We used female students (junior high, high school, and college) and their parents as subjects and assessed the eating behavior of the parents and children by investigating the passing down of drinking behavir (in the broad sense), preferences and drinking behavior (in the narrow sense: drinks or does not drink beverages), food habits (skipping breakfast/between meal types), degree of obesity, awareness of obesity, symptoms, and number of bottles ingested, and the following results were obtained. 1) Beverages often drunk by both parents and children consisted of green tea, oolong tea, and milk, while sweet beverages, i. e., fruit juice beverages, lactobacillus beverages, coffee, black tea (suger added), cola, carbonated beverages, and isotonic beverages were drunk in the following order: mothers<fathers<children. 2) Parent-child differences were: 1) green tea, oolong tea, milk, for college students: child<father 2) sweet beverages and isotonic drinks, for junior high school students, high school students, and college students: child<father and mother, and in every instance the differences were significant. 3) The results for the junior high school students showed that the parents and children drank several types of beverages within the home, and the proportion of all of the mothers who drank cola and black tea (with/without suger) at home because they enjoyed them was high. The beverages that were drunk by each of the age brackets at home and outside were green tea and oolong tea, and the beverages that were drunk at mealtime and outside were milk, green tea, and oolong tea. Children and parents drank sweet beverages both at mealtimes outside and outside. 4) Childrenis most common reason for choosing the beverages that they consumed was that they liked them or for the physiological reason that they were thirsty, while parents chose them consciously, saying that they were thirsty and that milk and vegetable juice are good for the health. According to preference, the beverages that were most liked in every age bracket were green tea, oolong tea, milk, fruit juice beverages, and lactobacillus beverages.The order of the proportions of subjects who liked fruit juice beverages was as follows: fathers<mothers<children. 5) Children and mothers said that while they disliked vegetable juice and low-fatmilk, they drink them because they are good for the health, and children drank sweet beverages giving preference as the reason for drinking them. Many of the fathers of the junior high school students tended to be obese, and they were conscious of being obese, and the children and mother were aware of obesity and were overly conscious of their own body type. 6) Many of the children ate other foods or fruit instead of the staple food, and many of them complained of fatigue. 7) Many of the fathers of junior high school students who tended to be obese, although being aware of obesity, liked to drink green tea, oolong tea, milk, sweet beverages, and isotonic beverages. Moreover, they often consumed snack confectionery and skipped breakfast. 9) Mothers liked green tea, oolong tea, milk, and sweet beverages, and while aware of obesity, many of them drank such beverages. 10) All of the Children consumed more bottles of beverages per day and more bottles of sweet beverages than their parents.Moreover, the junior high school students who tended to be obese drank more bottles than those in the other categories, and those who ate foods other than the staple food and Western-style confections tended to drink more. The mothers of college students who tended to be obese were aware of obesity, and those who often ate between meals and skipped breakfast drank more bottles of these beverages and sweet beverages.
A study on dietary habits by age group was conducted among 78 elderly persons aged 65 or older living in Kinki area or Okayama Prefecture.The subjects were divided into four groups;a group of 65-69 years, a group of 70-74 years, a group of 75-79 years and a group of 80 years and older.The purpose of this study was to examine the characters of present dietary habits considering the effect of childhood and youth diet on present elderly dietary habits. The results obtained were as follows: (a group of 65-69 years) The subjects tended to show lower frequency for eating meats though they were youngest in all the groups. (a group of 70-74 years) There was nothing characteristic about the persent dietary habits in this age group. (a group of 75-79 years) The subjects tended to decrease in the intake of food items of animal origin.Intake of meats among men and intake of milk among men and women were noticeably insufficient. These tendencies were considered to be influenced by the unbalanced diet in childhood and youth. (a group of 80 years and older) The subjects tended to increase in the intake of food items of animal origin though they were oldest in all the groups.This tendency was considered to be influenced by the diet comparatively sufficient in quantity in childhood and youth. In this group, intake of bread was higher than in other age groups and intake of Miso-bean soup was noticeably insufficient. The subjects in all the age groups tended not to retain some of uniquely japanese dietary habits such eating steamed rice as staples.The food that the subjects in all the age groups took habitually to maintain their health was milk. As for the awareness of daily habits, there were differences according to sex, but not age.
In order to investigate how dietary experiences in the past effect the satisfaction of home life of junior high school students, questionaire studies were performed in Japan and Korea. The path models, which were established on the basis of the hypothesis that the students who had many desirable dietary experiences in the pastwere satisfied with their home life through good communications with their parents, were proved in both in Japan and Korea.Although the dignity of their parents was positively related to the undesirable memories at meal time in Japan, this relation was not observed in Korea. Both Japanese and Korean students, who were satisfied with their home life, recognized the importance of having meal, together with their family members. However, the importance of meal time in the home circle was greater in Japan than in Korea. This might suggest that Korean students have many chances to have a home circle except at meal time.
There are the reports the custom of eating rice gruel made with tea mainly on Western Japan. But its details are not clarified. In order to clarify the eaten reason and origin of it, the range of its custom and distribution in Kyoto, Osaka, Mie, Nara, and Wakayama prefecture in 1999 is investigated by Questionnaire. The Questionnaire was distributed to dietitians (age20-70) living in each area. 1) The custom of eating rice gruel made with tea is distributed especially on the border of the prefectures, and also in the seaside districts of Wakayama and Osaka prefectures. 2) Next to Wakayama prefecture, Nara prefecture has the most rice gruel made with tea, however this custom in all of them is on the decrease. 3) Rice gruel made with tea is called Tyagayu rather than Okaisan by Osaka and Mie prefectures, but called Okaisan by Wakayama prefecture. 4) The common materials added to rice gruel made with tea in the five areas are sweet potato, rice cake, and adzuki beans. 5) The reason that the custom of eating rice gruel made with tea remains today is that it tastes good.
The manufacturing process and components of 12 raw sugars (Kagoshima: 8, Okinawa: 4) from the Nansei Islands were investigated. The Okinawa's raw sugar contains more ash than that from the Kagoshima one that is a statistically significant difference. Based on the component contents, the raw sugar has a negative proportional relationship between water and sugar, and between fractose, glucose, kestose and sucrose, but has a proportional relationship between ash and potassium.
The Chinese medicated diet has been of public interest as healthy cooking bedcause dietary habits cause life style-related diseases.The high use of various foodsin daily life is needed to promote a healthy status.For this purpose, we classified foods whichi could be used for preparing a medicated diet in view of preparing a dishi. A total of 286 foods including Chinese drugs were classified according to the kinds of food, nature, taste, and channel tropism. The proportion of neutral showed the highest (36.5%) in the foods. Of the five, sweetness is the most dominant one (69.8%). In channel tropism, the stomach showed 48.2% and the spleen indicated 30.2%. Essentially, home cooking should have the principles of the Chinese medicated diet to promote a healthr status. However, the characteristics of foods concerning the Chinese medicated diet are complicated. Therefore, the classification of such foods would help people to cook much better in daily life.
In order to study the acceptable duration of storage of dried Shiitake mushroom, the quantification of tasty components and functional evaluation, including water content, were done.Water content was kept relatively low until about six months. The color of the lamella of pileus turned dark yellow about six to nine months after storage started. There was little change in the content of tasty components, 5'-GMP, free amino acid, free sugar and sugar alcohol. The total impression of the sensory analysis tended to lower more than six months after storage started. Freezed and storaged sample at a room temperature in the sealed bag had no changes in appearance, components and functions storage for a year. When the bag was opened and closed again with a rubber band, Shiitake mushroom on room temperature storage tended to change more than six months late.Based on the results, it is considered that about one year is acceptable for the Best-Before date.
We analyzed the sodium, potassium and salt contents, the free amino acids composition, the fatty acid composition, and the bacteria in Koyozuke. 1. The average valves of salt, potassium, Na/K ratio and the water activity were 6.1%, 143mg/100g, 16.9 and 0.936, respectively. 2. The average values for the free amino acid contents were 2, 414mg/100g. The major free amino acids contents in order were glutamic acid, proline, lysine, anseline and leucine. 3. The major fatty acids were C18: 1, C16: 1 and C22: 6. 4. The bacterial count in Koyozuke was 106-407/g.No coliform organisms were detected. 5. The major bacteria isolated from Koyozuke were from the genus Staphylococcus.