This paper researches the former Gen-ichi Toyama Residence (Toyama Memorial Museum) Garden to define the composition, design and materials and discuss its value as a cultural property. The main discussion points are as follows; (1) Formality and Tradition: The garden has the family shrine in the north-east corner (Kimon), and the family cemetery in the south-west corner (Ura-kimon). The buildings were positioned around the northern area like flying gees (Gankougata), the main garden was designed in the southern area. (2) Totality of the composition: the garden has 6 areas, and they were positioned with buildings harmoniously. The composition has a spatial unity, physically and visually. (3) Modernity and sophistication: We can see general modern garden style features in the wide lawns and the curving streams. Additionally, the techniques of step stones in the stream, shore stones and artificial stone objects are sophisticated. (4) Continuance from the Showa period to the present: The sculptures and a museum from the late 20th century were located in the garden, the original garden form was kept well. These were the elements also seen in as the Toyama memorial museum garden. We can follow the history of the garden from the physical aspects.
Park location, participation by residents, and the establishment of museum are thought of as characteristics of Hakodate Park. These characteristics of the park were created between 1874 when the park was opened and 1878 when park renovation was undertaken. This study discusses how the administration and local people related to each other to create those characteristics, and takes a socio-cultural perspective to examine the social background of the park’s establishment by using administrative records, newspapers, etc. Those materials revealed how modern spatial concept of the park coexisted with spatial conceptions of park location in a pre-modern town structure in opening Hakodate Park. The issues pointed out by the Tokyo Bureau when the Hakodate Branch applied to open a park in 1874 had affected the new proposal of setting up a museum on the park site by the Hakodate branch, and the proposal triggered donations by prestigious townspeople who responded positively to the new idea. In addition, it was revealed that the creation of the “Tsukiyama (artificial small hill)” by the labor of the residents was a collaborative achievement between citizens who sympathized with the attitude of the administration through newspapers, and government which approved the proposal of the influential townspeople.
This study focus on the spatial feature of the Old Summer Palace from the language of plants in the literature collection of poems by emperor. Through the language of plants, the research analyses the representation of courtyard, and gets that: the plants appeared in livings spaces and touring spaces are mostly expressing the moral honesty and great wealth. At the same time, the peach trees appeared frequently in livings spaces to express the seclusion thought. Farm crops also appeared frequently in touring spaces to emphasize the thought of paying attention on farming. In the religious spaces, the plants are appeared less, and just for ornamental values. There are Pinus only on the political spaces, the plants are not important on this kind of spaces. Overall, the plants are not only the natural beauty of the landscape, but also the expression of the spiritual world beyond the reality.
This research goes beyond previously existing research in classifying the visual effects techniques employed at the Gardens of Versailles; the research is based on new on-site confirmation of the effects, and it also details some newly discovered visual effects techniques. The following three points have been made clear. First, looking west from the terrace above the Latona Fountain, the three vanishing points of the lines of perspective of the Latona flower beds, the Royal Way (the Green Carpet), and the Grand Canal, respectively, appear to gradually climb higher and higher, due to the difference between the slope of the land and the slope of the surface of the water, and this evokes an impressive soaring sensation. Second, the two pieces of land at the front slope downwards, and the Grand Canal is flat, but the illusion of an intersecting slope causes the surface of the water of the Grand Canal to appear to be facing forwards and rising up, in an extremely striking visual effect. Third, we can assume that Le Nôtre composed these effects deliberately.
The south gate of the Imperial Audience Hall compound was at the center of the Fujiwara palace and capital (694–710). In front of the gate, seven pits were excavated in 2016. These were remains left by flagpoles erected for the New Year’s Day ceremony in 701. Upon consideration, we found that the layout was designed based on right triangles extending from the center of the gate. The Zhoubi Suanjing describes the 3:4:5 ratio of right triangles as part of preparations for astronomical observation. The lengths of these triangles were based on multiples of 40 shaku (1 shaku = 0.295 m), because 40 was considered a lucky number, and the use of regular multiples (40, 80, 120) likely expressed a sense of public order on the ground, just as the planetary motions keep regular hours. This use of right triangles has two symbolic implications. First, it indicates the use of scientific knowledge such as astrology, and second, it is an example of the regular surveying techniques used for the construction of the ancient capital. It is known that tombs of emperors, and shrines associated with the imperial founder and deities, were built along the east–west and north–south center lines running through the gate.
This study partially clarified the contents and daily use of the palace garden of Reizei Tominokoji-dono residence during the mid-Kamakura period. The study method was a literature review using “The Dairy of Nakatsukasa no Naishi” with a focus on descriptions of the garden and use of the garden in the daily life of Emperor Fushimi, etc. It was found from this study that the basic structure of the garden of Reizei Tominokoji-dono residence was a basic Shinden-zukuri garden, where yarimizu (artificial stream in a garden) was running from the northeast side into a pond on the south side. The plants in the garden were a cherry tree (Sakon no Sakura) on the southeast side in front of the Shinden and a mandarin orange tree (Ukon no Tachibana) on the southwest side. In the north garden, Henon bamboo existed. The daily casual usage of the garden was entertainment including moon viewing, boating, viewing of the sky and scenery of the garden, composing poem and playing music. The garden and sky were mostly viewed from each room of the buildings and boats. The views of the garden and sky were not just beautiful but often cheerless. The members including Emperor Fushimi, who were all well-versed in creating Japanese poem, appreciated the garden view by finding beauty in various natural phenomena and shared the feeling among the members.
There are 59 Japanese gardens confirmed in modern China. This study focuses on these gardens’ current situation, utilization, cognition and role evaluation from local residents, intended to study how the garden’s features affect its utilization. According to priority standards, 29 gardens were chosen to carry out field surveys. Hearings and questionnaire surveys were implemented on managements and users. As a result, some gardens are highly used, but aren’t considered as Japanese gardens. The utilization forms of Japanese gardens are directly influenced by the location of the garden, the setting space type, the landscape, and its admission fee. The results showed five usage types. The first is for daily use, light activities such as walking, breaks and physical exercise for elderly. The second is for viewing, where the main purpose is enjoying the cherry blossoms and taking pictures. The third is a combined usage type of daily use with viewing, people would not only enjoy the gardens on April, but also in daily life. The fourth usage type is additional use with low attention paid from facility users. The fifth and final usage type is long-term closed gardens, which are caused by operational management or influenced by China-Japan relations.
Shirakawa-ishi is a famous white granite produced from Kyoto and used for gardening stonework. Its debris is called Shirakawa-suna and has been widely used in temple gardens of Kyoto as a traditional landscaping gravel due to its beautiful color. However, ever since the quarrying of Shirakawa-ishi was banned, landscapes made of Shirakawa-suna have been changing or lost. This study aimed to find out the color characteristics of Shirakawa-ishi and similar granites, and to discuss on appropriate substitutes for Shirakawa-suna. We collected Shirakawa-ishi from 3 quarries, and 4 similar granites of different origin. We analyzed the color of 3 main minerals (white feldspar, gray quartz, and black mica) in each sample by scanner, AutoCAD and Adobe Photoshop. The ratio of “white: gray: black” of Shirakawa-ishi was around 6.2:3:0.8, while the white-black contrast was strong, which lead to a soft white, but clear color. Compared to Shirakawa-ishi, Inada-ishi (Japan) was much lighter and showed greater black-white contrast, which was too white for landscaping gravel. The color of mica in SobuG603 (China) was unclear, while LeBlanc (France) was much darker and contained more quartz. Kitagi-ishi (Japan) was slightly darker in overall color, but closest to Shirakawa-ishi. Its debris was considered to be an appropriate substitute of Shirakawa-suna.
This research investigates the technique for cherry trees maintenance in the early 20th century by literature, especially articles of “Sakura- Japanese Cherry Blossoms (Journal)” (1918-1943) which was published by Society of Cherry Tress. As a result, the total number of articles was 444, and these included 47 articles about technique for cherry tree maintenance. These 47 articles mainly revealed the following 5 categories: “Pruning”, “Fertilizing”, “Planting”, “Conservation”, and “Pests Management”. In addition, the contents of descriptions in 47 articles were fundamentally equivalent to the present recognition. However, some technique had been evolving from the early 20th century to present with diversifications of machinery and materials. The results and considerations in this research are important for keep improving the technique of cherry trees maintenance in the future.
Liriope platyphylla and Ophiopogon japonicus (Nolinoideae) are evergreen perennial plants that grow on the forest floor and are widely distributed in the temperate zones of Japan. However, forest floor vegetation, including L. platyphylla and O. japonicus, has been declining in abandoned secondary forests in the Kanto region, central Japan, owing to the growth of Pleioblastus chino. The present study investigated the influence of mowing P. chino on the growth of L. platyphylla and O. japonicus. We established “mowing sites” and “control sites” to compare the amount of leaf (AL) and amount of bloom (AB) in a secondary forest that has been abandoned for over 20 years. At the mowing sites, P. chino was cut annually using sickles, every summer since 2010. The growth strategies were different between the two plants, with the AB of L. platyphylla increasing along with AL, but in O. japonicus, the AB increased without an increase in AL in one of the years. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at the forest floor was considerably higher at the mowing sites than at the control sites from December to April. The difference in PAR during this period must affect the AL and AB of plants distributed at each plot.
In Kyoto City, leaves of Sasa veitchii var. hirsuta are widely used for festivals or culinary culture, and the history dates back at least more than 300 years. The long history and large demand brought forth a leaf industry around the habitat of Sasa in rural area, and generated indigenous knowledge on leaf collection that is one of customary practices for local landscape management. Although a preceding research could clarify general outline of the industry such as collection area, concrete information on the collection skill itself was still unclarified. In this research, we conducted a participatory observation and recorded their physical techniques, collection criteria, working speed, and precision of selecting leaves. As a result, we could find that local collectors were selectively picking culms with large current-year leaves that have less aesthetic damages, and after that, they do secondary selection to completely remove small or damaged ones and get leaf bundles of possible largest sizes. Although most of these works were simple, it required proficiency for efficient processing. Comparison with leaf size variation in Sasa community bolstered the observation that the indigenous way of collection is selective. Possibility of regeneration promotion caused by collection activity was also pointed out.
In Japan, various landscaping method has been used by local communities on the development of the area. Planting a variety of trees in an arrangement similar to a natural mountain village is the main approach to making improvements of landscape in the Kurokawa Spa Area. This type of planting has successfully revitalized this area. This thesis aims at revealing the procedure of landscape improvements and its consensus-building in the Kurokawa Spa Area. The hotel association of Kurokawa has planted miscellaneous trees in public spaces of the Kurokawa Spa Area by using the revenue of spa coupon tickets since 1986. Prefectural and national government also supported the project of planting trees and making rules of landscaping since 1995. This thesis also aims at revealing the landscaping methods by reviewing literature, analyzing measurement surveys, and conducting interviews. The trees in the target area are photographed and shown in ground plans. By analyzing the images, the landscaping methods can be clarified. As a result, five kinds of planting techniques can be confirmed as Connection, Eye Stop, Covering, Up and Down Combination, and Inequilateral Triangle Planting.
An This study examined the effect on quality of life is a large-scale park in Maebashi City. We chose Shikishima Park of Maebashi City as a research subject. A questionnaire survey was conducted for residents, and characteristics of individual and residential areas were estimated and analyzed. By the results of the questionnaire survey, Shikishima Park was evaluated highly for mental utility of green than for active activity such as light exercise. Neighborhood residents of Shikishima Park were highly appreciated for the surrounding environment such as space formation and hygiene conditions. As a result of the factor analysis and covariance structure analysis, we thought that it was possible to show the relationship that the use environment of Shikishima Park affects QOL of neighboring residents as a quantitative structure. It is found that the static use has a strong influence on the usage environment rather than active use. In addition, it was shown that the influence of the environment on QOL is the same value as the influence on the activity of Shikishima Park.
In this thesis, the author is trying to focus on the management assessment and the setting of the high end of the price and to consider the action assignments on the system operations in terms of implementation of the designated administrator system. The author made a research through questionnaire toward the large-scale park in each prefecture run by local governments, concerning the way they present the conditions on the designated administrator system, the operation evaluations and the way they settle the high end of the price. Also, toward the designated administrators made a research on their ways of evaluation against the local governments and their self-evaluation methodologies. As a result, author could find out action assignments regarding the operation of the designated administrator system. For instance, it is clarified that in the high end price, the indicators which are not based upon the operation evaluations, like ceiling and anticipated excess amount of usage fee income, are much used. It also revealed that in the evaluation of local government department in charge, it is often well referred to the self-evaluation by the designated administrator system.
The research program underlying this paper is to inquire forms of community-led management of small open spaces. Small open spaces can be one of the key factors to develop social capitals of the local communities, not only because they provide places for the people to gather and interact, but also because the community’s collective action to create better open spaces can make the community resilient. As a case study, the present paper deals with “Community Hiroba”, small open spaces designed and managed by local communities in Kyoto city. It is aimed to assemble a picture of the usage and the management of the open spaces through, 1) field surveys and interviews to their managers, and 2) questionnaire survey to the local residents regarding the “Community Hiroba” in their neighborhood. The interviews to the managers show that half of them feel difficulty in finding their successors in younger generations. As a result of the analysis of the questionnaire survey, some factors of which improvement may encourage local residents to participate the management of the open spaces are found. The most significant factor among them is found to be the willingness to participate events in the open space, while other factors including social capital of the residents and the degree of recognition about the open space are also found to have positive effects on the local residents’ willingness to take part in the management of the open spaces.
Forest kindergarten, a type of preschool education for infants is gradually increasing in number in Japan. Because activities in forest kindergartens are conducted in natural environments, there exists concern about a higher frequency of injuries among children in such preschools when compared to ordinary preschools. To study the safety of children enrolled in forest kindergartens, we compared the frequency, types, and causes of injuries in such preschools with those seen in ordinary preschools, and checked the safety measures in place to prevent them. To this end, questionnaires were sent to 96 forest kindergartens, of whom 23 responded. Compiling the results, we found that the frequency of occurrence of injury was not appreciably higher in forest kindergartens. Burns, wasp stings, and tick bites were specific to forest kindergartens while common injuries such as scratches, cuts, and bruises were comparable to those occurring in ordinary preschools. As for the causes of injuries, those from collisions were less frequent, probably as a result of more space and fewer children in forest kindergartens, while injuries due to falls frequently occurred, similar to ordinary preschools. Safety measures in forest kindergartens were well-observed and appeared to diminish the frequency of occurrence of injury.
Recently, several amusement parks have been adopting strategies to attract visitors by utilizing their existing “green” resources. For example, Tokyo Disney Resort, located in Urayasu City, Chiba Prefecture has approximately 6,000 trees and 1 million flowers; there is even a picture book about 160 types of these trees and flowers. This study focuses on the present situation of the green space management, such as the unique activities and issues related to green space management. This study reveals that green space is perceived as essential to all amusement parks. Additionally, most managers value the advantages of green spaces such as a bright and enjoyable atmosphere, the sense of season they impart to the park, and trees that provide shade for a break. Some minority managers also see it as one way of improving the attractiveness of a space, in combination with amusement park facilities.
The purpose of this study is to understand how landscape construction companies implement regional problem solution business and what they are conscious of the business and to examine the possibility of Creating Shared Value by landscape construction industry in the future. We conducted a questionnaire survey to 842 landscape construction nationwide (162 valid responses). These results are as the follows. 1) 57% of the surveyed companies haven’t increased their sales. 2) 95% of the surveyed companies think that it is necessary to improve current development business ability in the future. 3) 27% of the surveyed companies implement regional problem solution business 4) The number of employees of companies implementing regional problem solution business is large, their employees’ average age is young, their number of newly employees is large, their capital fund is large, and their sales is high. Furthermore, we examined the way that landscape construction companies seek to implement regional problem solution business more based on the awareness of business improvement and the features of companies which implement regional problem solution business.
This study aims to clarify the actual condition of landscape architects after the Kumamoto earthquake disaster. It also investigates their potential for supporting disaster recovery or providing reconstruction support in the process of recovery from the damage caused by the disaster. Their actual state after the Kumamoto earthquakes was confirmed through a questionnaire survey administered to all landscape architects belonging to the Kumamoto landscape architecture and construction industry association. A total of 84 questionnaires were distributed and 56 responses were received. The analysis provided the following results. The architecture companies in Kumamoto area, 30 companies were affected on that earthquake. Under their situations, landscape architects have the potential for supporting disaster recovery by using their assigned functions. In fact, 35% of them have been restored and 31% are expected to be restored soon. The disaster relief agreement is expected to breed and the activity manuals; support landscape architecture companies in disaster-hit areas is also expected.
This study examines the backgrounds and motivations of individuals participating in trail running races, focusing on empirical data from surveys of participants in two trail running races held in Shinetsu highland region in 2016 (n=730) , one long distance (110km) and the other middle and short distance (50km / 16km). The survey data showed that, as compared to participants in the short distance race, of the participants in the long distance race, a higher percentage were male, originated from various regions, earned a higher income, had more years of trail running experience and had participated in more competitions. With respect to the motivations for participation, the data showed six primary motivating factors: “Community and Competition management”, “Health”, “Challenge and Accomplishment”, “Ease of Access”, “Course Type” and “Socialising”. Analysis of the motivations of participants across the two different distances showed that a difficult "Course Type" and the feeling of "Challenge and Accomplishment" are the strongest motivations for long distance racers, while the most prominent motivating factors for short distance racers are "Health", "Ease of Access", "Socialising" and a "Course Type" of a suitable distance and level of difficulty.
Among people who live in Satoyama-area which locate in city suburb, there is an argument about land use whether they should preserve the Satoyama or should develop residential lots. The purpose of this study is to comprehend the transition of structure of residents` consciousness about land use in Satoyama-area. Yurugi-area, which is located in south of Kisawa-area Hiratsuka-city is adopted as a case study. And interview survey is conducted on 13 residents including farmers and non-farmers, old residents and new residents. As a result, all 13 residents hope to develop residential lots on farmland and forest area. And it is confirmed that the reason why they hope residential lots has been changing from 1960s to the present. At first, they hope residential lots to improve their living environment and activate Kisawa-area by increasing new residents. The second, to maintain the Satoyama environment by increasing new residents who contribute to Satoyama management is added to the reason. Therefore, it is predicted that the more the Satoyama fall into ruin because of depopulation of residents and farmers, the more the residents began to want residential lots to keep their Satoyama environment.
This paper is to analyze the monuments of the Tokyo Air Raid (occurred on March 10, 1945, in the east side of Tokyo), which established from the end of World War II to the present day. In those 72 years, within the drastic change of Tokyo’s urban environment, as well as changes of people’s consciousness, we explore how the environment has accepted those monuments and how the monuments have transformed themselves. Through the 101 cases of monuments by field surveys, documents and interviews, we found a large number of monuments to memorize the each special victims, located in temples and public spaces, have been maintained as activities especially by the neighborhood associations who have important roles. The monuments have a potential directivity to want to be permanent, and tend to be made of permanent materials such as stone, some of which were replaced from the wood monuments. On the other hand, there are transitions due to external factors with monuments. In some cases there were relocation due to the influence of public works such as bridge reconstructions and park renovations. Until the 1960s, there were cases in which monuments were transferred from public places to other places, but since the 1980s they have been built again in public spacess including parks and roadsides, after the completions of public works.
Dispersed rural settlements in the Tonami Plain form a landscape famous for its historical value and scenic beauty. Homestead woodlands are essential components of dispersed settlements. In order to conserve the unique cultural landscape, it is necessary to preserve them. To this end, it is important to accurately understand the current situation, and to continue regional measures against their decline based on an analysis of recent decline factors. The purpose of this study is to understand residents' perception, and to clarify the present situation of the homestead woodlands. We identified local characteristics through a field survey and questionnaire survey, and discussed long-term conservation measures. The field survey showed that in the 4 surveyed villages, 53-64% of the houses had homestead woodlands. Direction and number of home sides the woodlands covered had different characteristics in each village. The questionnaire showed that the main reason why homestead woodlands have been decreasing since 2000 is ‘wind damage’. We found a tendency for the woodlands to lose their function as disaster-preventing screens in direct relation to a decreasing number of home sides they covered. We concluded that there is a need to conserve the homestead woodlands based on a profound understanding of their role, even if it becomes necessary to change their form.
Cooperation with local communities is essential in the Japans System of Natural Park (Zoning-System), but insufficient interest in such systems is often cited as a problem. Through the promotion of inbound tourism in recent years, health tourism has been growing from the aspect of the development of local communities. This study clarified medical institutions’ interest in natural parks. A national database was created and analyzed to identify the location and type of medical institutions in relationship to natural parks. The interest level of these medical institutions in natural parks and environments was added to the database based upon descriptions from within their websites. The results showed that even medical institutions that were approximately 30 km away from natural parks were aware of them. In addition, the medical institutions, especially the mental hospitals and nursing hospitals, where there were many patients who needed long-term treatment were highly interested in natural parks and environments, and their patients’ length of stay exceeded the national average. These findings suggest that medical institutions both inside and outside natural park areas could possibly provide support.
This study aims to clarify the enclosing characteristics of topography around the Korean Byeol-Seo Garden through field survey and the GIS analysis. The field research and survey were carried out four times from 2014 to 2017 in 20 gardens. 20 of the gardens are found in Honam region. Through the Viewshed, Slope and Aspect analysis on the GIS, the following aspects are consequently observed on the 20 gardens. (1) The Byeol-Seo has a different viewshed area and landscape seen range depending on garden. 15 of 20 gardens have middle distance view as main view. (2) Almost Byeol-Seo has an importance on the foreground but Byeol-Seo has a different balance of the topographical characteristics on the left and right of the landscape seen. (3) 17 of 20 Byeol-Seo are located in front of the mountains and it is effective for creating enclosing characteristics. Although this study, about traditional gardens, it not only focuses on traditional meaning and philosophy of the gardens, but also involved quantitative analysis, to elucidate the spatial characteristics. This kind of analysis could be the basis of recognizing the morphological characteristics and the meaning of the spatial design of the traditional garden.
"Moidon" is a forest of the old folk belief to be left on Satsuma and Osumi Peninsula in Kagoshima, and it is enshrined as the standpoint of the community. Moidon tends to disappear in recent years, it is necessary to consider the effect of a public measure such as cultural property and the necessity of other conservation system. In order to clarify the effects of designation of cultural property and issues to inherit Moidon, we investigated the transition of spatial composition, flora, events such as the festival, and management of the Moidon, and resident consciousness against the Moidon designated the cultural property of Ibusuki City. The results show that the subsidy from the city works effectively in management of the Moidon, and the designation contributes to the recognition of residents to the Moidon. It is suggested that consolidation and simplification of festivals related to the Moidon is advanced, and continuance of the festival and management has been difficult. It is necessary to spread understanding and to enlarge participants of Moidon.
Since middle ages Ryukyu Kingdom, Amami Oshima have long had faith in such an indigenous folk religion as Noro. This religion maintained sanctuaries such as Kamiyama (a holy mountain) and Kamimichi (a clean way), miya (a central plaza), toneya (a religious hut). However, Noro faces the crisis of the extinction as a result that a religious system changed under the influence of the modernization. Therefore, we investigated the succession of Noro religion in each village and relationship with ritual spaces from interview to regional inhabitant. As results, it was clarified that the village events as “the respect for the elderly festival” and Noro religion such as “the harvest festival” were gathered, to reduce the burden on local resident and to invite gallery. Moreover, it was confirmed that miya and toneya were not only easy to maintain but also utilized. On the other hand, kamiyama was maintained but is not used. Moreover, kamimichi was just before disappearance without being used.
The Constitution Square located in the historical district of Mexico City, known as el Zócalo, has been the political, religious and commercial center of Mexico since the fourteenth century. Currently, El Zócalo is a place where political events such as Independence Day ceremonies are held, and it is also a base for demonstrative activities by a Mexican citizen. Government authorities that manage El Zócalo say that the space is a symbol of the public’s identity, but many people who participate in demonstrative activities there insists that the reason of their activities is not only because El Zócalo is a symbol of the state power, but also because it is home ground for people on the opposition side. This study aimed to clarify how El Zócalo became one of the most important national symbols for Mexican citizens in various positions. We analyzed the quality and vicissitudes of the space of El Zócalo and its usage through graphical analysis of plans and pictures of the place of each period, from the Late Post-Classic Period to date, and the review of the background studies, the colonial period chronicle, and articles from magazines and newspapers.
This paper focuses on Musashino Place and Kyonan-Fureai-Hiroba Park in Musashino City, Tokyo, Japan. The place and park provide examples of integrated maintenance and management methods at facilities and parks that are adjacent to one another. The objective of this research is to examine the characteristic ways in which various actors are involved in management that is aimed at the utilization of public facilities with adjacent urban parks. This study also discusses the ways in which those spaces are practically used. We consider the main points of this management type to be the following: (1) Clearly positioning cooperation in the planning stage, (2) Ensuring the compatibility of the area’s events and maintenance schedule, (3) Properly utilizing indoor and outdoor spatial characteristics, (4) Collaborating the activities of public and private actors in daily, (5) Implementing events that contribute to proper management.
In this study, we aimed at examining the present state of the engagement of the nature experience facility and its effect, the possibility of the third place which contributes to the improvement of the engagement, and the facility management toward it. We selected NEP Center "Foresuto Kōzan", a Nature Center located in Noboribetsu, Hokkaido Prefecture, operated as designated manager by Momonga Club NPO corporation. A volunteer staff questionnaire to grasp the current state of community exchanges (such as the strength of community engagement etc.) in the survey target site as seen from the third place point of view was conducted. The results are as follows: 1)Facility management that contributes to engagement improvement is possible. 2)To change the environment of the facility and the mechanism of the activity changes the consciousness of the survey member's awareness of the whereabouts and the awareness of the activity, to the exchange that is expected to "increase social learning" and "motivation to explore" . It is possible to improve the quality of exchanges to the exchange where local problem solving is expected.
In 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami took many lives and caused great damage. After the earthquake, various disaster reconstruction projects were conducted in the sports realm. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of marathon events held as disaster reconstruction projects in the Tohoku area’s three prefectures (Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima). Data were collected from informational media in terms of participants’comments and as an overview of each marathon event. Main results were as follows: 1) After the earthquake, the marathon event’s title changed to include “disaster reconstruction,” and programs increased. Furthermore, the event proceeded with fund-raising activities and field trips to the disaster area. 2) The number of marathon events increased. After the earthquake, marathon events characterized by “competition of orientation,” “region PR,” and “earthquake reconstruction” were held in three prefectures. 3) Comments related to “earthquake” and “reconstruction” in the disaster environment’s context were extracted from runners. Therefore, marathon events were disaster reconstruction projects with the role of transmitting, through participants and media, the afflicted area’s reconstruction situation to people inside and outside the three prefectures.
Many sites for hot spring power generation have been developed in areas with hot spring during recent years. Among these hot spring power generation locations, cases of shortages in consensus-building efforts with local residents at the time of the introduction as well as bad influences on the surrounding environment at the time of operation have occurred. These cases may result in the loss of the local residents' acceptance of hot spring power generation. In order to avoid the loss of local residents' acceptance of hot spring power generation, examining the policies for promoting operators' action of hot spring power generation as being useful is needed to maintain the acceptance. The purpose of this study is to identify the development process and actual management condition at the beginning regarding municipal ordinances in order to promote a harmonious coexistence between hot spring power generation and local residents in Beppu City, Oita Prefecture. The main finding of this research is that provisions and local officials' operations of the above mentioned municipal ordinances include efforts to develop procedural justice which can be useful for maintaining local residents' acceptance.
The use of rainwater harvesting by private citizens can be a valuable practice that can mitigate problems such as urban flooding and other possible effects of global warming. In this study, the citizen rainwater harvesting experience was examined. The relationship between citizens’ participation awareness and their lifestyle were analyzed to elucidate their needs and goals. Furthermore, this study discusses the factors that lead to citizen participation in rainwater harvesting activity. To grasp the citizens’ participation consciousness of rainwater harvesting, we used an internet questionnaire to conduct a survey that targeted citizens nationwide in August of 2017 (n = 1800). As the results, citizens’ participation awareness depending on the lifestyle, such as young people are highly conscious about participation than elderly layer, and the type of residence affects the participation awareness of citizens. Rainwater harvesting experience affects the participation awareness as well. Benefits on recreation such as communication and refresh, ease of maintenance work lead to continuation of rainwater harvesting. The results also elucidated that citizens are concerning with the merits of stabilization of the local environment such as disaster prevention and habitat, mitigation oh the heat island phenomenon, not the merits of individual recreation.
This study aims to clarify the way of participation of the local people on the developing heritage management plan through the case study on the Kumano pilgrimage route Iseji. It became more important to emphasise the role of community in the heritage conservation context, but it needs further analysis of the change of the contents written on the management plan through the years. The “Kumano-Kodo Action Program” is a good example because it has four editions in 10 years. As a result of this study, local people was the main organiser at the first edition, but regional government gradually became the main organiser at the later versions. The first version required local people and visitors the responsibility for the conservation of heritage and natural environment, but the later editions prize the residents for their voluntary activities and promote the hospitality for the visitors. It can be said that management plan needs the way of checking the situation of implementation and that continued participation of the local people for the developing the management plan is essential for the continued participation of the local people in the management activities.
Japan established the law for the maintenance and improvement of traditional scenery in 2008. Sixty-two cities made plans for the maintenance and improvement of historic landscapes and defined the priority areas. This study aims to clarify the characteristics of the priority areas from the perspective of the conservation of historical environment. We conducted a literature survey of the plans and a questionnaire survey directed toward the municipalities. The results revealed that many cities set the priority areas mainly on the basis of the historical center districts such as Castletown; moreover, some cities set areas that included not only historical tangible resources but also intangible resources. However, the requirements for setting the areas specified by the government affected some area determination, such as in the case where priority areas included poor historic-relation zones, in order to meet requirements. Furthermore, the future projects, such as the building conservation scheduled to be implemented after the plan approval, also affected area determination. From these results, we can say that some priority areas have not been properly set as areas reflecting the characteristics of historical environment and importance of conservation.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the adaptive reuse of saw-tooth roof factories in Kiryu City from the aspect of the preservation of regional characteristics and local industry. Kiryu City has had an active textile industry since the Edo era and 272 saw-tooth roof factories were found by a research in 2005, some in operation and some in adaptive reuse. Currently 25 factories are found to be reused in new various functions. The evaluation criteria were determined based on historical and industrial features of Kiryu City, and organized into 3 perspectives: macro, meso and micro. The macro perspective criterion focuses on whether the location of the textile factory is in the area facing a river. The meso perspective criterion examines whether 3 facilities (saw-tooth roof factory, dwelling and warehouse) are still existing in one site. The micro perspective criteria examine whether the room is kept void, and whether textile products are being used. The results of the evaluation show that the current adaptive reuse cases display the characteristics of Kiryu City only to a limited extent. Therefore, integrated plans covering all three perspectives are needed, to better preserve the regional characteristics and local industry to the future.
The northwestern administrative district of Kyoto city is Ukyo-ku. Since the Heian period, villas of Emperors and nobles and temples were built in this area. One of them is Godaizan-Seiryo-temple. This temple has the Buddha(Shaka) statue that came from India, China. It is designated as a national treasure. So residents call it the Shaka-do and make friends with it. The Torch Festival is held in the Shaka-do since about 1200. The history is not sure. By one of them, residents remind the cremation of Buddha and hold at February 15 when Buddha passed away. Nowadays it is held at March 15 because the calendar system is changed at Meiji-period. By another of them, big three torches are triangle-cone and built in the precincts of the temple as upsidedown. Those mean early, middle and slow-ripening variety of rice. Farmers choose one of them by burn-state. Japanese-red pines, red-pines leaves and wisteria vines are used for torches. These materials are gathered from neighborhood moun tains. I clarify the ritual organization that has been keeping and study necessary forest materials.
There are moves to encourage young people to participate in green space conservation activities because the activities have problems such as the aging of members or the shortage of participants in Japan. The purpose of this study was to clarify a relationship between contents of hands-on learning program regarding green space conservation activity and experiences Obtained by Youth. "Laboratory on Domestic Environmental Problem" of a class provided at Takushoku university in Tokyo was studied. The program was carried out in 2015 (n=14) and 2016 (n=16). Contents of the program contained not only practices in maintenance works but PR of conservation activity at an event and that fieldwork in a city. Thirty final reports and 113 activity reports, which were written by students, were analyzed by text mining. In addition, questionnaire surveys were conducted at the guidance and final times of the program. Results of text mining showed that participants gained various experiences such as “understanding conservation groups and CSR activities”, “one significant point and one challenge in making an appeal for our activity” and “getting my new idea about conservation”.
Municipal governments in Japan are recommended to put emphasis on the view point of biodiversity in the “Green Master Plan (GMP)”, which is a basic plan for spatial policies for the parks, green spaces environment, and landscape. Since the citizen-participatory biodiversity monitoring is expected to be one of the effective tools to enhance the feasibility of GMP in biodiversity conservation, the authors discussed the role of the citizen-participatory biodiversity monitoring in the GMP by examining the 38 plans. While it was found that a relatively large number of GMPs clarified the role of the citizen-participatory biodiversity monitoring as a tool for public awareness campaign and biodiversity survey, few GMPs utilized the result of citizen-participatory biodiversity monitoring as a reference for setting the goal of the plan. In those few cases, municipal governments work together on citizen-participatory biodiversity monitoring not only with citizens, but also with experts or research institutes to enhance the reliability of data. Based on the results, the authors discussed necessary measures to promote the application of the citizen-participatory biodiversity monitoring to administrative plans such as GMP.
Attractive buildings with green roofs and walls in urban areas are currently expected to increase in number worldwide. Although many wards in Tokyo participate in an incentive program to propagate green roofs and walls, information regarding subsidized greenery buildings, including greenery areas, types, and money spent on each building, remain unclear in many wards. In response, we conducted a questionnaire survey in each ward on the achievements and publicity activities of the incentive program in the special wards of Tokyo. The results were as follows: 1) The number of subsidized greenery buildings have declined over the past 5 years in the 17 wards, with decrease in the budget amount in 10 of those wards. 2) A comparison among the incentive programs of the city center, the sub-center, and other areas revealed that the program of the city center has promoted huge areas of greenery. 3) The ratio of budget execution of wards that have more detail condition setting for the budget amount, such as building types and soil thickness, were higher than that of the other wards. Therefore, we propose an improvement in the incentive programs in terms of increasing applications and expanding greenery areas within each ward.
This study investigated the Green Infrastructure (GI) planning in the UK’s Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park was implemented, by the assumption that GI can create habitats under the environment strongly influenced by human impact. For example, the river, wetland/marshes within the floodplain, Sustainable Urban Drainage System (SUDS) were combined with GI planning to contribute to climate change adaptation. In the Park, rivers and wetland/marshes were also considered as GI. Habitats were created not only in the area of reedbed and wet woodland, but also in small-scale GI installation like soft swale. Here, it is significant that the habitat creation can be considered as not only the purpose of the Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) but also the means to make GI function. On the other hand, GI implementation can be understood as a measure to create particular habitats. This study showed the relationship between GI planning and habitat creation. In the future it should be analyzed in detail how walkway, cycleway and greenway were designed as GI.
All cities need to effectively plan green space to control irregular land development or utilize abandoned plots for a sustainable future. This article examines how Munich achieved sustainable development with a green belt policy that included self-harvesting plots. The data was collected through an interview with a civil servant, relevant planning documents published by the municipality, and field surveys. It was found that the municipality started conserving agricultural fields as a green belt based on a survey from the 1980s on agricultural lands and businesses, most of which were then in danger of disappearing. In addition, other ecologically important areas were added to the green belt. The number of self-harvesting plots used by urban residents has increased since 1999. The locations of these plots are carefully planned, considering soil conditions and water availability in the proximity of apartments without gardens. The plots are connected to other green spaces and can be accessed on foot or by public transport. Some spatial differences were observed among the plots, especially in terms of their openness, depending on their ownership. It is expected that self-harvesting plots can improve their quality of life and help them understand the importance of the green belt.
Adapting cities and regions to climate change is becoming an important issue in the field of landscape planning. Mitigating summer outdoor temperature is one of the adaptations. Using the cooling effect of water bodies is one of the measures for the mitigations. Consequently, this study was conducted to clarify the spatial distributions of a dam’s cooling effect and to compare the cooling effects by natural features including dam hourly, using the field measurement data collected in the surrounding residential area of Fukutomi Dam in Higashihiroshima. Results show the followings. 1) The dam’s cooling effect is greater during the daytime. 2) The cooling affects areas locate leeward and within 500 m of the dam. 3) Stronger winds produce greater cooling effects. Additional measurements must be taken at the other dams to clarify general dam’s cooling effects. As a final goal, recommendations for landscape design in such areas must be produced.
In this study, an awareness survey involving the residents of a Britz housing complex designed by Bruno Taut was conducted in consideration of the relationship between building layout and outdoor space. The purpose was to determine how residents felt about the architect’s intention in the design of the complex’s outdoor living space. The results showed that approximately 80% of respondents were aware in everyday living of the architect’s intention to embrace the concept of outdoor living space in the building layout. Those with higher awareness tended to value the landscape-friendly asymmetrical design implemented to create space with subtle variations in house positioning and the design/usage of a green area formed by a private garden facing the houses as measures for optimal outdoor living space. Younger residents had stronger opinions on individual evaluation items. The survey’s outcomes enabled identification of how residents felt about the architect’s intention regarding the design of the complex’s outdoor living space.
In this study, we investigated features of the development plan of Kanazawa Seaside Town created by landfilling coastline, in two different scales and from view point of land reclamation, land use, and road plan. About land reclamation, the documentation related to the reclamation plan was collected, organized and compared between each period. As a result, only dredged material from the Tokyo Bay was thought to be used for the landfill, but sediment from the mountains was also used in the actual planning. In particular, No. 3 areas, and sediment from Chiba Prefecture, Mount Asama in addition to dredging soil, sediment obtained from the development of Kamariya district that have been made in the landfill nearby hills have been used. Tunnel that carries the sediment in Kanazawa ST from Kamariya had to function as a sewage infrastructure of today residential areas. About land use and road, we checked transition in the plans from the related documents and deciphered the flow of planning ideas. A hierarchical network of roads and land uses had been spreaded in Namiki 1-chome area.
In this research, we will clarify the characteristics that the terrain gradient has given to the housing plan, open space, placement plan of pedestrian street, roadway, parking lot, for residential complex planned for de-standard design. Based on the result, how to incorporate the natural environment "consciously" in the multi-family housing plan. It aims to find out that clue. The research method will organize the characteristics of development and development of wide area development. After that, I grasped the transition of the first plan to the final plan (nine total plan) which considered housing arrangement plans. ① Resident building placement, ② open space, ③ placement plan of the pedestrian street · roadway · parking lot, the structure of the residence building, characteristics of the living space and the influence the terrain has on the placement plan. As a result, it was found that studies are underway to overcome the standard design by using the terrain gradient after the clay.Also, the design standard ground height of the residence was not set by the placement plan. In other words, it was found that the layout of the residence was done first, and then the terrain after the clay was adjusted to the residence according to the arrangement, and the final ground was formed.
This study aims to understand the actual condition of seasonal second-residential base called Zuslan formed in Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia and reveal the issues for improving and maintaining the residential environment. Through interviews with government officials, it was possible to understand the process behind the construction of Zuslan, its positioning within urban planning, various legal policies, and the nature of management. Onsite field surveys and questionnaire surveys were conducted with residents. Responses were obtained from 152 households. Detailed interviews and measurement surveys were carried out with 12 consenting households. In conclusion, the study pointed out the degradation of the natural environment caused by settlement in Zuslan, which is prohibited under normal conditions, and enclosure of shared land as an ongoing issue, due to inconsistencies in the legal systems pertaining to urban planning. In addition, it also mentioned the necessity of maintaining a secure living environment in which children and the elders are mutually watched and supported, considering the neighbor relationships in the area becoming less intimate with fewer interactions.
We investigated the current situation and decreasing factors of the ash hut in Sasayama city. The ash hut is a mud hut to make ash for the field fertilizer, estimated to be about 3,600 places in 1955 and it has been confirmed that it has decreased to 128 places in the 2006 survey . Based on that data, as a result of field survey and hearing conducted again in 2016 this time, it has decreased to 90 places. The factor of the decrease was found to be the influence of the field improvement that started from 1965, the conversion to agricultural fertilizer to chemical fertilizer, the change of the living environment due to the energy revolution. As many as 80% of the existing ash huts are left unused and 90% of the site of the ash hut which was removed is unused, and it is thought that the decrease will continue more and more in the future.
Biodiversity conservation in urban areas is one of the key task for landscape and urban planning. The concept of ‘compact city’ provides new possibilities for creating open spaces which can be habitats for many species in urban areas. The purpose of this study is to clarify the environmental factors influencing populations of wintering birds in metropolitan riparian area and its surroundings to obtain useful guidelines for enhancing urban biodiversity. We surveyed populations of birds and land covers along the river called Okawa in Osaka prefecture in winter 2016. To find the environmental factors influencing populations of birds, we used the Generalized Liner Mixed Model (GLMM). As a result, Passer montanus, Columba livia, Hypsipetes amaurotis, Spodiopsar cineraceus, Turdus naumanni, and Motacilla alba adapted to the metropolitan riparian area. Through this study, we got two results for urban biodiversity. 1) The presence of high trees, non-pavement open spaces, curved water edge and concrete banks along the river, influenced some bird’s populations with the distance from the nearest other rivers or forests. 2) Though a lot of species avoided buildings or pavement open spaces, some species like Corvus macrorhynchos, Phoenicurus auroreus and Motacilla alba, used these areas.
To examine relationship between biological resources and rural landscape use from the 1950s to 2016, we interviewed local people in Shitaru, Tsushima city, Nagasaki prefecture. As for biological resources, we found that the number of species used by the locals became less than half in 2016 compared to 1950s, but the locals still used those species for various purposes in their life. The utilization areas by the locals were only near their village in the 1950s; however, these areas expanded in 2016 because it became harder to gain some biological resources in their village and the population of having a car increased. In the seashore, resources use had no significant changes. The quantity of resources has been reduced because of depopulation, especially resources for food. On the other hand, the locals attitude on effective resources use has not changed. The cultural and habitual biological resources use was especially important for the locals. The continuity of biological resources use possibly depended on quality and accessibility of resources, and the change of utilization style might lead to the lack of management awareness of the locals. We suggested that it is necessary to evaluate influence of the utilization style change on forest ecosystem in order to consider rural resources management.