The HERCULES programme was conceived as a strategic R&D Plan, to develop the future generation of optimally efficient and clean marine diesel powerplants. The project is the outcome of a joint vision by the two major European engine manufacturer Groups, MAN Diesel & Turbo and WARTSILA, which together hold 90% of the world’s marine engine market. In the year 2003, a common long-term R&D program was put forward of 10 years duration and 100 MioEUR budget, to develop new technologies for marine engines: · To increase engine efficiency, thus reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. · To reduce gaseous & particulate emissions. · To increase engine reliability In the year 2004, the Integrated project I.P. HERCULES (High Efficiency Engine R&D on Combustion with Ultra Low Emissions for Ships) was funded by the European Union. It was the 1st phase of the HERCULES programme. The I.P. HERCULES (A) was broad in the coverage of the various R&D topics. HERCULES - B was the Phase II of the original Programme concept and runs from 2008 to 2012. Based on the results of I.P. HERCULES (A), it further develops the most promising techniques. The HERCULES-C project (2012-2015) is the Phase III of the HERCULES programme and adopts a combinatory approach for engine processes optimization, system integration, as well as engine reliability and lifetime. The paper presents an overview of the programme HERCULES.
MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan) is carrying out two national projects to protect the global environment from GHG (green house gas) and harmful emissions of the maritime sector. In regard to the GHG and under consideration of the increasing global trend in transportation, drastic reductions in fuel consumption by traveled kilometer and ton cargo have to be achieved to minimize CO2 emissions. This project is named ‘Marine Environment Initiative’ and carried out during 2009-2012. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has introduced new emission regulations for marine engines that will drastically limit NOx emission in designated Emission Control Areas (Tier 3). The project to clear the Tier 3 is named ‘Super Clean Marine Diesel’ and is completed this year (2007-2011). Many Japanese companies, national institutes and universities are making substantial efforts in these projects to break through the problems. Additionally, a feasibility study on the natural gas fuelled ship that emits less CO2 and clear the Tier 3 simultaneously is introduced.
In past several years, auxiliary boilers of 1MPa or less have experienced water quality control problems. Most of these have been caused by the malfunction of the support system related to water quality control. The support system consists mainly of 4 components, namely, boiler compounds, water quality standards, water quality measurements, and log-sheets. Among these, the boiler water quality standards are the most important. However, there are not clearly established corresponding to the present situation because there are various viewpoints among the chemical makers, the boiler makers, and the shipping companies or their management companies. As for the log sheet, a requirement to review and standardize the log sheet form of boiler water analysis should be established in order to improve the support system. This paper, therefore, studies the water quality control and standards of auxiliary boilers for log sheet standardization, and for support system improvement.
Oil stress is the single most important factor that governs the lifetime and performance of an engine lubricant. While oil stress in four-stroke marine diesel engines has been well introduced in literature, oil stress in two-stroke engines has yet to be tackled with the same level of detail as that in four-stroke engines. Therefore, this paper will describe in detail oil stress in two-stroke engines. During experiments on the establishment of oil stress in two-stroke engines in ships, a correlation between BN depletion and intake air humidity was found to exist. This correlation was the reverse for the case of the fuel’s sulfur value. In relation to the above findings, the cause of scuffing under high humidity conditions is also discussed.
High base number cylinder oils provided inferior anti-scuffing performance in high temperature, low feed-rate conditions, as well as inferior high temperature spreadability. When cylinder oil is degraded under high-temperature thin-film conditions, carboxylic acid is formed as a decomposition product of the oil. This carboxylic acid is neutralized by calcium carbonate in the oil, forming calcium carboxylate. The calcium carboxylate complexes associate to form high molecular weight products, leading to increased viscosity and reduced spreadability, which reduces the oil’s ability to prevent scuffing at high temperature. Cylinder oils that have high oxidation stability not in bulk fluid but rather in thin film conditions will exhibit a smaller viscosity increase, a high spreadability and greater anti-scuffing performance.
It is reported that combustion of rich hydrogen mixture plume that is formed in the middle or just after the injection named PCC ( Plume Ignition Combustion Concept) is effective to reduce NOx formation drastically without offering any trade-offs on thermal efficiency in high output power operation in high pressure direct injection hydrogen engines. In this study fundamental requirements to achieve further reduction in NOx formation in PCC are investigated by optimizing ignition timing with the assist of visualization technology of flame propagation in the combustion chamber based on high speed laser shadowgraphy. As a result it was clarified that requirement of reducing NOx formation is controlling air entrained to hydrogen jet by shortening duration from injection of hydrogen to ignition. It was also made clear that additional approach to reduce unburned hydrogen is required in case entrained air is too low.
Autonomously working small fish robots are ideal for surveys of fish resources and underwater structural inspections where electric wires hinder the movement of the robot or where radio signals, such as GPS, cannot be received. For practical usage, the fish robot needs to estimate its self-position to swim autonomously in water. Using visual information from images taken from the bottom facing camera, self-position estimation becomes possible. Digital image correlation and tracking method is often used to measure deformation or strain of material and visualization of flow in water. Although self-position estimation of aquatic robots becomes possible when this method is applied, microcomputers (PIC, H8, AVR etc.) cannot be used for the digital image correlation method since they are unable to perform the calculations in real-time. In this study, self-position estimation was tested utilizing the real-time digital image correlation method by using a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). VHDL programming for FPGA and the FPGA equipped circuit board have been originally developed. This FPGA board executes both the control of the swimming fish robot and image processing at the same time. Results confirm that the small fish robot can measure swimming distance by itself.