questionnaire was prepared using the semantic differential method. Japanese informants were also surveyed as the control treatment, while Filipino and Western informants in Japan as the comparative group. Results then were analyzed using factor and cluster analyses. The results showed that the individuals impression differ depending on ones exposure to Japanese garden. Filipinos who had visited Japanese gardens have had their impression based on the visual and emotional factors while those who had not, expressed their appreciation strongly on a visual level. Filipino and Western informants in Japan expressed similar results but still incomparable to Japanese informants results. Cluster analysis revealed that amongst the three types of Japanese gardens, Filipinos idea of a Japanese garden is strongly represented by the Hill-and-pond garden (Rinsen) type.
This paper aims to compare two processes of fusion in design-the fusion between French and Chinese landscape styles and that between English and Chinese landscape styles-via a comparison of the facilities and transformations in Fuxing Park and Zhongshan Park, Shanghai. The period studied includes the period of concessions (Period I ) and that of the Peoples Republic of China (Period II ). Through a literature survey tracing the development of the facilities and features and quantitative analysis based on the plan drawings of elements such as hills, water bodies, flowerbeds, lawns, architectural installations, and pathways, this paper describes a comparison of the facilities and transformations in the two parks. Conclusions: (1)As former settlement parks, both have a diverse landscape style, because of the eclectic landscape style popular in the 1920s. (2)As modern Chinese parks in the stage before the Cultural Revolution and the stage after Economic Reform, both parks developed recreation facilities with Chinese elements. (3)In Period II, Zhongshan Park made more changes to its English style landscaping facilities than Fuxing Park made to its French style landscaping facilities; thus, the increase in Chinese style landscaping features was more marked in Zhongshan Park than in Fuxing Park.
To arrest global warming,it is also expected that the effect of carbon storage and sequestration of urban green spaces will be an important factor. On the other hand,the life cycle CO2 (hereafter, LCCO2) evaluation to reduce CO2 emissions is watched with interest by each sector. Because of this situation, the purpose of this study was to discuss the planning and design of urban Parks based on LCCO2. The study parks estimated in this study were selected 5 block parks in Sapporo City, Hokkaido. The results are follows: 1) It were possible to apply the LCCO2 evaluation method to all study parks. 2) In the study parks under the present conditions, the average amount of LCCO2 per area of 1 hectare of each sample was estimated about 58.4t-C/ha (range:45.9–78.6t-C/ha). 3) In the study park (3 types) changed basing on a landscape planning considered to reduce the amount of LCCO2, the average reduction rate of LCCO2 was estimated about 17.1–42.0%. 4) Therefore, we grasped to be important to discuss landscape planning considered to reduce the amount of LCCO2.
This research is investigation for improvement of the urban environment using the minute weather effect of SHINSUI Park. The measurement survey was done in SHINSUI Park in Edogawa Ward using the water and green network to SHINSUI Park. As a result, changing of the minute weather effect in the park by the cycle of the season of the deciduous tree, and having improved SHINSUI Park and minute weather urban in the surrounding became emerged. A way to scatter of the minute weather effect to the urban area in the surrounding, it is important to forest with roadside tree in succession in the park. We aim at improvement of the urban environment by making use of a minute weather formation effect formed around these SHINSUI Park.
The purpose of this study was to examine future directions for housing complex renovation using its open space through a field survey on actual utilization of that space. We investigated the renovated open space to evaluate the renovation, and sort out the challenges facing the space, as well as the possibilities for it in housing complex renovation. The results revealed that its most required use was as a children's playground, indicating the importance of response to this requirement. This was followed by usage for taking a walk or resting, which indicated a need for the renovation plan to promote diverse usage. This study suggests that open space should be renovated by making full use of the existing space characteristics so that all generations, from children to elderly, can use it, which may lead to successful housing complex renovation acceptable in an aging society with a low birthrate.
In National Government Parks, a large number of exhibition facilities have been constructed and are managed and operated for purposes such as introduction of projects related to parks and open green space, popularization and education activities related to the nature and culture of the region, etc. Issues for these exhibition facilities include renewal of exhibits, specialization of content, and the like. Study of efficient/effective management and operation techniques referring to case studies of museums, which are similar facilities, is considered effective in responding to these issues. In this research, the date of establishment, area, items displayed, condition of installation of fixtures and furniture of the exhibition facilities, and the purpose, period, location, content, and management and operation of the operation system, etc. of permanent exhibits and thematic exhibits were arranged, and the features and effects of exhibits in National Government Parks were analyzed and considered from the viewpoint of museum-like functions.
areas and facilities use of mobility impaired people on takino suzuran hillside national park was discussed. Monitoring results of activity surveys for wheel chair users, powered wheel chair users, stick users and stroller users showed that powered wheel chair greatly contributed to improve accessibility of park facilities and programs. On the other hand, many facilities were still difficult for wheel chair user. These results were considered that various assistive technologies and management on walking distance would be effective tools for making accessible park.
In order to create safe public parks that are accessible to everyone, the role of neighborhood residents is important. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that affect the intention of the residents to deal with various problems in public parks, especially in terms of the types and extent of social networks among neighborhood residents, based on a survey conducted in Suma Ward, Kobe City. 837 respondents of the survey were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Three latent variables were set in the model -the trust among neighborhood residents, the size of personal networks in neighborhoods, and the participation in neighborhood activities. Results are as follows. 1)In order to form the intention to act for the problems in public parks, the trust is important. 2)The size of personal networks and the participation in neighborhood activities can stimulate the creation of the trust. 3)The role of the trust is important for large parks while the extent of social networks is important for small parks. Based on these results, this paper discusses the direction of the risk management of public parks by neighborhood residents.
The number of people who climb Mt.Fuji,a symbol of Japan is on the increase these past few years and reached around 350,000 in 2007. Most climbers can descend the mountain safely but some despair of climbing to the summit because of altitude sickness, injury, physical strength and other things. Some accidents of falling down led to climbers death. Therefore, it is very important to grasp hidden danger in order to evade and lessen risk. The purpose of this study is 1)to analyze all accidents in the mountain in summer for 20 years and grasp the characteristics of them by using police documents and 2)to grip the attributes of actual climbers and anxiety and risk recognized by them, and to examine the relationship between the attributes and consciousness of anxiety and risk clear. As a result, people of middle and advanced age have a tendency to be drawn into direct involvement in accidents at Mt. Fuji like other mountains in Japan. In addition to this, the contents of anxiety and risk recognized by actual climbers are different from the characteristics of accidents and the discrepancy between their consciousness and practice should be paid attention to.
As ecotourism become popular,the importance of enhancing ecotourism guides (ET-guide) has been pointed out. Recently, many ET-guide training lectures had held. The ET-guides were expected to skillfuly understand the natural environment and historical culture,and take the responsibility in managing and maintaining the resources. It is rare that ET-guides operate the whole tour by themselves only, and ET-guide assistants (assistants) usually support them. Therefore,assistants are candidates of ET-guides. The subject of this research is the sea kayaking ecotour operators which is carried out by an ET-guide and assistants in south Kujuku-shima Islands. The aim of this study is to examine a way to produce the enviromental awareness, by 1)to classify a role of ET-guides, 2)to classify a work structure of sea kayaking ecotourism and 3)clarifing the ET-guides experience and enviromental awareness. Results suggest that the ET-guides are expected to conduct a natural environment monitoring and substantial management for sustainable use of the specific field. With the work load leveling up, assistants give primary attenton to the enviromental elements which directly affect clients, such as physical danger, weather change, etc, and only give secondary attention to other fields, such as culture,geography, etc. In conclusion, term and work contents have relationship for enhancing the environmental recognition of assistants.
Based on the data obtained from mail-back questionnaire to visitors in Shiretoko national park, this study was conducted in order to examine visitors first source of provided information about traffic control, their understanding of environmental information on Shiretoko Goko which was one of most visitors destinations, their expectation to contents of both prior and on site information, and factors affecting their cognition and expectation. About 30 percent of visitors eventually noticed the traffic control under enforcement after they arrived at Shiretoko. Visitors showed a tendency to have less understanding some information on visitors safety of risk management and control of visitors behavior for environment friendly consciousness. Main contents of visitor expectation to both prior and on-site information were weather forecast, encounter with brown bears and traffic control which could influence visitor activity and their destination. Visitors prior experience in Shiretoko, type of their transportation and location of their dwelling place affected their tendency to access source of information and level of cognition. Visitors prior experience affected their expectation to the contents of provided information. It is necessary to provide environment friendly information with visitors by well designed system corresponding to each stage from their planning to arrival.
The purpose of this study was to survey the information which was needed by recreational users in advance for their appropriate management on Ishikari Coast, Hokkaido.1,000 questionnaire surveys which asked advanced information, information source and information facilities they used and also asked to evaluate their importance and quality were distributed on the beach of Ishikari Coast, 375 were returned back by mail, and 341 were analyzed.About a half of respondents did not used advance information before their visit, but other most of all visitor checked the weather report. The advance information they needed were different with their purpose of visit, their age and their experience of visit.Thirty's years old (and/or younger) visitors and 10 times or more repeated visitors did not check any information and did not visit any information facilities in Ishikari Coast. As a conclusion,on-site interpretive activities are important to establish the appropriate recreational management of visitors, and should turn gently to the off-site information provision, like a portal web site of Ishikari Coast, in the future.
In Japanese national parks,the designation of a park and its zoning boundaries is influenced by land ownership. There has been criticism that zoning is influenced by timber production or other commercial activities. We examined the relationship between the national park plan and national forest plan in the Shikotsu-Jozankei area in Shikotsu-Toya National Park. We overlaid the national forest management plan map with the park plan map using a GIS. We found that half of the park boundaries have commonality with a national forest unit and 36% with municipal boundaries. The special protection zone and special zone I of the national park plan are similar to the Protection Forest in a national forest. Special zone II is similar to the Recreation Forest in a national forest. National forest functional zones have many similarities with national park zoning. These results clarified the significant effect of a national forest plan on the definition of national park zoning.
A large-scale fence which prevented the invasion of the deer was formed of area about 900ha on Senjogahara moor of Nikko National Park in 2001, for the purpose of keeping moor in good condition from the deer which increased very much.I clarified this article about the change of the anti-deer measures on Senjogahara moor by analyzing measures and investigations that had been carried out. As a result, confirmation of the moor recovery situation by the vegetation investigation played a key role until 2005, but anti-deer measures were carried out in earnest from 2006, and the investigation changed into it to help the enforcement of measures. In addition, recovery of the vegetation did not advance very much by the invasion of the deer to the inside of the fence until 2005, but after measures were carried out, the number of deer deceased and vegetation recovered in the fence. This result shows the possibility of the conservation of the moor by a large-scale fence preventing the invasion of the deer.
In this study,we investigated the distribution of three semi-terrestrial crabs in Sennan-Satoumi Park in Osaka Prefecture, and gave management suggestions for conservation of those crabs. Semi-terrestrial crabs spend larval stage in the sea area, while juvenile and adult crabs inhabit coastal forests. The park was constructed at the Osaka Bay on natural coast by bay reclamation in 1996. Before the park was constructed, the crabs were commonly observed at the natural coast; however, after the reclamation project, since the project broke the continuity between the bay and the coastal forest, the less number of the crabs were found in the area. We investigated population and distribution of adult crabs and juvenile crabs in 2008. The populations of all three species were decreased and the activity patterns were changed by environmental changes, such as channel construction, compared with the data from previous study conducted in 2002. We also found that the adult crabs mainly inhabit near water, and the activity patterns of the juvenile crabs are affected by the continuity of coastal forest.Discontinuity of the coastal forest prevents juvenile crabs from migrating their habitat. In conclusion, in order to conserve the crabs, it is important to ensure the continuity of the coastal forest and preserve water holes in the park.
"Kanenowaraji, a book of a journey on springs of Hakone, Enoshima, and Kamakura" was the travel literature of early modern Kamakura by Jippensha-Ikku. Noted place are 107 spots in all composition, and then 17 spots of noted places were described for the scenery. Moreover, 11 of 17 spots were noted coastal landscape. In the pilgrimage, a route was full of topographic variety, and then travelers could see coastal places from all noted palace on high ground. Especially, a landscape from bird's - eye view was used a conversion point from scene to scene. It is necessary for coastal landscape to improve the journey. Hence, Ikku used the effective routing. The effective routing is characterized that the the topography of Kamakura is small plain and mountainous near the seashoreline and the section between "Entrance of Enoshima" and "Shichiri-no-hama" was direrected by Ikku's original technique that horizontal sequence.
This study aims to clarify the differences in crowding evaluation between people on-site and off-site. To achieve this purpose we showed the above people seven different photographs with the number of visitors ranging from 3 to 165 people. The photographs were taken at Ozegahara in Oze National Park. Ozegahara was chosen as the place for on-site locations, and a university campus and two regional parks in Tokyo were chosen for off-site locations.We had people select one appropriate photograph in the above seven photographs to address the following: (1) what was considered to be the most suitable conditions for use; (2) considered crowded if the number of visitors increased; (3) not to go to the park if there were more visitors; (4) suitable visitor numbers; and (5) less visitors would be desirable. As a result, there was a clear difference between on-site and off-site about all items. In the case of the point (3) photographs which had 20 % fewer visitors were selected off-site compared to on-site. This result was the most different.
The object of this study is to examine the visitor evaluation of the Diaoshuilou Waterfall and the Changbai Waterfall landscape and its surrounding in Northeast China. In addition, We how improve the surrounding of waterfalls. The respondents of this study were 55 visitors of Diaoshuilou Waterfall and 117 visitors of Changbai Waterfall. The result showed that the best season to visit the two waterfalls is autumn, then followed by summer, winter and spring. According to the visitors the best spot to see the scenery is from the front side. The artificials in the scenic spots have some influences on the Changbai Waterfall, though there are no influences in the Diaoshuilou Waterfall. Both the survey with the SD method and the research on the image of the Waterfall show that the differences between the two Waterfalls are about their [Geenery Amount], [Water Amount], [Drop] and their [Spread]. The result showed visitors evaluation of waterfall, in not only by viewing the waterfall, but also by the surrounding of waterfall.
The purpose of this research was to clarify how an individual personality will be reflected in the appraisal for on-site forest environment. We looked into individual personality for the each respondent with using some questionnaire such as the profile questionnaire, Neo-FFI, GSES, TBS-test that were executed before the forest bathing experiment. Then to examine the appraisal in the on-site forest environment, we tried to survey the impressive appraisal experiment for each respondent by the semantic differential method in each on-site forest environment after the forest bathing experiment, and to do the correlative analysis and the contrastive analysis. As a result of Neo-FFI, Neuroticism and Extroversion were significantly related to the evaluation of vigor for on-site forest environment. As to GSES, the higher group on Social position of their own abilities evaluated more natural than the lower relatively on the contrary to Uneasiness to failure. Form TBS-test, it was clarified that the relations between individual personality and the appraisal of on-site forest environment, such as the higher group on Anthropocentrism evaluated more crowded and densely than the lower significantly. Finally, the personality-based-designs and programs for on-site forest environment were suggested to be healed more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible future direction of space design for direct and indirect contact with animals. We conducted a questionnaire survey among university students and their parents to obtain a general consensus of what their most unforgettable experiences with animals were. The results showed that, among those who responded, the most cherished experiences were the ones that they had with their parents before starting and during elementary school. It also indicated that they had different impressions,depending on the type of animals. Specifically, in contact with companion animals, the subjects were most impressed by the experiences of tending to small animals at school. In contact with exhibition animals, they were most impressed by the experiences they had during university and after graduating from it. In contact with small animals and other creatures living in their natural environments, they were most impressed by the experiences they had at public space.
Touching water is one of the key elements composing one's feeling of water-familiarity within riparian spaces. The objective of this study is to clarify the spatial factors affecting the behaviors of those who touch river water on three fixed weirs, Daiju-zeki, Hata-zeki, and Ichinoi-zeki. 285 sets of behaviors and spaces observed on the sites were classified into 6 groups. In each set, the relationships among the human body, the touched water and the surface of weir were analyzed. The accessibility from the river sides to those touching points was also analyzed. The results were compared among the three weirs in order to finding similarities and differences. It turned out that the levels of both surface and bottom of the river to the weir surface, and the sectional forms of the weirs were the spatial factors affecting the touching water behaviors. The points for utilizing and maintaining the weirs as water-familiar spaces were presented based on the outcomes.
The transition of biodiversity policies in national environmental policies and of the influence of national trends on prefectural plans have not been clarified to date. We examined the basic environment plans drawn up by the nation and each prefectural government. First, we studied the transition of policies for biodiversity at the national level, and then analyzed which policies for conserving biodiversity were valued at the prefectural government level compared with the national trend. As a result, we showed that the concept and policies of biodiversity were broad at the national level, and that many prefectures thought of biodiversity conservation within a limited scope related to wildlife conservation, and that it had not been treated as an important issue in their own region. By classifying environment plans and strategies for conserving biodiversity in each prefecture into several types, we also clarified, that local conditions and needs affect the priorities and policies for biodiversity conservation.
This study aimed to clarify the historical recognition to the Conservation of the Forest of 17th and 19th century Kiso-yama in Tumago-juku. That is concerned with the landscapes of MACHI-NAMI Conservation and Regeneration. The meanings to the forest conservation are widely different between present and that time. The wood was used for the taxes and the construction of castle towns. But, in 1724, Shiro-yama and Mizukami-yama were designated for tomeyama for sustainable use. On the other hand, in akeyama, the village people got daily trees from bush. Some forests had been used for Ise-shrine-forests with special focus on the Sikinen-Sengu Ceremony through that times. In 1904, Tumago and Otaru as crown forests were designated for Ise shrine forests. In that foresty works the people organized lumbering workers and women were paid by the day. The site of the forest of the Tumago-juku Preservation district was systematically managed through the feudal utilization and control politics.
Several research methods are available for landscape assessment and conservation in enclosed landscapes, with which we interact constantly in our daily lives.The extraction of landscape elements in enclosed landscapes, however, is considered to be more difficult than in panoramic landscapes. This study examined several research methods using various materials,question survey and field survey. These databases were constructed by using geographic information system (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS). The landscape elements database measured straight line distances between roads and landscape elements, and property line of administration field and landscape elements. The land use has been determined from the position of the landscape elements. According to results, about 70% of the land use was consisted of landscape elements from the road within 25m. When the landscape elements were extracted, this was able to be shown as one technique.The result suggests when the landscape elements were extracted, GIS becomes one technique to simplify the methods.
The purpose of this study was to propose effective use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) in analyzing landscape characteristics of a local area which serve as the fundamental data for setting up landscape plan, using Asuka Mura, whose landform is representative of microtopography, as a case example. Specifically, geographic data about elevation and land use were acquired via GIS, and its three-dimensional analysis was used to examine the range of visibility of visitors and residents standing on a main road. Next, key ridge lines which characterize the studied area were identified by using the results obtained above, in order to classify the studied area into landscape units. Then, the extent of field of view and the presence of superimposition were investigated for each landscape unit, and components of each landscape unit were identified by overlapping the landscape unit made with land use and landform classifications. The combination of these procedures successfully confirmed the landscape characteristics of the whole studied area.
In order to achieve an appropriate balance between regional maintenance and tourism demand, we applied the NDVI for moss vegetation covering the stone pavement along the Kumano Pilgrimage Routes, one of the World Heritage Sites located in Wakayama Pref., Japan and conducted periodic research into their changes. We employed the NDVI imaging system, which consists of two commercially available digital cameras by which the reflected radiance in RGB and NIR images is respectively obtained. The NDVIIM value calculated by the digital image analysis was used for the evaluation of vegetation. The NDVI in "Daimonzaka" is quite a bit smaller than that of Waroudaishi, which corresponds to the number of visitors to the individual sites. According to the NDVI image from both sites, the damaged portion appeared around the center of the pavement due to the influence of human tread pressure. Moreover, there was significant correlation between the NDVI and NDVIIM, in which the existence of moss vegetation exceeding constancy was detected, although differences in the distribution values of 2007 and 2008 were respectively observed. Therefore, proximity remote sensing of the moss vegetation via digital imaging was considered an effective way to index the influences of the increased visitor traffic.
In order to create more attractive urban spaces by greening, we need to take into account the various effects of greenery, for example solar shading of tree crown and cooling effect by transpiration, when designing green urban spaces. The purpose of this study is to develop numerical tree model of a deciduous tree for simulating the effects of solar shading by tree crown on the surface temperature, brightness distribution and illuminance distribution under tree crown. As a fundamental study, this paper investigates relationship between tree geometry and solar transmittance using the CG tree model. The solar transmittance ratio is determined as the ratio of sunlight through a tree into the tree shadow. Several tree species and variation are created by a CGsoftware. Hourly the solar transmittance ratio is calculated by the ray-tracing method using the CG model. The relationship between the tree geometry depending on tree species and the solar transmittance ratio is analyzed. The result shows that the solar transmittance ratio of Prunus x yedoensis and Platanus x acarifolia have no relationship to these factors, although the ratio of Zelkova serrata, which has similar geometry type to plant community, is depended on LAI. These indicate that a tree model for solar transmittance need several parameters such as LAI, size of leaf and density of branch.
The fixed-point observation of the forest by video and sound has been continued in the university forest in Chichibu, the University of Tokyo since 1995. The purpose of this observation is record and analysis of the forest landscape, and the educational use. To use this forest video archive in the science class, it is necessary to upgrade metadata related to content of the science class. The tree phenology exerted a big influence on the forest landscape. Then, it is tried to upgrade tree phenology information. In this study, it is examined whether teaching materials concerning phenology by the forest video archive apply to the science class in the elementary school. As a result of examination of course of study, it is thought that the class about tree phenology can be done by the fourth grader or more. In this study, the tree phenology of the beech was able to be treated in the sixth grader. In this case, there is a possibility that the video which takes a picture of the near view is effective. Moreover, it is thought that it is preferable to do an enough explanation of the targeted tree phenology before the video teaching material is presented.
Green Architecture Techniques such as green roof and façade greening have been recently increasing in many cities.It brings many benefits to people in urban area such as mitigating an urban heat island effect, increasing the amenity of the cities and relaxation and conservation of biodiversity, and other benefits. Because of a lack of tools for quantifying the value, Green Architecture Techniques have not been well recognized by decision makers such as building owners of private sector. This study therefore aims at finding out this tool by doing various researches.First, we made a questionnaire by using Contingent Valuation Method, in which examinees are given several photographs of different scale of Green Architecture Techniques. The examinees will consequently understand that the effect of Green Architecture Techniques is proportional to the scale of greening. Next, these examinees are divided into several groups and receive different information about Green Architecture Techniques. One group receives only positive information while next group receives only negative information. We also give other group typical information of the effects. As the result, it was proved that the valuations of each examinee were subjectively influenced by types of given information.
Image sequence of the walking direction in Oze national park were taken by camcorder, and analysis of sequential landscape was performed by theory of fractal in this paper. Moreover, positioning by GPS was also performed during the walking, and distance from start point and altitude were acquired. Such processing was performed in summer and autumn, and comparing of landscapes in these 2 seasons were also performed. As a result, complexity of the landscape for certain object and overall could be expressed by using 2 kinds of fractal analysis respectively. Particularly, the difference of these landscapes for 2 seasons or each position could be understood quantitatively. Therefore, quantitative analysis for sequential landscape in Oze national park was realized. On the other hand, position for the each scene of the landscape could be obtained by GPS, the landscape was analyzed by relation between distance and altitude. These proposal methods could acquire quantitative data for landscape, however subjective information by the visitors are also required for landscape planning. Such data or information will be combined to be analyzed, consequently it can be seen that the supply of the objective and reliable information for the nature landscape by visitors will be realized.