This study aimed to clarify factors affecting the conservation activities of Satoyama landscapes of suburban areas，employing a two-phase model of pro-environmental behavior (two-phase model). Shiroi city，Chiba，was taken a case study area to conduct a questionnaire survey targeting at residents of and those involved in a conservation organization. Factor analysis was employed to explore the constructs underlying conservation activities. Then，factor scores of the constructs were used for structural equation modeling to analyze how each construct influence each other. The analysis revealed that 1) the perceived seriousness of environmental problems and the belief in the effectiveness of a pro-environmental lifestyle had a significant influence on goal intention，2) cost-benefit evaluation and social norm evaluation had a significant influence on behavior intention，and 3) goal intention had a significant influence on behavior intention. The cost-benefit evaluation was the most influential factor on the behavior intention among others，followed by social norm evaluation，belief in the effectiveness of a proenvironmental lifestyle，and perceived the seriousness of environmental problems. In addition，Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed that people over 60 and those who have an experience in Satoyama landscape conservation had significantly higher factor scores in the majority of factors，including goal intention and behavior intention.
There are increasing attentions to multifunctional roles played by urban farmland and forests in densely populated areas， which becomes a new area of urban green space policy. This study tried to examine the plan conformance of three districtlevel plans formulated under the Agricultural Scenic Area Development System of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG). The evaluation of plan conformance was conducted from two perspectives, namely 1) whether the plan was formulated in line with the purpose of the System, and 2) which factors affected the plan conformance. We conducted semi-structured interviews with officials of TMG and three municipalities in charge of the System and questionnaire survey to residents of three districts where district-level plans have been in place. Most of the items of all the three district-plan has been implemented, showing high plan conformance. Our analysis suggested that high conformance was achieved by avoiding the use of legally-binding city planning schemes that often requires negotiations with residents and land-owners, minimizing plan-items targeted at the district requiring special budgeting, and using plan-items that can be implemented by municipal government without a special coordination with local stakeholders.
In this study, we investigated species composition of Planchonella obovate community on beaches around Amami-Oshima, and compared the result with that community which is generally distributed as Planchonello-Litseetum japonicae on rocky seashores. The results showed that Planchonella obovate community on beaches consisted of Planchonella obovate, Litsea japonica and other component species of the lucidophyllous forests etc. and species composition was similar to that of community on rocky seashores. In addition, we investigated the distribution of four community (Pittosporo-Quercetum phillyraeoidis, Cyrtomio-Litseetum japonicae, Crepidiastro-Cinnamometum daphnoidis, and Planchonello-Litseetum japonicae) on beaches, that had reported only on rocky seashores, by the review of reference documents. Each community has a wide distribution on rocky seashores, whereas we found only a few distribution of them on beaches. It is suggested that those beaches are worth preserving as precious vegetation under conditions of highly human impacts such as tree planting or artificial structures.