In Ryukyu Islands, coral reefs have been received damage by the soil erosion from the farmland for several decades. In this paper, we discuss the necessity of the environmental payment policy for the farmer and the directionality of the policy for the soil erosion prevention. Therefore, we did the hearing survey about the actual condition and recognition of the soil erosion to the farmers in Ishigaki Island where the soil erosion has become so serious.
As a result of the investigation, the following were clarified.
(1) The farmers who take soil erosion prevention measures think that doing prevention decrease the losses of revenue and the farmers who don’t take prevention measures think that doing prevention is high cost and low revenue, though it is not seen the difference about the field condition and the management organization between two groups.
(2) Between the measures farmers and non-measures farmers, there is a difference in the recognition for the influence, the evaluation, and the necessary thing of prevention of the soil erosion. And assistance measures to prevent the soil erosion were needed for the measures farmers more than non-measures farmers.
(3) There are a lot of farmers who think that engineering improvement of the farmland is necessary to prevent the soil erosion, and both measures farmers and non-measures farmers are with a sense of dissatisfaction about the land improvement projects.
Because the soil erosion crosses between farmlands, it is ineffective without all farmers do not execute measures. Therefore, a minimum restriction to the farmers is indispensable to prevent the soil erosion. However, if the restriction cause the extra cost to the farmers, environmental payment that cover the cost is indispensable.
The merger of municipalities in the Heisei era, which was carried out nationwide beginning in FY 1999, combined 3,232 municipalities (at the end of FY 1998) into approximately 1,730 municipalities (at the end of FY 2009), before slowing down for a while. This study is designed to serve as the basis for closer research on the influence that the merger of municipalities in the Heisei era had on remote island municipalities. As such, it aimed to conduct an analysis of trends in the merger of remote island municipalities during the policy period.
The remote island municipalities included in this study are 132 municipalities whose main land areas were located in islands that were not yet linked by bridge to the Japanese mainland as of the end of FY 1998. Also, the municipalities whose trends were studied were those for which the announcement of the merger of municipalities by the Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications was completed at the end of December 2009.
The main results of the analysis are as follows.
(1) There are 50 municipal entities that did not merge during the period of the merger of municipalities in the Heisei era. The number of remote island municipalities at the end of FY 2009 was roughly half of the number in existence at the end of FY 1998.
(2) In terms of the rate of municipalities that merged, the trend for remote islands largely corresponds to the national trend. In other words, we can say that the merger of municipalities moved forward to a respectable degree in remote islands as well.
(3) If we break down the merged remote island municipalities into patterns, we see that most are of the “one- island, one-municipality” or “belonging island” patterns.
(4) Even among remote island municipalities that did not merge, 40% have established councils to conduct serious, detailed merger discussions.
(5) Differences exist among prefectures in the progress of the mergers.
Issues for future research include assessing the merger’s impact on the municipalities that merged, and an investigation into the ideal style of local government for the increasingly diverse remote island municipalities.
Iou-Torishima is located at the most north part of the Okinawa-Islands, just beside the Amami Islands Group. Today Iou-Torishima has been uninhabited island by the escape of islanders from many volcanic activities and famines. This article considers ①geopolitical story in the age of Ryukyu Kingdom, Okinawa prefecture and the present, ②livelihood of islanders at Iou-Torishima in each age and stage, ③decision making process of their immigration to Kume-jima, which lies far from 200km distance, ④community management, uniqueness and change of their life-style at the new immigrated village, ⑤different process of immigration to the Micronesian islands from the other islander of Kume-jima, and ⑥ academic significance to make research on the remote uninhabited island.
This paper aims to show the personality of Aimé Césaire through his poetry, especially Notebook of return to the native land, and to understand his political life as Martinican politician with interviews and consultation of archives. Aimé Césaire, a well known poet of Negritude, was Mayer of Fort-de-France [1945-2001] and French deputy continually who represented Martinique [1945-1993] by chance, Yet his political action was inseparable from that of poet.
Proses and verses of Césaire, afford to trace the origin of “Negro”, derived from massive deportation from Africa under the slavery system and colonialism, are composed with their histories the way to live today for black people. His perspective invites to find those which enabled the outer island of Antilles and its insular enclave of Martinique after abolition of slavery in amnesia and to exposure to the world. Thus for interlocutor of Césaire, poetMayer of Fort-de-France, the principal city of Martinique, his famous poem Notebook of a return to the native land is considered the basic aspect of his political action.
The politics carried by Martinican Progressist Party, that he founded in 1958 after demissioned from French Communist Party, was to unite Martinican nationalist toward orientation of decolonization. Resolutely autonomist, in seventies he considered that culture can play the key role to change Antilles, he started concretizing his vision of Martinique, explored in his poetry as municipal politics for Fort-de-France where he got majority.
May 1981, when he declared moratorium in politic to become alley of François Mitterrand and his party, is considered the crucial moment of rupture for politician in general as autonomist. However in the light of facts, invention of Région d’Outre-Mer, the institutional framework made by two decades of reforms of decentralization after 1981, as monodépartement shows that the tracks before and after then, with archives and interviews of actors at that time let us know the political approach of Césaire without interrupt.
His orientation for greater autonomy for Martinique federated France was encouraged with consent of People, and supported national majority. That implies the importance of his political attitude and his personality. Behind, as poet engage, he made a pact with himself and with his People of Martinique when he has assumed formally the responsibility of Fortde-France as Mayer after elected by his fellow councilors in 1945. His political career was devoted entirely to represent his People. What poet describes as Martinicans and the town of Fort-de-France after abolition, asks the politician to outline the profile of the town to build, give reality of municipal life. Which invited national alley of Socialist Party and President of the Republic Mitterrand, to help him concretize his vision of Martinique, though as strategy to win electors votes, translated in his Notebook.