The comforts and conveniences of our present life are sustained by a lot of energy use. Using fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas produces carbon dioxide emissions. As a result, the density of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG) increases with the rapid increase of the amount of carbon dioxide emissions. The gradual uptrend of global temperatures has caused negative effects on our environment.This paper introduces hydro-chlorofluorocarbon development trends and new technologies for the conservation of energy and the environment for Marine reefer containers which play an important role in sea transport.
There is concern that marine organisms transported by ships would disturb native ecosystems. Marine organisms are transported through the ships' ballast water and by hull fouling. A major method of ship biofouling prevention is through the use of antifouling paints (AF paint). Keeping the paint in good condition between dock intervals is essential. However, a complete painting of the hull is difficult and some unpainted parts exist. These parts will become biofouled first. This research aims to clarify the causes of ship biofouling in relation to the hull structure, hull painting maintenance and ship operation through observations of merchant vessels and a research/training ship and to provide effective information on biofouling prevention.
NOx, SOx, COx and PM in marine exhaust gas have an adverse influence on the environment. In the 26th MEPC (Marine Environment Protection Committee) of IMO (International Maritime Organization) held in 1988, a proposal entitled "Exhaust gas emission from International Marine Transport" was made by Norway for the prevention of air pollution from ships. As a result of deliberate discussion, emission control (Tier1) of exhaust NOx values came into force on May 2005. The strict regulations (Tier2 & 3) will come into force in the future. More stringent regulations in the ECA (Emission Control Area) will be made. The author has continued to work on experiments to establish a new technical system to overcome Tier3 using after-treatment technology. It is very significant to investigate the information processes and reduction technologies of NOx, SOx and PM from the standpoint of fundamental and applied studies. This paper is introduces the development results of a new techniques for NOx, SOx and PM reduction.
The authors propose a linear motor driven container crane system as a promising high speed and fully automated container crane system. The direct drive mechanism by the linear motor enables high acceleration or deceleration of the trolley, regardless of variable surface conditions of the suspension wheels and rail. In the proposed system, the linear motor to drive trolley is also used to control swaying motion of a hanging container.In this paper, the control system design for the proposed integrated trolley drive and swaying motion control system are discussed. The validity and the effectiveness of the proposed system were estimated by both simulation and experimental results.
Diesel spray flame can be accurately predicted since Large Eddy Simulation (LES) can directly solve large-scale vortices. In this study, LES of the diesel spray flame in the combustion vessel is performed using KIVALES with a combustion model that applies CTC (Characteristic Time-scale Combustion) model to premixed combustion and FTS (Flamelet Time Scale) model to diffusion combustion. Damkohler number is used to determine premixed combustion or diffusion combustion. The effect of fuel droplet evaporation is considered in the transport equation of mixture fraction variance in order to improve the description of mixture fraction and its variance. Results show that the proposed combustion model can be applied accordingly to combustion configurations using the Damkohler number calculated using the turbulent characteristic time scale of the constant value.
PM emission of a laboratory diesel engine was obtained using an exhaust gas dilution system based on JIS B 8008 (translated from ISO 8178). Sulfate of PM was extracted from the PM collection filter by applying a supersonic wave in the aqueous solution which is the mobile phase of ion-chromatography (IC). Also, sulfate and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the exhaust gas were collected using a water-cooled condenser and an impinger set with aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide, respectively. Sulfate concentrations of the solutions were analyzed with IC. These results show that mass flow rate of total sulfur in the exhaust gas is equal to that of sulfur in the fuel oil within a difference of 5 %. Collection loss of sulfate in the dilution system is around 50 % of sulfate in the exhaust gas. This result shows that the dilution system in this study gives lower PM emission compared with that estimated from the constituent parts of the exhaust gas without collection loss of sulfate. This method can be used to determine the quantity of collection loss of sulfate in the dilution system for PM emission measurements.