In this study, a questionnaire survey in Kyoto City revealed the awareness and tolerance of local residents as the value consciousness of Spodiopsar cineraceus colonies formed on street trees. As a result, many people realized that they could not tolerate the colony. As a point they can't stand, they were concerned about hygiene caused by excrement. Colony perception was also thought to be influenced by the presence or absence of actual harm. On the other hand, it was thought that few people would like to take measures to eliminate the colony. Those who admitted to being able to put up with the colonies and those who didn't want to be driven away by countermeasures thought that the pruning of street trees should not be rigorous. Therefore, it was thought that existing measures and pruning of street trees were not necessarily the consensus of local residents. This is supported by the fact that many people called for coexistence with starlings. Then, from the covariance structure analysis, it was shown that the resistance of the colony is increased by increasing the value consciousness of animals and plants and the value consciousness of street trees. Therefore, in order to create a city with a view to coexisting with Spodiopsar cineraceus, it is necessary to foster a value consciousness for animals and plants and a sense of value for street trees.
‘Utamakura’ are well-known sights in ancient Japanese literature, and are typical of Japanese traditional landscapes. In early modern times, people rarely knew their exact location. Tatsuta is a famous ‘Utamakura’ in Nara prefecture where many people link it with the image of beautiful ‘Momiji,’ maples with red leaves. This paper aims to consider how the landscape of ‘Tatsuta’ was comprehended through analyzing the descriptions of the travelogues in early modern times. Travelers evaluated the landscapes based on the image of the literature, but they often indicated that real landscapes were different from the images in the literatures. In early modern times, there were still traditions and natural features concerned with literature in Tatsuta, which were thought to be made by villagers based on the literatures, and they affected how travelers comprehended landscapes. For example, it was not until villagers planted maples, that travelers began to enjoy real maples on the Tatsuta River. Travelers comprehended the landscape of Tatsuta through overlapping the knowledge of ancient literatures, which have been transmitted in different ways in early modern times, with the real world. This paper is significant in that it leads a better understanding of the traditional Japanese view of landscape and the process of its formation.
Jomon Prehistoric Sites in Northern Japan will be inscribed on the World Heritage List at the 44th session of the World Heritage Committee in 2021. The value of each of the component sites is transmitted to visitors through various efforts such as exhibitions and hands-on learning. This study clarified the current situation and the issues to determine whether the efforts made at each site contribute to transmitting the value of the sites as a World Heritage site to visitors. This study analyzed and evaluated whether the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the sites is transmitted through the three approaches: the explanatory panels at the outdoor interpretation facilities, the explanatory panels at the guidance facilities, and the hands-on learning at the interactive learning facilities. As a result, it was found that the degree of transmission of the OUV of the sites was uneven depending on the aspect. To effectively transmit the value of the sites, it would be desirable to eliminate this bias and to consider measures so that the information conveyed by explanatory boards and panels and the actions conveyed by hands-on learning are integrated with the archaeological remains.