Journal of Japan Industrial Management Association
Online ISSN : 2187-9079
Print ISSN : 1342-2618
ISSN-L : 1342-2618
Volume 57 , Issue 5
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages Cover9-
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Cover
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages Cover10-
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Index
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages Toc5-
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
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  • Koji MAEGAWA, Hiroumi MORIYAMA, Takao HADA
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 353-363
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The capacitated lot sizing problem (CLSP) consists of simultaneously determining the items that should be produced in each period and lot sizes so as to satisfy a known demand in each period and minimize the sum of the production, inventory holding and setup costs when multiple items are produced by a single machine over a finite number of periods. So far, there have been many studies on this problem. However, the majority of these do not consider the setup time which is dependent on the production sequence of each item. In this study, we consider the capacitated lot sizing problem in taking this setup time into consideration. Namely, we consider the problem of simultaneously determining the items that should be produced in each period, lot sizes and production sequence of each item so as to minimize the sum of the production, inventory holding and setup costs. This study proposes a near-optimal solution for this problem based on the Lagrangian heuristic. Initially, we formulate the problem as a mixed 0-1 integer programming problem, and present a method to determine the lower bound of the problem by solving the single item dynamic lot sizing problem and the assignment problem. We then propose a method to determine a near-optimal solution for the problem by successively decreasing the difference between the upper and lower bounds. Finally, we verify the effectiveness of the proposed method through computational experiments.
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  • Takako OTA, Shinichi TAGAWA, Kazushige TAKEOKA
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 364-373
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to calculate the optimum ordering quantity, it is necessary to consider the characteristics of a product. In this study, among the characteristics of a product, the deterioration time is considered. Deterioration time is dependent on how fast the product declines. The usability of some products declines slowly and that of others declines quite rapidly. In the case of a product with a longer deterioration time, if may be sold, even if kept in stock for long time. Therefore, products with a longer deterioration time can be controlled by stock-type control systems. As products with a quite short deterioration time cannot be kept in stock for a long time, they must be controlled using a through-type control system. In the field of ordering systems, almost all the research that has been disclosed up to date used products with very long deterioration times as the objects of study. Accordingly, the results of such studies cannot be applied to a situation where product with a quite short deterioration time is controlled using by through-type control system. The purpose of this study is to deduct a basic formula to calculate the optimum ordering quantity for products with a short deterioration time in the case of being controlled using a through-type control system. As the optimality of the ordering quantity, the profit attainment rate is proposed. First of all, the basic formula for a basic model with a normal price sale is deducted. Secondly, a discount sale model is constructed and the basic formula is made. It was found that the basic formula for the discount sale model is applicable to the basic model.
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  • Jing SUN, Michiko TSUBAKI, Masayuki MATSUI
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 374-387
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
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    The concept of the PDCA cycle was originally developed by Walter Shewhart during the 1930s and taken up and promoted very effectively from the 1950s by W. Edwards Deming. Consequently, it has become a key role in the quality control field. Recently, more attention is being given to the PACA and CAPD processes of quality management for raising efficiency in industries (Matsui (2005), Shiba and Walden (2001), Ikezawa (1985), etc.). When an x^^- control chart is used in a production process, two cases may take place. One case starts from deciding control lines and maintains the process using them; the other case starts from searching the assignable cause in the out-of-control state. In this paper, at first, both the PDCA and CAPD models of an x^^- control chart with a tardiness penalty are presented based on these two cases, and their mathematical formulations are explained in detail. Then, both models based on the 3σ rule and ARL (Average Run Length) rule are studied. Moreover, from an economic viewpoint, the problems of setting the optimal time parameters are numerically analyzed to minimize the total expectation cost Ct. Finally, by comparing both models, it is proven that Ct of the PDCA model is cheaper than Ct of the CAPD model when the due time is short, and Ct of the CAPD model is cheaper than Ct of the PDCA model when the due time is long in finite due time processes.
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  • Daisuke HIROTANI, Katsumi MORIKAWA, Katsuhiko TAKAHASHI
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 388-394
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the traditional production lines designed using the line-balancing method, each worker is usually assigned to a particular fixed task, and it is valuable to decrease the training time required to master the assigned task. However, when an imbalance among workers' speed exists, the slowest worker will delay the overall work in the production line, and the production rate of the production line will also decrease. To resolve this problem, the "Self-balancing Production Line," where each worker is assigned to work dynamically, thus maintaining the balanced production, was introduced. In this type of production line, the condition of constant working velocity is assumed, and the walk-back time to takeover an item from an upstream worker is ignored under the above condition. However, the walk-back time cannot be ignored in real life. Considering the walk-back time, the condition of balanced production changes depending on the walk-back velocity. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the walk-back time to find the maximum production rate, and thus keep the balance. In this paper, the production policies for a production line with walk-back time are proposed, and the conditions for self-balancing are found and analysed. Moreover, conditions leading to imbalance and the effects of initial conditions are also derived.
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  • Takashi Ito, Takashi Irohara
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 395-403
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The facility layout problem (FLP) is defined as needing to find an optimal layout with respect to the minimization of material handling costs (MHC) between departments. An elevator (ELV) is a necessity for multi-floor FLPs in order to transfer materials between departments on different floors, and the ELV location significantly influences MHC. While there are some multi-floor layout techniques that consider the ELV location, they have many problems. For example, there is a technique where the ELV is located within a department. In this paper, a new multi-floor facility layout technique is proposed, in which the detailed locations of input/output (I/O) points are determined in addition to departments and ELVs, using an integrated approach of combinatorial optimization and mathematical programming. In this technique, ELVs can be located in free positions without overlapping with departments. I/O points are also optimized within a defined range, but not using conventional ways. The proposed algorithm is based on Simulated Annealing. The objective function is the minimization of MHC between the I/O points of departments along the aisle with the shortest distance. The results of computational experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
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  • Yoichi SEKI, Ayumu NAGAI, Jun-ichiro ISHIHARA, Ryo WATANABE
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 404-412
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, we propose a method to extract a customer segmentation from the voluminous data produced by personal usage histories. First, in order to categorize customer behavior types at specified points in time, we apply SOM (self-organizing maps) to usage records. Second, we define new distances between distributions of behavior types on the SOM map using distribution functions. We then map the distributions of behavior types in order to obtain customer types over the long-term. Finally, in order to obtain a customer segmentation whose segment has a homogeneous functional relation between variates, we propose a model merge method. This method merges neighboring customer types in an SOM map, in cases where the MDL (minimum description length) criterion of the generalized linear model on the merged customer type is smaller than the sum of MDLs of the models on customer types to be merged. In this way, we are able to analyze historical personal usage data exhaustively gathered from multiple sources over the long-term. In order to validate the proposed method, we predict which credit-card users are likely to switch to credit-card cashing based on their credit histories. First, we classify card users into monthly types by applying SOM to monthly usage records of card shopping and cashing. Next, using the distances between distributions over the map, we apply SOM to the distributions of monthly types, thus obtaining yearly customer types. Finally, to predict the switch, we estimate logistic models on yearly customer types, and combine these models using the model merge method. The proposed method reveals useful features of card users who switch to credit-card cashing.
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  • Naoto OSHIRO, Yasufumi SARUWATARI
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 413-427
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The option-pricing approach is fruitfully accepted as the tool for credit risk evaluation, and numbers of papers were issued by academic researchers and practitioners as well. It is required to estimate several parameters to obtain the probability of default, however, there is no standard method of solutions, and the limited number of studies is available for the comparisons and evaluations of stability and accuracy of solutions. This paper deals with popular seven methods of solutions, and compared them from the view points of accuracy and stability. We found that the growth rate of the asset is not a significant parameter for the accuracy of capturing of default samples, but it is effective to stabilize the estimated probability of default. On the other hand, the method of estimation for the asset volatility gives a significant impact on the results. The method to employ the relationship between equity value and asset value shows a better performance to capture the default samples rather than the method to calculate the asset volatility from the calculated path of asset values. We also examine the impact to the results by the structure of liability between current and long-term. We found that the structure of liability gives a limited impact to the accuracy and stability, however, it will be recommended to take the long-term liability into consideration as long as it is used for an early warning indicator.
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  • Kenji HIRANO
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 428-442
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper proposes a method of describing and analyzing the decision-making processes and histories of businesses so that other businesses considering similar changes will be able to access information that may affect their future through a public archive. The focus of this study is the decision-making process, especially, "argument and debate" and "turning point". An analysis of arguments indicates whether change is viable, and also highlights which of the various decisions are turning points. Studying turning point allows decision makers to consider what is crucial to decisions. By looking at the decisions made by other companies, decision makers can get help in determining which course should be pursued or, in some cases, not pursued. This paper defines what event or situations are turning points and aspects of arguments, introduces them as a new part of the Business System Transformation Model (BSTM), and indicates the steps of the analytical process when using BSTM. Finally, the potential usefulness of this method is examined through its application to actual cases and specific operational problems.
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  • Takashi IWAMOTO, Shigeji MIYAZAKI
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 443-449
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The general distribution route is comprised of multiple wholesale dealers and a margin is taken at each of the process. As a result, the margin of the retail shop is very low due to high prime cost involved in the above mechanism. By cutting such middle margin in the distribution process, price reductions of more than 50% from the general price can be achieved. In this study, we apply option portfolio VaR using financial engineering of business forms that the retail of manufacturing industries have directly dealings by removing wholesale business. A mathematical formula is proposed for a stock reduction plan for the sub-optimal production of products in manufacturing industries with the aim of profit rate improvement. Regarding the composition of goods in retail trade, originally using the portfolio theory in the relationship between retail and wholesale sales, research on composition of goods for minimum risk and maximum return has been done. In this study, the removal of wholesale businesses and consideration of a method to reduce stock and increase direct sales in the trade and manufacturing industries, and the application of mathematical techniques such as option trade portfolio theory and value at risk (VaR), which are used in financial engineering, are discussed.
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  • Ryosuke KAMIMURA, Hiroyuki MASUDA, Takeshi ARAI
    Type: Article
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages 450-469
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We applied a multi-agent model to simulate consumer behavior, which has been more complicated through mounting use of the Internet. As the primary factors for a consumer's decision to purchase an item for sale, we picked out "individual preference," "tendency to be influenced by others," "experience in purchasing the item for sale concerned" and "advertising effects." In addition, "word-of-mouth (WOM)" and "Internet WOM" are included in the model as communication channels. We developed a multi-agent artificial society model which can simulate aggregate phenomena resulting from local interactions between individual consumers. In this study, we applied the model to the movie industry. As the items for sale, we used 18 films which were released from October 2003 to July 2004, and simulated consumer behavior. First, we compared simulated values with actual ones to test the validity of the model. We found that our model can re-create the actual purchasing behaviors of the film market to a certain level. Secondly, we analyzed the effects of changes in the external environment and the film market's marketing strategies, establishing preset conditions for the model. From the results of various simulations, some interesting observations about the market share of each film are made, and the transformation of consumption patterns noted.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages App21-
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (73K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages App22-
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (73K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages App23-
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (73K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages App24-
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (73K)
  • Type: Appendix
    2006 Volume 57 Issue 5 Pages App25-
    Published: December 15, 2006
    Released: November 01, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (73K)
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