Shushin Gidou (1325-1388), a Zen monk of the Rinzai sect in the Period of North and South Dynasties, was an apprentice of Soseki Musou (1275-1351).Gidou wrote “Kuuge-Nichiyou-Kufuu-Ryakushu,” which is a diary recording the 63 years from 1325 to 1388. In this study, the author delved into “Kuuge-Nichiyou-Kufuu-Ryakushu,” and discussed how Zen gardens were used in the late 14th century. As a result, it was found that there were three main purposes of Zen gardens. The main purposes were to provide the places for (1) zazen (sitting meditation), (2) poem writing, and (3) enjoying the landscapes of spring flowers, autumn leaves, and winter snows. Sometimes, one of these purposes was prioritized, and other times, they were used in a mixed manner. Namely, they were used in a multilayered way. It was found from this study that garden landscapes and sceneries were recognized from the viewpoints of not only Zen precept and practice but also poetic imagination. It was also found that the knowledge base for poetic imagination was influenced by not only Zen Buddhism but also Chinese literatures and philosophies.
“Kamakura Nikki”, a book of a journey on springs of Kamakura” was the travel literature of early modern Kamakura by TOKUGAWA Mitsukuni. They surveyed around all Kamakura about history and architectures, nature, culture, ruins of the Medieval Period of Kamakura, and the like. Then, Mitsukuni and his research companions found resources: tourism resources, landscape resources involve green. Tourism resources are 173 spots in all composition from hearing research and reading research from classical literature as ”Azumakagami”. Many of them were temples or shrines, others were occupied historic sites, road, tree, and so on. Mitsukuni and his follows were detected landscape resources as effective tools to gain view area and spatial recognition. Green resources were not recognized regional landscape resources but landmarks as spatial perceptions or holy space as “Chinju”. Moreover, they surveyed some scene or sequence, and then traditional noted place were put on recorded for coming generations. Conclusion, they led that the symbolic landscape of Kamakura was landform of “yato”.
This paper discusses to examine the construction process of Shiga Park completed in 1931 in Nagoya, and to define its historical urban planning implications before World War II. Shiga Park, based on the "Master Plan of Park in Nagoya" in 1926, was the earliest project of the development through the private land readjustment in Japan at that time. KANO Tsutomu, who was the planner of the “Master Plan of Park in Nagoya”, designed Shiga Park as a natural combined with modern park facilities and deciduous forests. Although Shiga Park was opened as part of park planning areas, integrated garden paths constructed on both the parkland and the remaining land of park planning areas that provided for development of park in the future. As work progress, the land readjustment union deepened their understanding of the significance of a modern park, decided to make two small parks voluntarily. Both the economic success of Shiga Park and Park promotion measures from 1932 amended the civil recognition of a modern park in Nagoya before World War II, and this trend prompted the donation of land by beneficiaries in cases such as Higashiyama Park completed in 1937.
This study aimed at clarifying the position of scenic areas of Kumamoto city planning before WWII. This study got a clue about the position of scenic areas from its explanations. In explanations there are words as “to make park for Kumamoto citizen” and “suitable for suburban residential district”. So this study start from the hypothesis that the scenic areas were the plan for whole of Kumamoto citizen, not the plan closed in its own areas. To clarify the position of, this study focused on the following three points; 1) how were expected the scenic areas when its plan was make. 2) how kind of relationship were there between the scenic areas and the other city planning projects, in the view of sites and the each project’s aim. 3) how ware transformed the scenic areas and its periphery, peculiarly works for parks and land readjustment. Through the researches above, it can say that each city forming projects; street planning, the union of Kumamoto City and peripheral towns and land readjustments ware made under an idea that quality residential areas had better be built in scenic suburban area.
Ise-Shima National Park is the only national park that was designated without a deliberation of the National Park Commission in 1946, right after World War II. The objective of this study is to clarify this exceptional case of Ise-Shima's designation as a national park, in relation to Ise Jingu (the Ise Grand Shrine), by exploring the background of its designation. The background can be roughly divided into two periods: during World War II, and right after the war. It has been confirmed that Ise Jingu imposed its influence in different ways in each period. The transportation network was well established due to Ise Jingu’s characteristics as a sacred place and for the purpose of shrine visits. This indirectly influenced the designation of the national park candidates in the Shima region. Soon after the war, Ise Jingu faced the threat of being dismantled. Walter Popham of GHQ and Ishigami Kashiro of the Ministry of Welfare recognized the value of Ise Jingu and proposed that they designate the shrine area of Ise Jingu as a national park. Re-establishment of the administrations of national parks was still in process; however, the necessity for speedy protection of Ise Jingu served as a key factor for the unusual designation. After the designation of Ise-Shima National Park, the demand for national park designations increased all over the country, and this was the impetus for national park administrations to fully resume their work.
This paper covers the historical background to the process leading to the designation of the Yabakei Valleys, Mt. Hikosan, and Hita Basin area as one of the first Quasi-National Park areas in Japan in 1950, and also its relationship with National Parkway Planning in Japan as a new type of National Park after World War Two. There are many kinds of curious rock peaks with pine and oak trees, as well as old temples, villages, and agricultural scenery around the roads in Yabakei valleys. Some famous authors have left writings about the beauty of this valleys scenery since early in the nineteenth century. In Yaba-Hita-Hikosan area, more than 80 percent of the land is owned by private sectors, and most of this area has been used as plantation forest. Therefore, at first, it was considered difficult to keep the natural beauty in the area. In 1949 the government sought to designate this area as a new type of National Park like National Parkway. In the same year the government revised the National Parks Law, enabling the designation of Quasi-National Park areas. At last Yaba-Hita-Hikosan area was designated as a Quasi-National Park in 1950. This was based on discussions about designating a new type of National Park as National Parkway to keep the beauty of harmonious scenery of nature and artificial landscape with historical and agricultural elements combined.
This study was aimed to evaluate Sedums (Sedum mexicanum Britt., Sedum sarmentosum Bge. and Sedum pallidum var.bithynicum) and turf grass (Zoysia matrella Merr.) as a phytoremediator which removing NO2 in the small chamber scale. In addition, we considered that there is a relation between ability of NO2 removal and other factors which are pubescence, stomatal density (n/mm2) and guard cell length (μm). As a result, when 60min passed, amount of NO2 removal of sedums was 151.2 ~ 306.5μg/m2, while those of turf grass was 79.1μg/m2. But after that, there was not much difference between them and they completely removed NO2. It became clear that sedums had ability of NO2 removal which was equivalent to turf grass or higher than it. Furthermore, ability of NO2 removal was some relations to form of pubescence. But it seems that there were few relations between ability of NO2 removal and other factors such as stomatal density (n/mm2) and guard cell length (μm).
In order to develop a numerical tree model for calculating the effects of solar shading by a tree, it is important to focus on sunlight distribution, which is the light falling onto ground through the tree. Sunlight on the ground has not only a psychological impact but also a physical impact, such as increasing the surface temperature distribution. Thus, this paper discusses sunlight distribution on the ground through a numerical analysis of the differences between tree species, using CG tree models. Three deciduous tree species, with different crown shapes, were chosen. There are popular shade trees in Japanese streets. The sunlight ratio distribution of each tree was computed by the ray-tracing method on the summer solstice in Tokyo at 12:00 and 17:00. It is clear from this analysis that the tree’s geometrical shape, which depended on the species, created different tendencies of sunlight distribution on the ground at each solar altitude. The oval-shaped tree showed little change with the different solar altitudes. On the other hand, the cone-shaped and vase-shaped changed depending on solar altitude.
This paper assumes the growth of plant individuals in semi-natural grassland, and investigates 3D modeling of the growth with actual insolation data by 3D computer graphics (3DCGs) and its application. At present the 3DCGs for plant individuals are utilized mainly in the landscape simulation field, and it is difficult to apply to academic or scientific fields due to the complexity of the shape of leaves, caules, flowers, and so on. Therefore, plant individuals were experimentally grown in several photoenvironments, and the results were expressed by 3DCGs. In addition, to investigate growth simulations in the semi-natural grassland, growth situations were assumed in which dominant species existed. The experiment was performed by using “Nohara-Azami” (Cirsium oligophyllum). Some pots of the Nohara-Azami were grown in three kinds of cheesecloths that had different shading ratio. In addition, the lengths of the plant individuals and each leaf were measured each month. As a result, growth of the Nohara-Azami in each cheesecloth grew in different behavior. Therefore, 3D modeling for each Nohara-Azami was performed by using 3DCGs, and these 3D models were compared. Conseauently, it is expected that the growth simulations for valuable species can be realized in semi-natural grassland.
This study focused on the cultural landscape of a traditional craft, Oodate Magewappa. The craft has been produced by hand in particular areas and so can be considered to have formed its own cultural landscape. Elements constituting the cultural landscape were classified into two types: ‘the activity landscape’ which refers to dynamic scenes of people actively working, and ‘the place landscape’ meaning the place itself where activities are happening. The study aimed to identify activities and places of the entire making process of the craft, and to survey historical changes of them. Analyses revealed that the cultural landscape of Oodate Magewappa consisted of 22 scenes of the activity landscape and 18 places of the place landscape. Activities such as raising and logging Akita cedars and manufacturing crafts remain while most of the rest have changed. Some activities have been made visible to the public in recent years with an increasing recognition of the traditional craft’s roles in tourism industry and education, and it stimulates further recognition of the cultural landscape. Also, places where activities used to happen remain, having possibilities to raise recognition of the dynamic scenes that existed before. These results suggest it is important for the preservation of cultural landscape to reconstruct the connection between the activity landscape and the place landscape.
We elected an area where uniform paddy cultivation is done by the overall community, and divided roughly into five rice field types; I (Rice field and lotus field mixture area), II (Pond adjoining area), III (Rotation of crops area of rice, wheat and soybean), IV (Fabricated field / Mixture of the waterway of the ground and concrete) and V(Not-fabricated field / Mixture of the waterway of the ground and concrete) in Noubi plains. We conducted a line census investigation on a ridge in order to investigate the species composition of frogs according to the rice field type. The results of our survey, there were large numbers of frogs in the areas which have a moist cultivating environment (Type I , V). In contrast, in the well-drained rice fields (Type II , III and IV) where rice seedlings were transplanted in June, there were small numbers of frogs irrespective of the environmental structure. The number of frogs in Type I where different crops (rice and lotus) were cultivated in parallel was larger than that in Type V because the waterside has always existed there.
Gentiana thunbergii (G. Don) Griseb. is a small winter annual plant that flowers in early spring. Because of habitat development and over collection for horticulture, this plant has become an endangered grassland species. Semi-natural grasslands established on small landscape components, such as levees of paddy fields and agricultural reservoirs, are important alternative habitats for this species. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal environmental conditions of the alternative habitats of this species in semi-natural grasslands maintained by agricultural practices. The mean soil volumetric water content of the study sites was 50.4%, while there was a significant moderate negative partial correlation between plant population density and soil water content. These findings indicate that although a moderately wet environment is necessary for species growth, excessive wetness is unsuitable. A significant moderate positive partial correlation between number of individuals and relative photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was found, and relative PAR had a significant fairly strong negative correlation with the height of the surrounding plants. It is considered that the well-lighted environment, maintained by agricultural activities such as regular mowing management contributes to survival of the G. thunbergii population in the levees of paddy fields and the other landscape components in paddy-field areas.
Patterns of floristic diversity at multi-scales are rarely known in the Japanese rural Yatsu-landscapes. We examined patterns in plant species richness at the scale of landscape (a small catchment area), landscape element (woodland, levee and traditional verge meadow), and plot, to identify the contribution of smaller spatial scales influencing the diversity at landscape scale. Results showed that woodlands had the highest richness of unique species, defined as those which occurred in only one landscape element, followed by verge meadows, while overall richness was greatest in the meadows. At the plot scale woodlands and verge meadows had similar richness in unique species, while the variation of the number of species was greater in the meadows. Bright plots in the meadows had the highest richness of unique species, whereas several plots in the meadows had few unique species. In verge meadows, understanding patterns at the plot scale would be relatively high contribution to the diversity at landscape level. In woodlands, averagely large, but absence of plots with extremely large number of unique species indicate less contribution of any single plot to the species richness at the landscape scale, implying the importance of conserving more than one plot in any vegetation types within the landscape element.
Lespedeza section Macrolespedeza is dubbed “Hagi (Japanese bush clover).”People used Hagi not only for manure or forage, but also used for slope seedling from former times to the present day. Hagi forms the scene of the field of autumn in Japan, and it can be said that it is ruderal plants seen by many Japanese people. In this study, we aimed at offer the basic data for form the landscape that the ruderal plants grow by grasp of habitat characteristics of Lespedeza section Macrolespedeza in Yatsu paddy fields. As a result, we identified growth of L. bicolor and L. buergeri as L. section Macrolespedeza. It developed that grows of L. bicolor is not involved in a direction in the herbaceous layer on lowermost hillside slopes and the location which people are seldom concerned is appropriate for growth. And it noted there are many branch of L. bicolor have traces of cutting. On the other hand, we identified L. buergeri have strong relation with rock. If nobody will mow the herbaceous layer on lowermost hillside slopes, The growth of Lespedeza section Macrolespedeza will decrease.
We investigated the structure of woody seedling population in the restored urban forest, "Inochi- No-Mori" in Kyoto city for five years since construction and examined the growth characteristics such as recruitment, height growth and mortality rates of each species. On the whole, evergreen broadleaved species had low recruitment, high height growth and low mortality rates. On the other hand, deciduous broadleaved species had high recruitment, low height growth and high mortality rates. Acer palmatum and Ligustrum lucidum had the highest height growth rates when the relative solar radiation was 10-15% and 15-20% respectively. In contrast, Quercus acutissima had lower height growth rates. However there were no significant differences in mortality rates among species, Q. acutissima had relatively lower mortality rates. Nevertheless L. lucidumi, invasive alien species had not been planted in Inochi- No-Mori, recruitment rate of L. lucidumi seedlings was 2.0 individuals /100m2/year on average when there was no seed source of this species within 10m radius. Celtis sinensis and Aphananthe aspera had the highest recruitment and low mortality rates. It indicated that C. sinensis and A.aspera might have suitability for this site and the population densities of these species would be greater in the future.
The broad-scale reed communities around Lake Nishino in Shiga are habitats for many rare plant species, and also essential components of the local cultural landscape. Their conservation is reported to be a result of traditional reed-land management (cutting and burning) conducted along with the use of reeds for the production of reed-derived goods. However, continuation of management has become difficult due to a decline in the production of reed goods. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between management frequency and vegetation change. Based on a vegetation survey on 160 plots around Lake Nishino conducted between 1999 and 2002 using the Braun-Blanquet method (Fujii 2005), we conducted a follow-up survey on 89 plots in 2010. We assessed management frequency according to three categories (no, occasional, annual). After vegetation data ordination by DCA, we compared the management frequency categories in regard to vegetation change. The results showed that there was a much greater vegetation change in the ‘no’ management category than in the other two categories. That change consisted of soil aridification and increase of succession degree. Occasional management could thus be effective for limited-labor maintenance of broad-scale reed communities.
Coreopsis lanceolata keeps a number of buried seeds in top soil. It would be most effective to remove the top soil for preventing the buried seeds from germinating and new individuals from spreading, but the treatment of the removed soil which still contains numerous seeds of Coreopsis lanceolata would be a problem. Therefore, we carried out an experimental removal of top soil and monitored the removed soil in the dry gravel riverbed of the middle stream of the Kiso River, in order to examine the effectiveness of removing buried seeds and the reduction rate of buried seeds in the removed soil. The reduction rate of buried seeds due to the removal of top soil is approximately 80%, and remaining 20 % seems to be because the removal of top soil was incomplete and some were dropped out of the removed soil. Moreover, we attempted to mulch the removed soil by using the weed control sheet and to prevent the buried seeds from germinating. The reduction rate of buried seeds which survived in the removed soil is approximately 50 % in two years.
A large number of buried seeds of Coreopsis lanceolata accumulate on the topsoil in C. lanceolata-dominant communities. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of removing the topsoil on the C. lanceolata-dominant community, in terms of the elimination of the buried seeds of C. lanceolata and the restoration of the native vegetation in dry gravel riverbeds. After the removal of the topsoil, the number of buried seeds of C. lanceolata decreased by 80% as compared to the number of buried seeds of C. lanceolata before the removal of the topsoil in the experimental plot. Three years after the removal of the topsoil, the total number of shoots of C. lanceolata occurring in the experimental plot decreased by 97 to 99% as compared to the number of shoots of C. lanceolata before the removal of the topsoil. These results show that removal of the topsoil is effective in eliminating the buried seeds of C. lanceolata as well as in decreasing the accumulation of C. lanceolata. On the other hand, the dominance of the endemic species in dry gravel riverbeds, such as Artemisia capillaris and Potentilla chinensis, was low. However, the number of individuals of these species began to increase two years after the removal of the topsoil.
In this study, we identified bottom environments suitable for habitation by Vargula hilgendorfii, or the sea-firefly, and the relationship between their habitats and the construction and maintenance of the sandy beach. The study areas included 7 observation lines at 5 sandy beaches in southern Osaka. The construction was assessed by the origin of sands and construction of artificial structures, and maintenance was assessed by leveling of sands and replenishment of sand. Bottom environments and the number of V. hilgendorfii were assessed using a Smith-McIntyre grab sampler. Statistical analysis of a classification and regression trees found the following suitable conditions for V. hilgendorfii inhabitation; oxidation-reduction potential of more than -5.5mV and sorting coefficient of less than 0.646. In addition, statistical analysis of a generalized linear model found habitats of V. hilgendorfii were created in the following places; places where without an artificial structure, places where water depth was shallow due to replenishment of sand. On the other hand, places where the bottom sediment was deoxidized due to offshore breakwaters and jetties hindering tidal currents were unsuitable for V. hilgendorfii. These results suggested that the difference of the construction and maintenance of the sandy beach influenced on the habitats of V. hilgendorfii.
We investigated changes in wetland vegetation area for approximately 35 years (1974-75 to 2010) and richness of the moor species for approximately 15 years (1995-96 to 2010) in hillside seepage bogs in the southern region of Hyogo prefecture. We found that the wetland vegetation area decreased in all the hillside seepage bogs during the 35-year study period. The moor species growing the wetland periphery disappeared in the 15-year study period. Our results indicate that the decrease in wetland vegetation area and the disappearance of the moor species depended on the growth of the surrounding trees. The number of the moor species correlated positively with wetland vegetation area. The results indicated that the decrease in wetland vegetation area in all the hillside seepage bogs influenced the disappearance of the moor species. In the future, decrease in wetland vegetation area by the vegetation succession, may continue to decrease the richness of the moor species in such hillside seepage bogs. The number of moor species on a biggest hillside seepage bog was approximately 50 percent of the total number of the moor species in this region. To conserve the moor species in this region, not only the large hillside seepage bogs but also the groups of hillside seepage bogs need to be conserved.
In the 1905 report submitted by Daniel Burnham to the Philippine Commission of the plan of Manila, one of the areas he focused on is the utilization of open spaces as areas for recreation. The Burnham plan identified different typologies of these public open spaces (POS) which were utilized for various functions and to respond to the demands of an emerging capital city and to anticipate the urbanization of the city. The public open spaces in the plan formed an interlinked system that shaped and defined the form of the city. The research looks at Manila after more than 100 years after the Burnham plan was proposed and evaluates the urban function of the different open spaces using the Functional Approach. It compares the original Burnham plan with the present POS using similar typologies, the system of open spaces developed and how their forms have been formed. Comparison of the Burnham plan and the present POS revealed significant reduction in most areas of the different typology of POS, except for POS located in traditional urban core. It was found that present POS with reduced areas have specialized and differentiated functions, manifesting the pressures of urbanization and lack of coherent policy on open spaces that shaped the urban spatial structure of Manila. From a grand design and extensive open spaces that characterized the City Beautiful Movement, the piecemeal development and management of the different open spaces of the present-day Manila presents a stark contrast to the original plan.
Lao PDR is a landlocked country located in the middle of Indochina. Vientiane Capital, which is the capital city of Lao PDR, has an area of 3,920km2 and its population was 795,000 in 2009. It has high economic and demographic growth potential. It is thus quite likely that the urban area would rapidly expand toward the suburbs, creating the problem of urban sprawl with bad living conditions and inappropriate social services. In this study, it was carried out to make clear current conditions of urban parks in Vientiane Capital with conducting a park counting survey and a park interview survey. According to the study, it is clear that there are only 9 urban parks with a total area of 20.6ha in Vientiane Capital. Considering the population volume, the parks area seems to be quite less. Additionally, definition of “urban park” as one of the urban infrastructure facilities is not regulated in any relevant laws, therefore, any vision and target volume of urban parks have not been formulated so far. Following this study, it is required that studies conduct more in developing countries especially in Asia to grasp current conditions of urban parks for aiming of establishment of sustainable city and of export of Japanese knowledge and skills related to urban parks.
This study aimed at acquiring planning knowledge and opinions on future parks regeneration; by conducting research on how urban small park regeneration affects utilization patterns and visitor’s satisfaction levels before and after regeneration. As a result, higher levels of satisfaction and time spent in both parks after regeneration were noticed compared to the parks before regeneration. Hanahata Park regeneration, focused on expanding facilities and tree preservation, with zoning that emphasized limitation in space organization. In contrast, Gochoda Park regeneration, focused on expanding facilities and arranging trees, with zoning that expanded space through construction of a square without any limitation. Although these two parks have different design objectives, the purpose of regeneration and demands by local residents have been achieved in both parks, and problems that existed in the parks solved with improved satisfaction and promotion of visitation through changing space organization. In addition, we conclude that a balance of the two opposing views; expanding facilities and preservation of resources is significant for urban small park regeneration in the future.
Children’s “independent mobility”, measured by parental license on children’s activities, means the ability of children to walk their neighborhood without adult accompaniment. Recently, concerns have been raised that decreasing children’s independent mobility negatively correlate with outdoor play of children in many developed countries. Although the relationship between children’s independent mobility and children’s outdoor play assumes to depend on the characteristics of the area children lived, it is not clear. This study aims to identify the area difference of the relationship between children’s independent mobility and their outdoor play. From a questionnaire survey of 2861 children and 2196 parents in five elementary schools located in Tsukuba City, we found the following results. a) Independent mobility of children living in rural areas is lower than those who live in urban areas. b) Children’s independent mobility tends to correlate positive with the number of types, playmates and, places of children’s outdoor play. c) The positive correlation between children’s independent mobility and their outdoor plays in rural areas is stronger than urban areas. d) The reasons of low level of independent mobility in rural areas are longer distance to children’s playgrounds from their homes, parental perceived danger against traffic or crimes, and parental low level of perceived support to their children from their neighborhoods. In conclusion, we discuss the area difference of the relationship between children’s independent mobility and their outdoor play.
This study aimed at explaining the historical transition of the resource values (values of the natural environment) of the National Parks in Japan and the transition of the management style (protection, park use, operation, etc.). Our method involved examining the amendments of the law, reasons of the park designation or expansion, projects to be carried out inside the parks, etc., in the chronological order. The results showed that the scenic aspect of the pristine nature was originally central to the resource value, but that perspectives of fauna, flora and ecosystem conservation were added later, and that the aspects of biodiversity, human-influenced natural environments, and cultural landscapes are becoming more valuable in recent years. The results also showed the transition of the management style, the focus of which was shifted from government-led sanctuary-type protection to the management through cooperation and interaction with local communities.
Based on the data obtained from self-administered mail-back questionnaires to visitors in Shiretoko and Daisetsuzan national parks, this study was conducted in order to improve visitors’ behavior for conserving environmental condition in national park. Results of the survey of visitors’ perception, practice and sense of burden to environment friendly manner were discussed by referring to two social psychological models which were “the decisions making model of environment conscious behavior” and “the dual-process of reactive and intentional decision-making”. There were a few visitors who had sense of burden to environment friendly manner. However, those who didn’t practice environment friendly manner sensed more burden to do it. There were difffernt tendencies of visitors’ perception and practice between the two case study areas. Accoding to the pros and cons of visitors’ perception, practice and sense of burden, classified eight types of combination gave several suggestions for changing visitors’ perception and altering their behavior. Attitude toward environment friendly manner varied with age or occupation. In order to get much more visitors to practice environment friendly manner, we need to create strategies from social psychological views into the properties of classified visitors’ attitude.
The characteristic of the Japanese Ecotourism is that the guide workers make the immediate natural environment (INE) more attractive, as natural tourism resources (NTR) of INE are used for ecotourism resources often. There were many cases that guide workers participate in NTR conservation activities. However, the NTR in national park’s INE requires adaptive management based on evaluation by each region, which needs the consideration on the history of NTR development for management. This study aimed to clarify the relationships between the NTR in national park’s INE and the guide workers. The study was conducted at the Kujuku-shima Islands area in Sasebo City, Nagasaki Prefecture. The methods were the literature survey (administration documents, scientific journals, and newspaper articles) and the hearing survey from 13 stakeholders (administrative officers, researchers, and guide workers). At first, the development history of NTR was categorized into 4 different stages: 1) national park designated period (NPDP), 2) tourism facility development period (TFDP), 3) NTR information development period (NIDP), 4) ecotourism rule deliberation period (ERDP). Second, the relationships between the NTR and the guide workers were revealed by understanding characteristics of NTR investigation which were researched by the guide workers. As a result, the historical research revealed that the NTR is developed with the investigations by experts in the NPDP and the investigations by citizen related to guide works in the NIDP. It was clarified that the guide workers could assist to develop and to conserve the NTR in national park’s INE.
To arrest global warming, it is expected to develop the low-carbon city. In this situation, it is also expected to consider the planning and design of low-carbon urban parks from the various view point. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to discuss the planning and design of low-carbon urban parks based on users evaluation structure. Concretely, 8 model plans of low-carbon urban parks, which were reduced 25% of amount of LCCO2 of the park under present conditions, were considered based on life cycle CO2 (hereafter, LCCO2) evaluation. And a covariance structure analysis of the user evaluation date of these model plans surveyed by the questionnaire, carried out to clarify the user evaluation structure. The results are follows: 1) The user evaluation of several model plans of low-carbon urban parks was higher than the park under present conditions. 2) In low-carbon urban parks, the planning and design specialized few use functions is expected for high user evaluation. 3) Such a low-carbon urban parks specialized few use functions, we could also expect to reduce the cost for development.
In this study, we investigated changes in quantity and function of open spaces before and after housing complex reconstruction in the areas of Senri New Town where there were concentrations of rebuilt housing complexes, and sought out the challenges in open space renovation accompanying housing complex rehabilitation. The results revealed that, in the areas where suppliers of rebuilt housing complexes changed from the public sector to the private sector, both the total area of green spaces and the ratio of green coverage were the same as before the reconstruction of housing complexes. The area of greenery on natural ground and the ratio of tree coverage decreased, while those on artificial ground increased. In the areas where the public sector rebuilt housing complexes, the openness of open spaces remained intact, but their availability declined because of the drastic decrease in green area and the subdivision of open squares after the reconstruction.
Mowing of greenspace is essential for maintaining the designed landscape, its accessibility, and the ecosystem. Mechanical mowing causes environmental impacts such as noise, emission of CO2, and discharge of waste. Moreover, if the frequency of mowing is insufficient, it may lead to infestation of invasive species and degradation of the desired vegetation, and therefore lead to negative impact to the ecosystem. Prescribed grazing by herbivores can be a solution to these issues, but few cases have been conducted in an urban area. In this paper, grazing of an urban greenspace in Tokyo was conducted using goats, and the management methods, effects on the vegetation, and influences to the local residents were studied. It was revealed that the continuous grazing by goats decreased the cover of large perennial weeds including invasive alien species, and fundamental knowledge of prescribed grazing in urban greenspaces was obtained. Also, it was made clear that the grazing with goats had a positive effect on local residents for raising awareness of the natural environment.
Ecotourism is a sustainable sightseeing style through natural environmental consciousness. Nature and Ecotourism Accreditation Program in Australia is highly valued globally. It is very important to understand its real situations. Studies have been already conducted with regard to its historical process and mechanisms. With ecotourism accredited products as subjects, the objective of this study is to clarify the relationship between accreditation year and geographical distribution and relationship between accommodation facilities and geographical conditions. Approximately 54% of accredited products are distributed from eastern Australia to southern Australia, in the same way as World Natural Heritage sites. The number of accredited products is steadily increasing; however, the number heavily increases after 2008. When accommodation facilities are studied according to its year of establishment and the year of accreditation, there are two distinctive groups: One group received accreditation almost simultaneously upon establishment, and the other group required a spread of 10 years or longer in between the facility establishment and accreditation. Among the 41 accommodation facilities studied, 34% are located within the protected areas, and 61% are located within one kilometer from the protected areas. In addition, the characteristics have been clearly understood from classifications of accommodation facilities according to their geographical environment.
In this study, we investigated forest corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities, which have been developed on a national scale, and looked for cooperation possibilities between companies and local communities in forest management and conservation. Companies have already conducted their CSR activities not only at forests close to their offices, but also at relatively small-scale forests, and there is the possibility that a connection will be newly built between companies and local communities through forest CSR activities. Companies which have participated in forest activities have many challenges in terms of internal understanding and cooperative systems, but their activities have not developed into ones that involve local communities. Therefore, it is necessary that companies clearly position forest CSR activities in the organization. In order to make corporate CSR activities sustainable, it is advisable that companies which have created their own forest activities set up a specialized division engaged in the business affairs for forest activities, that companies seek cooperation from local volunteer groups in terms of activity locations, specialized skills, and labor, and that an association is established so that activities can reflect the ideas of local communities.
Participants’ motives constitute a factor that highly impacts continuity and cooperation in forest volunteer activities. To sustain the social mechanism of voluntary activity, it is necessary to clarify the structure of motives for activities. The purpose of this study is to focus on forest volunteer organizations and members who conduct volunteer activities mainly in the Minoh National Forest in Osaka Prefecture, and to clarify the structure of the motives for their activity. Based on a working hypothesis setting the motives, we established a questionnaire and obtained answers from 105 members from 10 groups. Principal component analysis resulted in 6 principal components of the motives. Using indices based on the combined score of the principal components, we analyzed each group’s motives’ general direction, the homogeneity within the group, common elements with other groups they cooperated with, and other factors, and thus clarified the structure of motives.
Landscape is one of the most important resources for tourism in Hokkaido. However, it is not yet clear what kinds of symbols constructing landscape representation are connected with the social construction of Hokkaido. In this study, the combination of a landscape image sketch and a questionnaire of repertory grid method revealed the social construction of Hokkaido through tourist gazes connected with landscape imagery of Hokkaido. The survey among Hokkaido residents, Japanese visitors and Taiwanese visitors was conducted in New Chitose Airport in summer and winter seasons. As a result, the landscape images of rural landscapes were appeared representing ‘vast nature’ common in the Hokkaido residents and Japanese visitors. It implies that the social construction of Hokkaido is affected by tourist gazes through mass media and further penetrates into the residents’ local identity. On the other hand, Taiwanese visitors tended to represent impressive scenes and what they experienced through their sightseeing in Hokkaido. Hokkaido tourisms need to connect the social construction with cultural landscapes including production process and seasonal changes for regional development.
After modernization, photographs are used as a tool to describe landscape correctly. Landscape photographs on the mass media are represented with “way of seeing” by publisher and spread out beyond a local area. The landscape images of those photographs are shared among readers and could be established as common images. However, landscape preservation should be based on the historical and cultural process of landscape images rather than authorized images. This study clarified how landscape images had changed by analyzing the photographs and topics of Kitayama-sugi in Kyoto on the newspapers and magazines, and presented relations between the changes of landscape images and local space. The results: 1) Forest and its change were accepted through the way of seeing not always through how they were seen exactly; 2) The same forest type had changed its way of seeing in the time. The form and method of the forest should be determined according to discuss the forest images. Nowadays local residents raise their concern to have new forest images as a way to preserve the forest, and try to make it possible in landscape preservation and sustain wood production.
The coastal line of our country is long, approximately 35,000km, and various forms such as a muddy beach, a sandybeach, a rocky beach and a cliff. The coastal area was very important area for our life, industry, transportation, etc. from ancienttime. It is important to understand "the mindscape" which a modern Japanese holds for coastal landscape because of the decrease of the natural coast and the terrible recreational use of the coastal area. In this study, it was intended to identify the structure ofcoastal “mindscape” and factors that would influence their mindscape. The questionnaire survey was conducted to graduate andundergraduate students from August to October 2010. The questionnaire was consisted with two main part, survey about figureof the coastal mindscape and individual background of respondents. As a result, the "sandy beach" and sea were the majorcomponent of mindscape. Because most respondents enjoyed sea bathing as recreational use, it was guessed that the viewpointfrom the beach were dominated and inland area, like coastal dune, was not described. About the mindscape of half respondents were influenced by real scenery they had seen, but the remaining respondents were influenced by some kind of media such asphotographs or TV programs.
In this study, the objective has been determined to clarify the following two points with a case study of the Shakujiidai district in the Nerima Ward in Tokyo: 1) relationship between nature experiences and transition of open spaces since the Showa Era, and 2) current actual situation of open spaces and their usage among different generations. With regard to the current situation of nature experiences, elementary school students had sports and activities in relation to trees, grass and flowers, and water. Many responses from respondents in their 20’s and above indicated that they have activities related to trees. As for contents of nature experiences, respondents in their 20’s to 40’s enjoy collection and observation, and those in their 50’s and above mostly enjoy observation. Although details of nature experiences vary according to each generation, trees play an important part when people are exposed to nature. The results of locations indicate that Shakujii Park, which is a large scale “Municipal Park”, “Ward Park” and “Ikoi no Mori” are in use. The average area used for activities was 2,000 square meters and above. “Children’s park” and “ward green areas and green passages” have been found not much in use for nature experiences.
The purpose of this study is to reveal the historical background of Iwase Farm as Japan's first Western ranch across Kagamiishi and Sukagawa city, Fukushima Prefecture. And re-evaluate the value of a complex modern industrial heritage of Iwase Farm. Classified into seven times since opening the ranch up Iwase, said the fact the course. And organized into four categories of heritage resources in the modernization of farms and industry. Iwase Farm, as well as the value of the tangible heritage of modern industry, pastoral industry in the Meiji era technology was introduced directly from overseas to bring the landscape "Westernization" as an example of the value of the combined worth of the intangible to have. Go through the time in more than 130 years been established as the prototype of the Western livestock industry in Japan, came to have a landscape value as a pasture landscape. Japan said that the origin of the pasture landscape planning principles established at the time.
The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution and the actual conditions of people`s uses of footpaths on the river bank in order to clarify the conditions around footpaths and the relationships between footpaths and built circulations. We carried out measuring surveys and behavior observation surveys on-site in the 11km of the lower reaches of Yasu River of the Yodogawa River system. The results were the followings. a) There were 84 footpaths on the river bank in Yasu River and footpaths were distributed over the levee base, major bed, and low water bed. b) The users always went to the waterside through footpaths. c) Footpaths were used for moving to the waterside for longitudinal built circulations. d) Footpaths were always distributed in places which had a good view and the places which were under the bridge. Also, footpaths were possibly distributed in the places which had stairs, ramps, end of roads. e) Maintaining the footpaths could ensure the circulations which conformed with the actual conditions of people`s uses and enhance water accessibility.
In this research, the 276 cases of fixed weirs among the 83 watersheds are investigated of their physical usability as water-familiar spaces. The results are the followings. a) The high level of water-familiarity, which has been already uncovered through the precedent research limited within the specific area, is confirmed to be common among the other areas. b) Visibility of their bodies is mostly limited due to the conditions of the river banks and hindering objects such as trees and sandbanks. Accessibility to their surfaces is also limited due to connectivity between the river banks and their bodies in most cases. c) Usable areas tend to be larger on the surfaces which sectional forms are either boards or steps than on those of trapezoids. d) Only 10% of the riparian spaces have been developed for using the weirs as water-familiar spaces. There is no clear relationship between the spatial characteristics of the weirs and the usages of them for viewing objects while obvious relations are recognized in two cases, one for a pool and the other for a landing site. Issues of balancing the water-friendly activities with the operations for keeping the proper functions of the weirs have been coming out through comparing the conditions between the sides of intakes and the opposites.
The purpose of this study was to clarify; 1) the psychological stress reduction effect (PSRE) that "sunshine filtering through foliage (SFTF)" brings visually, 2) the relation between the effect and the subjective appraisal (SA) of the forest environment otherwise the personality and other traits (PAOT), 3) the system of PAOT- SA- PSRE based on Lazarus’s acting stress model. We showed 2 images such as photos with and without SFTF in the forest as a simulation for 17 subjects, and examined the change in the psychological feelings (POMS; 3-times) by some indexes (PSRE and SA (SD Method; twice)) for each stimulation before and after the experiment in an artificial weather room. As a result, in comparison the presence of SFTF stimulation with the control, it was clarified that "Tension-Anxiety" and "Fatigue" significantly decreased with the control. In comparison the presence of SFTF stimulation with the other, "Vigor" was significantly higher than that of the absence of SFTF otherwise "Tension-Anxiety" was significantly lower. Furthermore, some evaluation indexes of the SA related to PARE received from the both of SFTF, and those evaluation indexes were affected by the respondents’ PAOT such as “Extraversion” and so on.
In this study, we believe it is important to increase traffic in ensuring repeat in tourism destination. Therefore, for tourism destination including natural resources (Tsumago-juku, Nezame no Toko, Akasawa Shizen Kyuyourin Park), revealed the elements of expectation of each target area. And it aimed to clarify the relationship between attributes including the elements of expectation and the evaluation of tourism destination. The results to clarify visitor's image of each tourist destination, it was found to have different element of expectation in each tourism destination. Through analyzing the relationship between the elements of expectation and the evaluation of tourism destination, it was to reveal the following two. 1) The elements of expectation tend to match the evaluation of tourism destination. This means that visitors evaluate the tourist destinations throughout their images of each tourist destination. 2) It found that there are tourist destinations which "Elements representing tourist destination" tend to much "factors influencing evaluation", which they differ.
Development of a low-carbon city is one alternative being considered to address global warming. In addition, evaluation of the effectiveness of life cycle CO2 (hereafter, LCCO2) in reducing CO2 emissions is currently being examined with interest in a number of sectors. In consideration of the current interest in these areas, this study sets out to discuss a method for LCCO2 evaluation in urban areas, and considers means for planning and design of urban environments and landscape planting based on LCCO2 evaluation. More specifically, several urban models differing in terms of urban environment planning and design (such as land use and land cover on landscape planting) were considered and evaluated in terms of LCCO2. The following results were observed: 1) the LCCO2 evaluation method utilized in this study was shown to be applicable to various urban models; 2) under basic conditions the urban model demonstrated that LCCO2 within the non-built coverage area was estimated to be about 158.1t-C/ha; 3) where the urban model’s tree crown cover area was expanded to reduce the amount of LCCO2, the maximum reduction rate of LCCO2 in the non-built cover area was estimated to be about 28.8%; and 4) where land use in the urban model was changed to reduce the amount of LCCO2, the rate of LCCO2 reduction in the non-built coverage area ranged from an estimated 83.0% to 117.0%.
Traditional festivals in rural regions were the pride of the region and the nucleus of the community, and played a major role in the continuation of regional society. However, declining fertility rates have meant that retaining supporters and passing on the traditions have become increasingly difficult. The purpose of this study is to understand the realities of how traditional arts in local traditional festivals are passed on to elementary and middle school students, and to clarify the issues required, using Suzu City, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan as its subject. We interviewed the principals of nine elementary schools and four middle schools in order to understand the situation of activities concerning traditional arts such as drums and flutes at each school. Next, we conducted a questionnaire for all elementary and middle school students, collected 976 responses (97% return rate) and used cross tabulation to analyze the relationship between passing on traditional arts and personal attributes. As a result, it was made clear there were differences in the inheritance process depending on region and family/sibling structure.
The traditional event, “Kyoto Gozan-Bonfire” is one of the annual fire festivals carried out at the Eastern, Northern and Western Mountain surrounding Kyoto city on August 16. It is in conjunction with the famous O-bon festival in Japan, a tradition of seeing the spirits of the dead off. Ritual organizing committees exist at Ginkakuji, Matsugasaki, Nishigamo, Kinugasa and Saga areas. This special tradition is no longer confined to these special areas, but has expanded to involve wider a resident of Kyoto and Japanese. Traditionally, Japanese red pines had been used as bonfire material and also as local resources for daily life or annual events, but the fuel revolution in 1955 caused abandonment of forestry management. As a result, red pines are scarce and only one of five organizing committees can barely manage to get them. There are other additional problems in continuing this tradition despite the people’s intentions to preserve. So, we studied to distinguish the morphology of each bonfire and features of the ritual organizing committees and what is necessary to make this event a success from three point of views: material, talented personnel and funding.
A key task for urban planning in Japan is to incorporate agricultural land uses into the urban fabric and statutory planning. This paper analyzes the process whereby “agricultural zones” were incorporated into the planning of Kohoku New Town, a site designed in the 1960s and recognized as a path breaking attempt to include agricultural land in urban development. Our findings draw from key planning documents and from interviews with key actors in the planning of Kohoku New Town. The results indicate that the primary aim of “agricultural zones” was to augment open spaces and that agricultural and urban land uses were comprehensively incorporated into an open space system that included pathways to connect agricultural and residential areas. However, in the final plan released in 1974, the “agricultural zones” were designated solely for industrial agriculture, a shift which can be attributed to the introduction of the “senbiki” system of strictly separating urban and rural areas in the New City Planning Act of 1968. In addition, the pedestrian paths connecting “agricultural zones” and housing areas envisioned in the open space system of earlier planning stages as a means of integrating agriculture and residential development was also abandoned. Thus, the original plans to fuse agricultural and urban development were discarded during the planning process.
This article proposed a new concept of cultural landscape as cultural properties. To accomplish this aim, two objectives were set. First, discourse of cultural landscape which effected on the category of cultural landscape defined by UNESCO was examined to make a new concept of cultural landscape as cultural properties. Second, a new concept of cultural landscape as cultural properties in terms of land history (historical process of interaction between landscape and society) interpretation was proposed based on the definition of cultural landscape defined by Wagner &Mikesell. Furthermore, landscapes were categorized based on the existence of historical record such as historical maps and documents to trace land history. Based on this concept, four types of landscapes; (1) existence of maps / existence of documents, (2) existence of maps / absence of documents, (3) absence of maps / existence of maps, (4) absence of maps / absence of documents were categorized. From a planning viewpoint, (1) existence of maps / existence of documents was recognized as “cultural landscapes” in this research.
This study addresses the potential for land use control of urban and rural areas through Green Structure Plans developed by municipal governments. First, the current conditions of parks and green open space’s planning system in Tokyo were analyzed. The 130 systems based on municipal ordinance and its own guidelines related Green structure plans of 51 municipal governments in Tokyo were clarified from the viewpoint of feasibility. Second, the key goal indicators of 22 Green Structure Plans were classified and organized. Third, the 2 recent cases of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government were studied to consider the role of prefectural and city governments. As a result of these research, the following 3 points were suggested; 1) To ensure the feasibility of plans, municipal governments should use more variety kinds of tools, 2) The key goal indicators should be more carefully-crafted to evaluate each policies, 3) The important role of prefectural and city governments is to coordinate among municipal governments and support them by technically financially and systematically. Finally, the new relationship between Green structure plans and other plans was proposed to use Green structure plan effectively for land use control.
Place names with life are defined as “names for land or space that are internally shared by the resident population in daily life”.The purpose of this study is to examine the spatial structure of villages on cultural landscape. By employing place names with life, we investigate the characteristics of distribution patterns on land uses. In the present study, we gathered and organized place names with life in Osawa, a traditional village in Wajima City, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. Results show ninety-one (91) place names with life. We then analyzed the village spaces having place names with a focus on topography and land use, and classified them into six (6) types, an easy slope with rivers on either side, a steep slope, planation surface that is surrounded by hills on two sides, yatsu on a small scale, planation surface that faces toward the sea, coastal sea area. The results clarified the characteristics of village spaces having place names as well as the spatial structure in the study location. We also discussed the possibility of using place names with life in the light of classifications on cultural landscape.
In this study, we grasped the status changes of the rural stage of shrines in Kobe by literature survey and on-site survey, and investigated hearing survey about transition and usage to the five shrines where restoration of the rural stage usage was checked. As a result, five shrines can be divided into three groups; "Shimotanigami shrine, Kamitanigami shrine" which receives the designation of cultural properties and the preservation society exists; nevertheless they are managed by governing body, "Aina shrine, Ougo shrine" which council and rural council operates with the support of external organizations and government, and "Kizu shrine" which council and rural council mainly operates with their own. It is considered that good operation and maintenance of rural stage, relation of an external organization with an acceptance of local organization, and government support are important factors for restoration of the rural stage usage.