This paper arranged estimate technique of the domestic emissions on air pollutants and greenhouse effect gas discharged from the ships. The content of this material is a result by MAP committee in the Japan Institute of Marine Engineering. Here, we proposed four estimate methods. First and second methods estimate the emissions from entering port number of ships and data of the emission factors of ships. Remainder two estimate methods are based on statistical data of fuel consumption. Using these techniques, we calculated the emissions of Japan based on latest statistical data. And the calculation result became being almost similar to the result of other research report. It seems to become more important that the domestic emissions are accurately estimated, when future environmental policy is con-sidered.
The Committee of Marine Air Pollution (MAP) was established by the Japan Institution of Marine Engineering and has worked for the investigation of air pollutants from ships including Particulate Matter (PM) . In the previous years, MAP has aimed to summarize the features of PM measurement methods and the emission characteristics of PM from marine diesel engines. Among the major PM measurement meth-ods which several countries and international organizations have prescribed, MAP recommends the Partial Dilution Method because almost all components of PM are captured by the method. However, the method has little adaptability for on-boad or real-time measurement so that other methods with portable apparatus have also been investigated. PM showed different emission characteristics between four-stroke and two-stroke engines. PM emission from four-stroke engine was minimized at middle engine loads while PM emission from two-stroke engine rose with an increase in engine loads. In addition, the ratio of Soluble Organic Fraction (SOF) in PM was lowered with an increase in engine loads for four-stroke engine, which is expected to be due to the change of excess aie ratio with the increase in engine loads. On the other hand, SOF/PM ratio showed no considerable change for two-stroke engine, which suggests PM emission from two-stroke engines would be caused by the consumption of cylinder oil. In addition to the study by shop test, on-board mea-surements have also been performed to measure PM emission characteristics from cruising ship. The onboard test showed almost same characteristics to the result of shop test.
This paper introduces the results of recent activities of the Marine Air Pollution committee concerning the emissions of NOx and Nitrous Oxides, N2O, from marine diesel engines. The committee obtained the NOx emission data from more than 200 engines under operation for main engine or generator, and proposed the equations for estimating the amount of NOx emission by analyzing these data statistically. The committee also investigated the measurement methods of N2O and examined the characteristics of N2O emission from marine diesel engines by experiments and chemical kinetic calculations.
2 stroke low-speed diesel engine has already exceed the brake thermal efficiency of 50% with the use of heavy fuel, that is, it contributes to not only the saving of energy but also prevention of global warming. On the other hand, NOx and SOx are abundantly discharged, and the correspondence is required from the environmental protection. In this paper, the present and prospective methods of controlling these emissions are described in contrast with the actual conditions and regulations of air pollution from the ships.
On September 1997, the Conference of Parties to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships adopted the Technical Code on Control of Emission of Nitrogen Oxides from Marine Diesel Engines. The purpose of this Code is to specify the requirements for the testing, survey and certification of marine diesel engines to ensure they comply with NOx limits. This paper describes the proposal for amend-ments to NOx Code on test condition fa submitted by Japan, the research conducted by the authors on“Follow-up Survey on NOx Concentration from Cogeneration Engines”, and the countermeasures of 4 stroke medium speed diesel engine for IMO regulation on NOx.