This paper is a part of the research intends to shed light on the model of ideal scenery in Muromachi period. The aim of this paper is to clarify weather the landscape painting affected the landscape composition of viewing pond gardens in the period. There are eight gardens still exist, and each garden consists of upper part with main stone arrangements and lower one with pond in common. The landscapes of gardens are analyzed by the arrangement of garden elements according to the line of view. In consequence, we have following two distinct types of landscape composition: ‘diagonal type’ and ‘orthogonal type’. Five gardens of ‘diagonal type’ are characterized by the composition that stone arrangements lined along diagonal vector show the unification of garden elements. Three gardens of ‘orthogonal type’ show the vector toward the artificial hills in the center contrasts garden elements lined horizontal. Each spatial composition is illustrated with isometric projection, and considered by comparison to two configuration methods of landscape paintings: ‘three perspective drawing’ and ‘one corner’ composition.
Sojinkan SUGIMURA was a journalist of The Asahi Shimbun Company. He got a property which is located near the Teganuma Lake in Abiko, Chiba Pref. in 1912. After that, he named this property Hakuba‐jo, had lived and ended his life until 1945. On this study, we narrowed the garden space of this property and aimed to clarify the feature as an old private garden by analyzing his essays, expense notes, old photographs and old survey maps. Especially, we examined next three aspects: 1) to clarify the location and surroundings as the place of residence, 2) to represent the spatial layout and to sort out garden elements which were made up through his country life, 3) to find his maintenance policy which was between natural growth and actual life. As a result, Hakuba‐jo garden is characterized by the site specific feature and his sense of nature. On one hand, the property is spread from the hilltop to yatsu (small valley), a spring and a distant view of lake were taken in his life with the garden. On the other hand, the garden was covered with a mass of floral, colorful foliaged trees and wild grasses. The maintenance of these garden features were influenced by his ‘rustic taste’ which was confirmed as the natural style garden, the choice of plants, self‐help maintenance, and the gardening lasted thirty years.
Osaka Castle Park and the tower were rebuilt in 1931 celebrated for the accession of Showa Emperor. The style of the castle tower was studied historical investigation through the building by Prime Minister, Hideyoshi Toyotomi to reconstruct the space of the end of 16 C. However, the building as the heritage and the modern equipment coexisted by the construction of a building of Headquarter on Military Army Division. In this paper, an authentic design concept was discussed by a primary designer of Osaka Castle Park, Hyo’ichi Shiihara who was an engineer of Ministry of the Palace and moved to the Osaka City Bureau in 1920 as a chief of Park section. It becomes clear the description of his design concept with Osaka Castle Park by the comparison between a document written in the year when he moved to Osaka City and the one written after the construction of the Park. His primary concept was the construction of the space of the Emperor in Osaka City like to Tokyo, Kyoto and Nagoya, for example, the Palace as the Imperial Villa and the historical museum of the Emperor’s family and ancestors. As an engineer of Osaka City, his concept on the Park would change to the one beside the standard shown by the City Planning Bureau of National Government.
This paper aims to analyze how the Zhushuishan Park was formed and transitioned and how the mixed culture of three countries was shown in this park. And what should be emphasized is that it is not only the facilities built on the hill that symbolized the colonial culture, but also the space composition and flora landscape. Generally speaking, the Zhushuishan Park was maintained to be the urban green space through the whole modern period. It was firstly developed as the suburban forest in the German period. A large area of Locust from Berlin and Japanese Black Pine were planted on the hill. However, after that, the Qingdao Shrine was constructed here as the national symbol as soon as Qingdao was occupied by Japan. The Cherry Blossom planted inside the shrine strengthened the Japanese culture. The shrine was preserved by the Japanese government until the year 1945. Therefore, the Qingdao Shrine shaped the characteristic of the hill and left a great effect on its space composition. When the Chinese government received the sovereign of Qingdao and carried out the urban planning, the Hill Zhushuishan was kept to be the urban forest and placed into the urban park system. However, in order to emphasize Chinese culture the Cherry Blossom was replaced by Cedar.
The aim of this research is to elucidate the background and circumstances of the conversion of the Kofu Castle site to a park in modern times. In 1873 a decision was made to retain Kofu Castle for military use, and it was transferred to the jurisdiction of the War Ministry. Yamanashi Prefecture requested multiple times that the government sell off the site, and finally plans to hold an exposition provided an opportunity whereby the government leased the site and a park was built on it. In 1917 the site was sold by the government to the prefecture. Subsequent moves by Yamanashi Prefecture to build public facilities, fill in the moat, and turn the site into a park were intended more to make the land suitable for public works than to preserve the castle ruins. In contrast, the people of Kofu and the Kofu City Council advocated for preservation of the ruins. Yamanashi Prefecture was not regarded as a historic site the ruins of a castle.
This research is aimed to clarify the History of the designation of precincts of Kirishima Jingu as a National Park. Kirhishima was a sacred area of Kirhishima Jingu and was managed by it in pre modern history. Honda and Tamura presented Kirhishima Park Plan in 1920. This plan included design of the precincts and forest of the Kirishima Jingu, and “Tennen kouen /Natural Park Theory” of Honda and Tamura laid significant influence on this plan. This plan introduced a concept of National Park to a local society and triggered development by them. However, the evaluation of Kirishima by Honda and Tamura was not very high upon selection of National Parks around 1931. Tourism development of Kirishima progressed after that; however, management of national parks became stagnant during World War II. During that time, usage and further development progressed mainly around Kirishima Jingu.
After World War Ⅱ, Government of the Ryukyu Island (GRI) was established in Okinawa Islands. The Government enacted GRI Parks Law in 1957. Based on the Low, three GRI parks were designated in 1965. Each parks had the character which were recreational element, war memorial, and cemetery park. These characters were able to find out in US National Park System. Before World War Ⅱ, There was an argument to designate new types of national parks in Japanese government. The images of these parks were as follows; recreational area, national park way, national cemetery, etc. In 1957, Japanese Government enacted Natural Parks Law revising of National Parks Law. At that time, the ideas concerning to new types of national parks were not included in National Parks Law. Therefore it is difficult to find out the characters like GRI Parks Law in Japanese Natural Parks Law. From the viewpoint of relationship between enacting Japanese National Parks Law and enacting GRI Parks Law, it could said that GRI Parks Law had unique character, because of the reason that in GRI Parks Law it could find out the elements of new types of national parks which were discussed in Japanese government before World War Ⅱ.
The leaves of Oshima cherry (Prunus Wilson var. speciosa Makino) are edible and used to wrap sakuramochi. Seventy percent of leaves of the Oshima cherry are produced in Matsuzaki town, Izu Peninsula. In this town, cherry trees are cultivated for harvesting their leaves. These trees are closely planted and pruned, enabling them to grow many tillers, which spread out and form the distinctive landscape in this area. In this study, we investigated the actual distribution, forming process of leaves in cherry tree fields, and change in the production process in Matsuzaki town. From the results, we assumed that the number of cherry trees planted corresponded to the amount of charcoal produced. However, the field cultivation method of cherry trees was devised only by the end of the 1960s, after the production of charcoal decreased due to an energy revolution, which resulted in a crisis in the cherry tree leaf production. It was considered that cherry tree fields were distributed throughout Matsuzaki town. However, our results show that these fields are unevenly distributed.
The root system of roadside trees of urban areas does not develop to a driveway side, but develops inside a planting belt or under a sidewalk in many cases. It seems that the state where one side of root zone is restricted affects growth of trees. In this research, we considered experimentally the influence of restriction on one side of a root zone of a cherry tree (Prunus × yedoensis) often planted as a roadside tree. We installed the wall which restricts root zone in the ground of the field at faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University. We planted 6 trees 20cm, 35cm, 50cm and 100cm away from the wall, respectively. We measured about the amount of growth, the growth direction and so on of those roots, branches, and trunks. As a result, we found that dry weight of roots is significantly heavy in trees 20cm away from the wall. Branches of the side of root zone restrictions in trees 20cm away from the wall tended to grow well. Therefore, many branches will grow to driveway side when a cherry tree (Prunus × yedoensis) is planted nearby driveway. We consider that the time and effort for removing such branches as a traffic obstruction may be more consumed.
Cherry tree landscape of Cerasus jamasakura had been most popular for Japanese culture until clonal Cerasus yedonensis was widely planted over the country from Meiji era. In Yoshinoyama, registered as World Heritage in 2004, such original cherry tree landscape has been sustained for more than 1000 years. However, the principle of the way to maintain the landscape has been little argued in terms of physio-ecological aspects of the species. We hypothesize that phenological variation of the species is main role for maintaining cherry tree landscape in Yoshinoyama. For the purpose, flower buds and leaf buds of 171 trees were observed for 26 days in spring of 2011. Temperature was also automatically observed in each site at the duration. Historical weather observation and flowering records were also analyzed for understanding long term situation. We found that populations of Cerasus jamasakura has similar logistical distribution of both buds opening even in different altitude and topography. Chilling temperature may negatively influence on individual trees that the buds open earlier in early spring. This result shows that nursery of Cerasus jamasakura seedlings is compulsory needed because phenological variation in population help cherry tree landscape escape from chilling damage on leafing in spring time.
It is reported that species richness of moor plants in hillside seepage bogs is decreasing. One of the reasons is vegetation succession from low wetland vegetation(i.e., Rhynchosporetum chinensis Hada 1984) to high wetland vegetation (i.e., Moliniopsis japonica community). We conducted vegetation management via harvesting of the Moliniopsis japonica community in August 2011 in order to conserve species richness of moor plants in hillside seepage bogs. In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of harvesting of the Moliniopsis japonica community on species richness of moor plants. We investigated changes in species composition and species richness before/after harvesting, groundwater level, and relative illuminance at the harvesting area. The following results were obtained: (1) species richness increased and new recruitment of moor plants appeared after harvesting. (2) Height and cover of Moliniopsis japonica decreased after harvesting. (3) Compared to the area of high groundwater level and low one, the former was increased the species richness of moor plants and the number of the component of Rhynchosporetum chinensis than the latter. These results indicate that harvesting of the Moliniopsis japonica community in the hillside seepage bog was effective in conserving species richness of moor plants. On the basis of the results, we suggested the short-term method of vegetation management by harvesting the Moliniopsis japonica community.
We measured all woody stems with equal to or larger than 10 cm DBH in the whole area of Tadasu-No-Mori forest, a large-scale mature urban forest in Kyoto city in 2002 and 2010. We examined relationship between basal area increments of three main evergreen broadleaved subcanopy species, Camellia japonica, Ilex integra and Ilex latifolia, and two effect factors, initial size and competitive environments of object trees. Although I. integra and I. latifolia belong to the same genus, these species showed different growth characteristics each other. There was a positive correlation between log-transformed basal area increments of I. integra and their initial DBH. The ratio between the height of object tree and those of the neighbors, and horizontal distances to the neighbors had strongly negative effects on the growths of I. latifolia and C. japonica. I. latifolia and C. japonica had been affected by competitive trees stood within 8 m and 13 m radius from object ones respectively. The proportion of the DBH of object tree to those of competitors, and distances to the competitors had influence on the growths of I. integra. Initial DBH and the best competition index could explain a large proportion of log-transformed basal increments of I. integra (54%).
In urban areas, it is important to conserve biodiversity because biodiversity is the basis of the ecosystem services. This study focused on cicadas because they serve as an indicator of the environmental conditions. We aim to clarify cicada distribution in urban areas and the environmental factors that affect its population and distribution. By using a method for counting the cast-off skins of the cicadas, we recorded cicada population three times during the summer of 2011 at 49 forest sites in Tokyo metropolis. In addition, we recorded environmental factors through field surveys and satellite imagery analysis. The species composition of cicada was analyzed using the Nestedness Temperature Calculator program, and the relationship between the cicada population and environmental factors was analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). As a result, six cicada species and the cast-off skins of five species were found in the studied sites. The species composition of cicada has a nested structure, with one species dominating many sites. The common factors having a statistically significant influence on the cicada population were soil moisture, soil hardness, leaf coverage in the middle layer, height of shrub layer, and average breast height diameter of trees, which were obtained using a GLMM. Among these factors, we also obtained the characteristic factor affecting each cicada species.
Recently, sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) populations have caused significant crop losses (about five billion yen in 2009) in Hokkaido, Japan. The losses have been a severe social problem in eastern Hokkaido, which is overcrowded with the deer. We verified the effectiveness of culling and fencing in reducing crop damage over a 16-year period (1994–2009) in eastern Hokkaido. We constructed models that accounted for the crop damage costs associated with the amount of deer harvest and proportion of fence-protected fields on a municipality scale. The models revealed that fencing is an effective countermeasure for preventing crop damage, while culling is not adequately strong to reduce it. Furthermore, agricultural products were protected effectively if the fences covered at least 25% of the boundary between agricultural fields and forest edges. However, the effectiveness of fences declined over time. Our results suggest that increased culling pressure and regular fence maintenance are both required to ameliorate crop losses due to sika deer.
In this study, we investigated the usefulness of Vargula hilgendorfii as an indicator species from the community structure of benthos. The study areas included 36 stations at 5 sandy beaches in southern Osaka. The occurrence of benthos and environmental conditions were assessed by the Smith-McIntyre grab sampler. 142 species were identified from 3350 benthos. According to the results of two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN), identified species were classified into 7 community types, and stations were classified into 6 groups. The community type to which V. hilgendorfii belongs included rare species and species for fisheries. As the results of indicator species analysis (INSPAN), V. hilgendorfii was extracted as an indicator species of a group I that much of benthos appeared. And the frequency of V. hilgendorfii in the group I (89.7%) was the highest among indicator species extracted by INSPAN. In addition, as 6 groups were ordered by detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), it revealed that the group I had the extremely narrow condition that sandy bottom is oxidized. These results suggested that V. hilgendorfii is useful as an indicator species of the sandy beach where should be given priority to conservation for benthos.
Many plants, including alien plants, are introduced to cover embankments or to plant in riverbed park zones during the course of river management. However, many alien plants have escaped and established in riparian environments. Some alien plants have negative effects on nature conservation and river management. Therefore, estimations of the risk of escape and establishment are needed for the ecologically safe use of useful alien plants. In order to clarify regional differences in the escape risk of alien plants, we conducted a questionnaire investigation to assess the amount of alien plants introduced by river management, and we compared the occurrence of alien plants in the riparian environment using the dataset of a national survey on river environments. The results showed that many species of alien horticultural plants were used. In contrast, only a small number of alien revegetation plant species were used; however, these were used in huge amounts. On the basis of the regional differences in occurrence and introduction amount, we clarified the risk of 39 alien species as follows: species having a high escape risk nationwide; species having a high escape risk in the Hokkaido and Tohoku areas, but with a low escape risk in warmer regions; and species having low escape risk in riparian environments nationwide.
The purpose of this study was to reveal the relationships between floristic patterns and environmental factors at the landscape scale in order to develop effective methods for conservation of plant species diversity in paddy field landscapes. We selected 9 study sites according to various characteristics of topography, condition of paddy field consolidation, and degree of urbanization in Kamiina district, Nagano Prefecture. The floristic survey was done for 10 landscape elements in each site from March to November, 2009, 2010 and 2011. Using TWINSPAN and principal component analysis (PCA), we revealed that floristic patterns were affected strongly by the topographical features (e.g., relative height, elevation and urbanization). In mountainous sites, paddy slopes were rich in grassland plants. In plain sites, roads and paddy levees were rich in alien plants, while paddies and waterways were rich in aquatic plants. The presence of soil waterway was deeply related to the diversity of aquatic plants in paddy levee. The condition of paddy field consolidation affected the diversity of grassland plants in paddy slope. These environmental factors at different spatial scales should be considered for conservation planning of plant species diversity within landscape elements that need to be preferentially preserved in paddy field landscapes.
In Japan, there are many kinds of historical structures which are temples, shrines, private house and so on. Such structures should be observed by landscape architects or researchers due to conservation of landscape assets. With this objective, a software which can be operated as a measurement tool was developed in this investigation. The algorithm of the software is constituted by photogrammetric theory, and assumed the measurement of the historical structures by using a smartphone. The smartphone can be performed taking images and positioning by using GPS. Therefore, a field survey of a historical structure was performed by using only the smartphone, and measurement for the structure was attempted by using the developed software. The traditional photogrammetry was required some ground control points (GCP) or scale factor in measurement space. Nevertheless, the software can be operated by using only taking images and positioning data. As a result, the measurement of the historical structure was realized, and checking accuracy for the measurement was performed. As the further work, measurement accuracy will be improved by resolve of some problems, and user interface of the software will be arranged. These issues should be resolved due to the software will become operational tool for landscape field survey.
The removal of Coreopsis lanceolate that was designated an invasive alien species have been attempted in river levees. However, in some cases, due to that it is not the best timing to perform the herbicide, there is also a risk of spreading the habitat not only to achieve the effect of the control. For full effectiveness, it is necessary to know the exact timing of flowering and fruiting of C. lanceolate in the region. Therefore, we have studied a method to understand quantitatively the amount of flowering, by analyzing the images captured using a time-lapse camera. Image analysis was performed in two ways, bloom color extraction and calculation of GRVI(Green-Red ratio Vegetation Index). Flowering color extraction results were in good agreement with the trends in the number of flower heads. As a result, we have confirmed that to shoot consecutive images by time-lapse camera, is an effective technique that can substitute for field measurement of the number of flowering.
The aim of this research is revealing the spatial relationship between garden pavilions and design of the waterside in eight gardens of Suzhou registered as a World Heritage Sites. By analyzing the spatial patterns in the elevation of the waterside and pavilions, it tries to understand the pond design that is a united spatial vocabulary with the architectural character of pavilions. This spatial relationship is analyzed by constructing graphic of spatial patterns consisting of the elements surveyed in each garden through the field survey. Through the analyses of surveyed data, followings are observed; the pavilion primarily used for viewing the garden and for a rest is arranged with the waterside of natural-shaped rocks, and most of its foundation are combined with waterside by using natural-shaped rocks, and on the other hand, the pavilions for ceremonies and meetings have the waterside with artificial cut stones. This study concludes not only the importance of considering pavilions as a united set with the landscape design of the shore, but also morphological relationship of pavilions with the design of the waterside. Thus, its shape of the foundation is combined with waterside and has strong influence on whole shape and landscape characteristics of the pond.
This study takes Chinese Summer Palace and Korean Changdeokgung Palace garden as study sites, interpreting Horizontal tablets’ meaning along with architects, aims to compare the characteristic of spaces in the two imperial palaces. The findings are: many horizontal tablets in Chinese Summer Palace have relationship with landscape characteristic, such as: surrounding nature, natural phenomena, overlooking and so forth. Meanwhile, through expressing landscape impressions in literature way, giving meanings to horizontal tablets, to deepen its space characteristic. However, Horizontal tablets in Changdeokgung Palace garden show a strong concept of Confucianism, which is considered as the basic ideology of that era. Confucianism emphasizes human physical- spirit connection, including morality, endurance, studies and so forth, this concept is also reflected in architects’ function and palace elements. In a word, the horizontal tablet in Chinese and Korean Imperial Palace, not only connecting architect and garden space physically, but also reflecting cogitation and culture at that time, thus it is a significant element to expand our understanding to imperial palaces.
In terms of composition elements, spatial forms and flow lines, the authors of this thesis respectively investigated and analyzed the entrance space, main-square space and subsidiary spaces of the campuses of the only three colleges/universities in Nanjing (including National Central University (NCU), University of Nanking (UN) and Ginling College (GC)) in the period of the Republic of China (ROC) (1912-1949), with a view to ascertaining the features of spatial composition of university campuses in Nanjing in the period of the ROC. According to the research findings, the key composition features of each of these three universities are “principal axis + stub-end buildings + main square in the style of three-sided courtyard + lawn space” in the Western style, the separation of teaching space and dormitory space, and the setting of large-sized sport spaces. In addition, based on the Chinese-style treatment of campus buildings and spaces, church universities present a style combining both Chinese and Western elements for the “localized” missionary purpose. In contrast, campus spaces of national universities assume a “completely Westernized” style different from the traditional one, so as to convey the brand-new administrative philosophy of the National Government.
We investigated the relationship between the behavior characteristics of butterflies and spatial characteristics of Namba Parks which has nine floors and the stepped roof garden. We divided the study area into 16 areas and measured spatial characteristics such as green space condition and the floor level. According to the transect count method, a negative correlation was not observed between the number of butterflies and floor level, so height of buildings was not an obstacle for the appearance of butterflies. And a correlation was observed between the number of butterflies and the green coverage ratio and the number of species of plants. Additionally by the single-individual trailing method, it became clear that the behavior characteristics of butterflies was affected by visibility of planting, the wall greening and the arrangement nectar resource plants. As a result, it became clear that the stepped roof garden influenced on the behavior of butterflies in Namba parks.
Many local governments in the area struck by the Great East Japan Earthquake incorporated construction plan of memorial parks which transmit memories and lessons of earthquake disaster into the restoration plans from the earthquake disaster. But there is no model design plan, or management plan to be referred for the planners who will make these plans. On the other hand, in Hyogo Prefecture there are many parks and park facilities which were constructed in the restoration projects after the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster to transmit memories of the earthquake disaster and have been managed for these nearly fifteen years at the longest. So, this research is aimed to get many suggestions for design and management plans of earthquake disaster memorial parks which will be constructed in East Japan, by analyzing present situation and the past history of earthquake disaster memorial parks in Hyogo Prefecture. As the results, we made clear that 1) Facilities in memorial parks which transmit memories of earthquake are classified into four groups of facilities for transmitting the memories or lessons and one group of facilities for giving benefits to users, 2) Facilities for transmitting the memories or lessons are thought to be effective by the managers, 3) Remains of earthquake should be conserved against disapproval of citizens in early time, because the needs for conservation increase later according to citizens’ consciousness changes, and so on.
In the tendency that a budget decreases, it is a subject for national government parks (NGPs) to manage effectively and efficiently. Therefore, park managers in NGP must establish the method of park management. The purpose of this study is to develop the method of public advertisement and public relations in NGPs. This study shows that public relations are confused with advertisements and difficulty of an effect measurement and an evaluation. From the analysis on results of activities of public advertisement and public relations in NGPs, there are five different techniques that had been carried out, few parks to put the professional staff, confusion with advertisements and public relations. Advertisements and public relations in NGPs include future tasks, 1)clarification of public relations and advertisement, 2)establish methods for measuring and evaluating the effect, 3)selection methods of information dissemination, 4)implementation of efficient and effective park management.
In last few decades, one of the most widely studied theories in predicting landscape preference is the framework of coherence/complexity/legibility/mystery described by Kaplan and Kaplan. The aim of this study was to present a conceptual integration of these four factors and to investigate the efficiency of these four factors by literature survey. 44 experimental articles were collected from Journal of Environmental Psychology and Environment and Behavior in this study. Besides, 14 Japanese articles were collected from Journal of The Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture. The results show the framework’s integration in theory and application. In addition, coherence/complexity/mystery shows the efficiency in different settings but legibility remains uncertain. Moreover, the results of Japan literature show a connection between preference and natural setting, but evaluation factors have little systematic attention in the present study. Some suggestions for future studies were also discussed in this article.
Beneficial effects of forest walking have been reported by previous basic researches. However, practical data about existing health tourisms still remain insufficient. This study aimed at clarifying how the participants' moods change in the course of the forest walking in Kaminoyama. Kaminoyama in Yamagata prefecture is promoting a health tourism connecting the hot spring and forest walking. The questionnaire about mood alteration was conducted three times during rest breaks as well as before and after the walking program. The Questionnaire included a mood scale of 12 items concerning ‘Active mood’, ‘Relaxed mood’ and ‘Negative mood’. To point out the factors of mood changing, the respondents were also asked about their impressive points in the walking program. The results showed that participants' ‘Active mood’ and ‘Relaxed mood’ enhanced and ‘Negative mood’ was mitigated gradually in the course of the walking program. Even on a rainy day ‘Negative mood’ was reduced. It was suggested that participants' moods change is interactively affected not only by natural environments but also by physical characteristics of the trail, information from guides and communication with other participants.
The purpose of this research was to investigate an attention restorative effect in the short-term staying of the on-site forest environment, using PRS based on an attention restoration theory (ART). Participants were 45-male-university students in their early twenties. The city environments where were the daily living environment were chosen as the control for experiments and in which the same experiment of the forest environments were conducted by the same schedule. To cancel an order effect, participants were divided into two groups and both groups were taken to the both environment to experience each of them during two days. After an experience in the each environment was finished, participants were asked to answer to PRS questionnaire. As a result, the appraisal of "Preference" for the forest environment was significantly higher than for the city environment on the contrary to that of "Familiarity". Then, the score of the indexes ("Being away", "Fascination", "Scope", "Compatibility") derived from ART after the experience of the forest environment was significantly higher than that of city environment. Consequently, there was psychological restorative effect in forest environment comparatively, from the viewpoint of ART and their traits were confirmed.
Satoyama is expected to work as a cooling spot in recent years. On the other hand, in most satoyama, weeds are growing thick by abandonment of satoyama conservation. Compared with the satoyama which has been kept well by weeds control, in satoyama where weeds has not been controlled, it is expected that cold air spread from satoyama is obstructed by lush weeds. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify the influences of weeds control on the effects of air flow at night in satoyama. In this study, air flow was visualized by smoke generator and laser in satoyama, and shot at both areas where weeds have been cut or not. Then the video of air flow was analyzed with 2D fluid analysis, and the speed of air flow in both areas was calculated and compared. As a result, compared with the area where weeds have not been cut, the speed of air flow was faster in the area where weeds have been cut. It showed the possibility that cold air spread was obstructed by lush weeds in satoyama, and it would become faster by weeds control. Currently, the necessity of satoyama conservation has been mainly pointed out from biodiversity conservation. However, the higher motivation of satoyama conservation can be expected by the result of this study which showed the possibility of thermal environment mitigation by satoyama conservation.
The objective of this study is to clarify the distribution and actual usage of footpaths in the river space where there are plenty of users of moving behavior, and whether the footprints` conditions will vary while the main use type of the river space varied. We carried out measuring surveys and behavior observation surveys on-site in the 2.4km of the upper reaches of Kamo River of the Yodogawa River system. The results are the followings. a) The footpaths located in the levee base are vertical with the longitudinal built circulations, and are used as short paths between the longitudinal built circulations. The footpaths located in the major bed are parallel with the longitudinal built circulations, and are used as walk paths in the water`s edge and paths for users to avoid each other. b) The characteristics of footpaths` distribution are influenced by the situations of using and built circulations. c) When developing paths, we can anticipate the paths` places according to the characteristics of footpaths` distribution. And, we can wait for the emerging of footpaths and develop them.
The actual conditions of utilization of fixed weirs for water-familiar activities were investigated through asking those who manage the weirs and visiting some of those actually used in 255 cases of 79 watersheds. The results are the followings. a) 5 of them are utilized of their bodies as water-familiar spaces. Only one of them is utilized for admiration of flowing water. These facts are contradicted from what the previous researches implied their possibilities for water-familiar activities. b) Guided tours of the weirs are relatively popular among the cases, because it is rather easy for the administrators to secure visitors’ safety. It implies the possibilities of enhancing the aspect of water-familiar experience during the guided tours. c) Several safety measures are implemented in the cases in which the weirs and their surroundings are utilized as spaces, such as installation of safe passage and attendance of guides. They imply the possibility of coexistence of safety controls and water-familiar uses.
The conservation and restoration of the Oguraike Pond has become a critical issue during the recent construction of water and greenery networks in the Kinki region. In order to find hints and efficient ways to restore the wetland landscape, it was necessary to identify the characteristics of both the original natural landscape and the associated cultural context surrounding the pond. This research utilized a database of Edo-period meisho-zue (pictures of noted places) and extracted drawings, descriptions and geographical locations of selected scenic sites to analyze waterside landscape elements, landscape spatial patterns, and the distribution of scenic sites around Oguraike Pond during the Edo period. The results revealed rich waterside culture concerned with waterborne transportation, commerce, fisheries, and recreation. The waterside culture of the time appeared in the pictures as ferries, market boats, fishing boats, and boats for recreation, as well as by a range of human boating activities. Nine main types of Edo-period landscape spatial pattern models were found to have constituted the wetland landscape surrounding the Oguraike Pond. They were mainly comprised of ponds, rivers, fish pools, settlements, shrines/temples, tea cultivated lands, and paddy fields. Most of temples, shrines, and settlements in the Suzaku direction of Kyoto were located within 0–4 km of Oguraike Pond.
Shore scenery with white sand and green leaves of pine gave a deep impression to both of Japanese and Korean. Set phrases like that "hakusha-seisho" or "baegsacheongsong", meaning such a beautiful scene, exist between the two countries. This study aims to sort out the literatures of the two countries related to this expression and to clarify the origin of phrase and its transformation. It is said that the person who had an influence on the tradition in Japan is Imagawa Ryoushun(1326-?), but oldest record about this phrase is done by Song Huigyeong(1376-1446) who was a literary man of Joseon Era. We performed the keywords search of the Boolean operator by using a Korean classic database and considered the data of the two countries. Therefore, many examples which were not known to Japan were found, and the earlier poem which is written by Yi Saek(1328-1396) who was a literary man of Goryeo Era was discovered. Jeong Mongju(1337-1392), a close friend of Yi Saek, visited Japan as a diplomatic delegation and met Kyushyu-tandai Imagawa Ryoushun. The possibility that similar expressions between the two countries has begun to interchange from the end of 14th century is indicated.
This is the study for the "landscape foreignization" describes the perceptional and semasiological changes of humans "view" including body and mind, to their surrounding. This study is in the case of art installation in the open celling space of Osaka red cross hospital ward for inpatients. According to the result of the questionnaire survey, there were 3 difference types of the consciousness, "conscious", "no conscious" and " never conscious" to the open celling space before installation. And regardless of the difference of these consciousness, there was the impression and view change after installation to some extent. And spatial assessment to the open celling space after installation is increase with the decrease the consciousness to the open celling space before. And these difference of the consciousness before caused the difference of the condition of landscape foreignization. The condition of the landscape foreignization among For the group of "conscious" to the open celling space, it is the limited landscape foreignization depends on the image of installation.For the group of "no conscious", it is the comprehensive landscape foreignization depends on the rediscovering the space in addition to the image of installation.For the group of "never concious", it is the space specialized landscape foreignization depends on the first discovery the space caused by the installation.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the recognition of “Favorite landscape” in individual consciousness and “Districted identifying landscape” in group consciousness by focusing on the residence experience at city scale. In this article, Asahikawa city in Hokkaido prefecture was selected as object of the study. And some college students with residence history were asked to sketch or answer questions about “Favorite landscape”, “Districted identifying landscape” and “The number of residence years in Asahikawa city”. Irrelevant to residence year, it came to a result that, legible landscapes with certain form features are tend to be recognized readily as a collective cognition. Moreover, it is suggested that the collective cognition of those legible landscapes could be enhanced by accumulated knowledge and understanding of the region as the growing of residence year.
The purpose of this study is to clarify whether and how the spatial sphere that is shared by majority of people is identified. First, the experiment was conducted to draw spatial spheres using the Japanese verbs “Hairu” and “Deru” outdoors. Second, using the originally devised measurement of similarities, and the cluster analysis, the spatial spheres drawn by the subjects were divided into several groups, and the average shapes of the grouped spatial spheres were delineated. Finally, throughout the comparison between the characteristics of the shapes of the spheres and the spatial environment of the experimentation site, it was confirmed that it is fair to say that the spatial spheres that are shared by majority of people exist, and the spheres appear under the influence of spatial characteristics of the surrounding environment.
Rice terrace landscape has attracted much attention as typical cultural landscape. However, the attention tends to be focused on apparent feature of well-stacked rice terraces. Instead of the external appearances, this study tried to understand some rice terrace landscapes as “landscape structures” and discussed their application for the conservation of cultural landscape. Landscape structures were defined as relationships among various environmental elements both in natural (i.e. topographical direction, edges and areas) and social (i.e. land use hierarchy from village center to its fringe) aspects. 39 villages in Matsunoyama district, Tokamachi City, Niigata Prefecture were examined, using topographical maps and aerial photographs, and 5 types of landscape structure were extracted. Though the most frequent type was observed in small villages, recognition should be given to each and all type of landscape for whole district’s landscape conservation with sustainability.
In Yakushima, which is a World Heritage site, limitations in visits are considered from the nature conservation perspectives; while there is an opinion that such limitations would negatively affect tourism which supports lives of islanders. In this study, the objective was defined to clarify “expectation and satisfaction with Yakushima tourism” among Yakushima tourists and travel trade. Attitude surveys were conducted with tourists (n=492) and travel trade (n=70). Firstly, tourists expected more about attractive nature and eco-tour experience than travel traders imagined. This indicates that tourists firmly recognize the strength of the value and brand of the attractive nature of Yakushima and the eco-tour experience there. Secondly, tourists were more satisfied with Yakushima tour in terms of attractive nature and eco-tour experience than travel traders imagined. Actually, their expectation exceeded their satisfaction. When future measures for Yakushima tourism are developed with the above study results, it is expected that those measures would contribute to activate the local community. Therefore, it may be considered very important to continue to maintain the high value of Yakushima’s nature in the future.
This study aims to clarify the traditional ‘the Ancient Capital Tourism’ in Kamakura and its succession, paying close attention to the historical tourism resources, scenic landscape resources, tourism routes and sojourn hubs. In this paper, a local topography and three travelogues written by tourists, was focused on as a reference for modern tourism. Thirty-nine historical tourism resources, but not Kanazawa, were to be seen in the area; therefore it was presumed that Kanazawa was dropped from the tourism region belonging to Kamakura. And then, these tourists didn’t draw up travel plans because they followed regional guides. As for the scenic landscape resources, view point of early modern changed view object of modern time. On the other hand, descriptions of ‘Kanazawa’ which were often seen in the descriptions of Kamakura tourism until the early-modern times were seldom seen, and it was supposed that those two areas had been cut off from the Kamakura tourism region that they used to belong to by the laying of the railway and readjustments by the administration. Therefore, the modern tourism period seems to be a time when the ‘Ancient Capital Tourism,’ established in the mature period of early modern tourism, was in decline as a result of the alienation of the scenic landscape resources and sojourn hubs from the historical tourism resources.
Due to long history and multi-culture, China has abundant world cultural heritage resources. This paper focuses on the administration and management of world cultural heritage in China. Not only reviews and assesses on administration and management types, the authors also gives an introduction of the related laws and polices on world cultural heritage in this country. Furthermore, the purpose of this study is to figure out the characteristics of the administration and management of world cultural heritage in China based on a glance research over the subjects. The results show that the main constituent of the administration and management is changing: from commercial enterprises to governmental organizations. Besides it also indicates that lots of laws and policies have been developed to protect and manage the world cultural heritage. However, it’s worth noting that the issued authorities are multifarious. Most of the world cultural heritage sites have their own professional management organizations, which are founded by different higher governmental authorities. This paper appeals the Chinese government to set up a unified organization to conduct all related items, and promulgate corresponding laws and policies.
It is said that cherry tree planting in Yoshino has the history of 1300 years, and tens of thousands of cherries can be found today. However, there is no detailed record about planted location, numbers, etc. This research is the first quantitative analysis of landscape change in Yoshino. We defined a study area of 516 ha and picked up 3 periods (the Meiji era, 1970s, and the present), then sorted land use of each era with ArcGIS (Esri). The information sources we used were cadastral maps (made in 1881-1887) for the Meiji era, and aerial photographs for 1970s and the present. We also surveyed the contents of the oldest Japanese tourism magazine, Tabi, to clarify the trend of tourism both at local and national level, and the people’s perception of landscape in Yoshino. Yoshino region has changed from an agricultural commune to a tourist resort, and experienced the expansive afforestation between these two ages. This study clearly showed the transition of land use and resulting landscape under the influence of these social/communal conditions. In addition, changes in people’s perception of landscape of cherry trees were also pointed out.
This paper takes the constitutional and distribution features of the surrounding exterior space of the city gate of Chongqing in the late Qing Dynasty as the research focus. It analyzes and studies the constituting and structuring forms of the gates, wharfs, temples, and bridges. In addition, the inhabitants’ occupations and the arrangement forms of inhabitant buildings were examined. This research has revealed the following human purposes of the various spaces. The open-gate space was the gathering and dispersing center of the flow of humans and goods. The closed-gate space was the gathering place for religious and cultural activities. The Converging Zone was the space predominantly used for political functions. The Yangtze River Zone was the space that served primarily commercial functions. The Land Zone was the space for religious functions. The Jialing River Zone was the space for transportation and agriculture. The constituting features of the surrounding exterior space of the city gate reflected the idea of “the Golden Mean,” and the implications of the “Four Gods” influenced the function distribution of the surrounding exterior space of the city gate.
This research aims to verify that the way of the residential area where we can hear the song of the insects in residential area should be carried on, by clarifying the condition of green space to be able to have insects. As the results, it is clear that the forms of green space the insect appears a lot in residential area are in farmlands, the weed lands of the river location, and the other weed lands. However, it is hard to maintain a new farmland in residential area. Thus, it is important to preserve if it still exists. In contrast, the weed land is able to maintenance in residential area. It is effective in appearance with various singing insects in residential area with highly maintained weeds for a certain level of a scale. In addition, there are many chirping insects in the fringe of existing green space than the center of the residential area. There is difference in the audio range of the chirps, so consideration is necessary for the placement of the corridor to the downtown and the placement of the green space. So to sum it up, it is useful for community design where we can hear the songs of the insect, to maintain weeds in residential area with the planning.
This paper aimed at measuring children’s idealized vision of natural surroundings in their neighborhood analyzing their drawings in local area. As a result of this study, 3,368 elements were extracted out from children’s drawings, and multivariate analysis revealed that children’s drawings could classify into four types, according to those elements as analysis values. Moreover, natural elements were drawn not only “Nature Oriented Type” drawings but also “Urbanization Oriented Type” drawings, even if many of latter cases were recognized as background elements in urban area. Besides, as a result of comparison among the ratio of natural elements in the investigation area using GIS, it was clarified that children tend to recognize mountain as distant landscape in urban area, and recognize river as a part of living space in urban district.
In recent years, there has been a concern in regards to abandonment and under -utilization of agricultural lands in urban areas due to decrease in housing development and lack of management. However, these sp aces should be seen as an important natural asset to the local region. These conditions are due to current restrictions in land policy and land use regulations t hus there is a need to seek a suitable framework to manage these lands in a sustainable manner. It is known that local citizen's needs of getting in touch with agriculture and nature is arising. Thus in this case, it is important to establish a community based agricultural land management system and to point out the factors upon spreading the system. The survey was conducted in Hino city. Through the survey, it is known that several types of agricultural lands have been merged to create a management system to cater a multifunction agricultural land. As a conclusion, in order to support a community ba sed land management at a regional level, land purchasing by the government, establishment of an organization that acts as a middle person are necessary to sust ain these agricultural lands.
Resident consciousness of natural disasters and use of natural resources is a factor that highly impacts effectiveness in natural disaster management and planning. The present study focused on the consciousness of local residents in Kamimiyazu, Miyazu city in order to clarify the relationship between a resident’s use of natural resources in daily life and his or her consciousness of natural disasters. We carried out a questionnaire survey in 2008 and obtained answers from 333 residents (ab out 50% were female). We also conducted interviews with residents between 2008 and 2012. In Kamimiyazu, natural disasters are frequent. Flooding or debris flow have often affected residents and damaged lands. However, disaster history has not been handed down sufficiently. We analyzed the motives for disaster preparation and behavior in the event of a natural disaster in relation to a resident’s use of natural resources and his or her daily activity in nature. Some residents who use natural res ources in daily life were highly conscious of the natural envi ronment. Based on the results we concluded that a greater degree of interest in the natural environment and a higher frequency of nature-related activity can be effective in the improvement of a region’s disaster resilience.
The purpose of this study is to investigate and clarify the issues of crime prevention signboards through fieldworks and questionnaire surveys in suburban areas of Japan. We aim to clarify 1) relationship between current crime prevention signboards in town and people’s crime prevention consciousness, 2) structure of people’s positive attitude toward the augmentation of signboards, and 3) preferable crime prevention signboards design and way of installation which people feel impressively and strongly remember. It became clear that nearly half of people increase their crime prevention consciousness by signboards, people with strong concern about their town and community have positive opinion toward the installation of more signboards, signboards installed at the right angle to the direction of road tends to remain in people’s memory, and so on.
The concern with planning of compact city has been growing. But few city practices it. It is quite likely that Japanese people have a fixed idea as linear urban district. Because Japanese cities developed along the intercity roads, instead European cities developed in the walls. The actuality of linear commercial district may be the knowledge to consider about the compact city adapted for Japanese cities. For this reason, this paper aims to clear the actuality of linear commercial district in the connection with previous urban area or new city planning roads. It can be comprehend the image of the urban area or its ideal dimension. For this purpose this paper treats 120 cities that adopt land use control. The analysis gives the following results: 1)117cities adopt the linear commercial district, 2) 90cities fixed linear commercial district along the new planned roads, and it means create new roadside shops. 3) Almost cities fixed it along the wide roads. 4) The mean of zoning of linear commercial district described in documents didn’t reflect each cites’ condition. 5) About 60% of the cities planned networked linear commercial district on bigger area than existent urban district.
This study aims to clarify the issues that local governments face with regard to land use control in Urbanization Control Areas by clarifying the nature of such land use, and by investigating the effects that the deregulation of Development Permission have on it. Focusing on local government in the Suburban Development and Redevelopment Areas of metropolitan areas, a questionnaire and interview investigation was conducted on the issues and on the original contents of measures on land use. In addition, the development location trends of the Urbanization Control Area were investigated for Kisarazu-shi, Chiba. Results revealed that although the issues of land use in the Urbanization Control Area were unchanged by deregulation―the location of stock-yards, the diversion of agricultural land, and the location of social welfare facilities―it became clear that for prefecture in general things had changed. Furthermore, in basic municipalities that have the right to give the Development Permission, because the standards for prefectures are uniform, it became clear that regional peculiarities make it difficult to say whether appropriate land use control had been implemented.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate forest and residential area distribution based on externality. For this purpose, we employ hedonic approach for calculating appropriate distance from forest to residential area and externality of forest for residential area. And we analyze forest and residential distribution in each 23 ward. The results were as follows. 1) Externality of forest was the most fit to land price when forest from land price point was within 300m. And, partial regression coefficient of the forest cells within 300m from land price point was 320.7. 2) Externality in forest cell to residential area was higher in wards of city center and more forest. In contrast, it was lower in wards of the eastern area of Tokyo and lowland. 3) Externality in residential area cells from forest was higher in wards of the western area of Tokyo and more residential areas. In contrast, it was lower in wards of less residential area. 4) Externality in forest creation assumed cells was higher in wards of more residential area. In contrast, it was lower in wards of less residential area.