There are about 40 minerals which are components of the human body. Of those, thereare 13 minerals, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Na, P, Zn, Cu, I, Mn, Mo, Cr and Se, for which either therecommended dietary allowance (RDA) or the tolerable upper intake level (UL) wasstipulated by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW) of Japan in June of 1999. Recent dietary practices have become highly dependent upon refined or purified foodingredients. Therefore, much attention has been paid to minerals which are lost or addedduring food processing. The MHW is expecting the nation to become more responsibleconcerning these foods with unbalanced mineral content and that is why the new RDAand UL have been stipulated. Adequate mineral balance may be changed by other nutrients.Therefore, determiningthe desirable ratio of minerals is not a simple matter. Viewed simply, the desirable ratiocan be calculated from the RDA values. The desirable ratio of Ca, Mg and P is 2: 1: 4. Based on the Japanese standard food composition table, foods which have a comparativelyhigh Ca content of 100mg or more per 100 g of edible material and which have adesirable Ca, Mg and P ratio were selected. There were found to be only fifteen of suchfoods among 87 food items with a comparatively high Ca content. The majority of thesefoods are basic ingredients for many Japanese dishes. There were rice-kojimiso, soybeankojimiso, okara, raw saltwort, raw okura, dried kanpyo, dried purple laver, dried arame, dried ma-konbu kelp, boiled and dried hijiki, dried wakame, finely ground green tea, currypowder, black pepper and boiled wary crab. Milk and its products were not selected as such foods because of their low Mg content. These foods should be consumed with a high-Mg food. Based on these ideas, a study onthe effects of supplementary minerals should be conducted. The health effects of dietary minerals are evident when the minerals are consumedwith appropriate nutrients simultaneously. For example, Ca is important for bone formation, but, without Mg, P, Fe, Zn, vitamin D, vitamin K, vitamin C and protein, adequatebone formation is not expected to occur. It seems possible that the unusual longevity of the Japanese may be due to the desirablemineral balance of Japanese cuisine. Also, absorption of Ca from soybeans and soybean products and other vegetableswhich are the main sources of Ca in the Japanese diet has been compared with the absorp-tion of Ca from milk and milk products which also serve as major sources of Ca in theJapanese diet.It was noticed that the absorption of Ca from soybeans, soybean productsand other vegetables was almost the same as that from milk and milk products.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of feeding three kinds of testdiets (Solid, powdered and liquid types) on maternal rats and its effect on the serum andliver lipids metabolism of their 10 day old sucklings and 10 weeks old growing rats. These test diets were formulated such that the ratio of food components used was thesame. The maternal rats fed cholesterol-enrich solid diet exhibited lower total serumcholesterol and free-cholesterol, although serum HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerolconcentration were similar in the three groups (i. e. solid, powdered and liquid type fedrats). The contents of liver cholesterol and triacylgylcerol in three groups were not significantlydifferent. Similar observation have been made comparing serum to totalcholesterol levels in adult rats aged 10 weeks and suckling rats aged 10 days. Fatty acids composition in stomach of suklings born by solid diet fed maternal rats containedsignificantly higher percentage of oleic acid and unsaturated fatty acids than thosefed with powdered or liquid diet. The group fed with liquid diet gave the highest glucose and insulin levels, while groupfed with solid diet demonstrated the least levels, and powdered diet fed group showed intermediatelevels thus, suggesting that chewing of the solid diet determined the rate ofabsorption.
It was reported that some volunteers had watery stools after the ingestion of powderedcoffee containing galactosylsucrose (LS) with milk in a previous paper. The effect o f theingestion of milk on defecation and fecal condition in the same 11 volunteers were studiedand compared to the LS-powdered coffee data that was previously described.The sub-jects were each given 200ml, 400ml and 600ml of milk in 3 days (ingestion phase), and theprepared blank phase when they were not fed any milk for a week between the ingestionphases. The excretion of watery stools was significantly increased by the ingestion ofmilk as compared with the noningestion in the group although a significant effect was notobserved in comparison with the each ingestion phase. When children (50-12 years old) ingested LS-powdered coffee (16g, LS2. 1g), the fecal conditions such as volume, shapeand hardness feeling were also significantly improved. No significant changes were ob-served in either the excretion of watery stools or the ingestion of LS. These results indi-cate that the defecation fo watery stools is caused by the oral ingestion of too much milk, and the Ls-powdered coffee is less likely to cause watery stools when orally ingested inregular doses.
Senior high school students (177 boys, 284 girls) were asked to answer a questionnaireon the prevalence of allergic diseases. Of the students, 54.7% lived in the city, 19.7% insuburban areas and 25.6% in the countryside. 1) The percent of students with an allergic disease since birth were 49.2% of the boysand 46.5% of the girls. Within one-year, the percent of students with an allergic diseasewas 67.6% of the boys and 67.4% of the girls. The development of an allergic diseasewas “irregular” in 49.1% of the boys and 46.3% of the girls, “seasonal” for 32.1% ofthe boys and 25.3% of the girls and “perennial” in 9.9% of the boys and 15.1% of thegirls. 2) Within one-year, the percentage of allergic rhinifis in the boys was the highest, 38.4%, followed by 16.5% with atopic dermatitis, and 13.5% with conjunctivitis andpollen allergy.For the girls, the percentage of allergic rhinifis was also the highest, 30.3%, followed by atopic dermatitis (18.6%), urticaria (17.1%) and pollen allergy (11.7%). 3) When asked about the cause of their allergic disease, 53.4% answered house dustand ticks, 49.8% pollen, 21.5% food ingredients, 14.6% pets and 11.4% stress. Withrespect to therapy within one-year, 66.7% responded “no treatment”, 37.9% “visit-ed a doctor”, and 24.7% “used medicine” . 4) Of those with allergic diseases since birth, a higher intake of sweets and snacks wasreported by the boys and of eggs and meat by the girls when compared with thosewithout allergies. 5) Of the boys with allergic diseases since birth, defecation was reported at less thanthree times per week (8.1%) and was irregular (15.1%), which tended to be higher thanthose of the non-allergic boys (1.1% and 6.8%, respectively). Boys (67.9%) with aller-gic diseases since birth answered that they thought constipation could affect their healthwith less frequency than the non-allergic boys (85.4%).
The correlation between the eating habits of female students and the properties oftheir perception for salt-taste, sensitivity and preference were studied. The sensitivitywas estimated by measuring the detection threshold using thirteen concentrations of saltin water, and the preference was assessed using a five hedonic rating scale with misoshiru (misosoup). Their eating habits were studied with a questionnaire. A high sensitivity to the taste of salt and a high preference for a low salt taste werefound in the subjects who answered the salt intensity level in their home dishes as beingrelatively low. Students who had the habit of using less salt preferred the less salty misoshiru, and their mothers also answered as wishing to ues less salt.Students whosemothers wanted to use less salt answered the salt intensity level in their home dishes asbeing relatively low. These results suggested that the sensitivity and preference forsalt-taste in female students were related to their eating habits. This study also showedthat female students eating fewer vegetables, soy beans and soy bean products more frequentlyused ready-made lunch boxes, instant foods, and snack foods, suggesting a tendencyto ingest much more salt.
In order to investigate the relationship between a mother's concern for dietary lifeand her satisfaction with her own life and her family, questionaire studies were performedfor mothers of junior high school students in Japan and Korea. The statistical analyseswere performed by using SPSS. In the view of the children, significant (p<0.01) differences were observed among both countries; Japanese mothers thought their childrento be another personality, and expected their children to be good companions, criticsand the persons to heal their mind. These results suggested the exchange of the role ofthe mother and child and the lack of the role of the husband in Japan. In addition, Japanese mothers had less self-confidence as mothers than Korean mothers. The percentageof Japanese mothers thought to be respected by their children was half of that of Korean mothers. Both in Japan and Korea, mothers who had interest in arranging the dishesand a concern for dietary life recognized their position in the home, and enjoyed goodcommunications with their children. The good relationship among family members increasedthe satisfaction of the mother's own life. It was suggested that to cultivate amutual understanding between mother and child through the home circle at mealtimewas very important not only for the child but for the mother herself. Meal time wasshown to be the best chance to cultivate mutual understandings in daily life.
We analyzed the proximate composition, total dietary fiber, minerals, free amino acids, free sugars, free sugar alcohol, organic acids and nucleotides in the fruiting body, Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceum) , cultivated on a sawdust substrate bed with differentstrains and supplements in order to make it clear that the cultivation conditions affectthe contents of the fruiting body. The protein, fat, total dietary fiber and nucleotide contentin the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceum showed differences according to thedifferent strains and supplements. And also the mineral, free amino acid, free sugar, freesugaralchol and organic acid content indicated remarkable differences among the differentstrains and supplements, but the major components and their ratio showed the sametendencies regardless of strain and supplements.
This paper attempts to find out causes of breakfast skipping behavior among Japanesewomen college students by examining their lifestyes including eating styles through aquestionnaire survey. The findings are as follows: 1) About 35 percent of the respondents have dinner after 8:00 p.m., and 45 percent ofthem do so because of their part-time jobs. 40 percent of the women students eat dinnerat irregular times, and the later they eat, the more irregular their dinner time becomes. 2) The students'lifetyles tend to be night-oriented: 86 percent of tnem go to bed aftermidnight, and the average students sleep for 6 hours and 29 minutes. 3) Many of the students eat and/or drink after dinner, eat 70% and drink 92%;Tea andsnacks are most favored. 4) 32 percent of the students wake up before 7:00 a. m., 43 percent between 7:00 a. m. and8:00 a. m., and 25 percent after 8:00 a. m. Those who eat breakfast erery day make up66 percent, 5 or 6 days per week 14 percent, and one through 4 days 15 percent respec-tively: 5% of the students do not eat breakfast at all. Those who eat breakfatst do so ap-proximately 20 minutes after waking up. 5) Multiple comparisons among dinner time, regularity of eating dinner, sleeping hours, and frequency of cating breakfast show that late dinner time, irregularity of eating din-ner, and short sleeping hours all contribute to breakfast skipping behavior. 6) 70 percent of their dinner contents consists only of main dishes and drinks, but fewstudents care much about nuturition.