Now the porcelain is the main daily tableware in Japan. But before the porcelain came into wide use, the lacquer ware was the main. The production of porcelain has started at Hizen Arita in the early part of 17th century. But in the Edo period, it did not become popular as daily tableware. In the Meiji period, the railway opened to traffic, and the porcelain spread to the whole country. On the table-tray (zen), the small bowl was the first to change from the lacquer ware to the porcelain, the plate for fish was the second, and the rice bowl was the third. As on the whole, the lacquer ware changed to the porcelain, but the ceramic and plastic rice bowl did not come into wide use. Why did the rice bowl change to the porcelain? It is generally agreed that the rice is the staple food of the Japanese people, and this is certainly the case today. However, this has not been true at all times or for all people. Throughout the Japanese history, we lived largely on katemesi (mixed rice and cereals) and zosui. Katemesi and zosui need the rice bowl of porcelain.
Now, the electrical rice cooker is very popular and is owned by over 90% of all the Japanese families.It has stable 6 million sales every year. It has been developed to the household necessity for 47 years since its release. I introduce some of recent technologies and the history of the rice cooker.
Tomato plants from organic cultivation were cultured in four productions using the same fertilizing conditions and cultivating methods. An investigation was conducted to determine how climatic conditions and chemical composition of the soil affect the components of the tomato fruits. Between 40 to 44 tomato plants were harvested in the four productions, based on their red color. The samples that were harvested in the G production had the highest in color test, rating and rapidly ripened. In the four productions, the contents of total ash and calcium in the tomato fruits were the highest in the G production, and phosphorus was the highest in the G and I prodctions. Their were affected by the amounts of various available nutrients in the soil. The content of vitamin C in all production's tomato fruits were higher than the listed value of that component in foods. These were found to be available in organic cultivation. It was affected by the soil components especially for calcium, nitrous acid and the full ripeness of the tomato plants, which were not affected by the climatic conditions.
The relationship between fish and shellfish intake frequencies and serum fatty acids was investigated using t-test, that involved 221 female college students. The findings are as follows. 1. The intake frequencies of fresh fish and shellfish reflected the total intake volumes of fish and shellfish, when the food-intake frequency was divided into 3 categories, i, e., the frequency of 3 to 5 times or more a week, once or twice a week and once or twice in a month. 2. The serum levels (concentration and composition ratio) of icosapentaenoic acid (IPA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) were positively correlated, and the n-6/n-3 ratio was negatively correlated, with the 3 categories of the fresh fish and shellfish intake frequencies. 3. The serum levels of docosahexaenoic asid (DHA) and P/S ratio were significantly higher for the food-intake frequency of 3 to 5 times or more a week. These findings demonstrated that the levels of serum fatty acids such as IPA, DHA, n-3 PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio are related to the intake frequencies of fresh fish and shellfish, and the dietary intakes of fish and shellfish with the frequency of 3 to 5 times or more a week may be important for the prevention of coronary heart diseases and the increase in health.
During November-December 1988 and during November-December in 2000 or 2001, for female students living in Shiga Prefecture, the Hanshin District and Kagoshima Prefecture, investigations were conducted on the actual condition of beverage-drinking habit by drinking occasions and by regions. Investigations were also conducted on consciousness toward beverages drunk in chatting time and served to visitors.The results of the investigation are as follows. (1) When the actual condition of beverage-drinking habit by occasions was compared between in 1988 and in 2000, it was clarified that beverage-drinking habit was changing in all three districts. The changes were that the drinking of green tea, barley tea and oolong tea increased and the drinking of milk and coffee decreased. (2) In 2000 or 2001, compared with 1988, the drinking rate of green tea during morning-noon, at lunchtime, and during noon-evening increased. (3) Regarding beverages in chatting time, students in Kagoshima Prefecture had strong imaging for green tea, followed by black tea and coffee. On students in Shiga Prefecture and the Hanshin District, difference in imaging for green tea, black tea and coffee was not recognized. (4) Regarding beverages for visitors, in Shiga Prefecture and Kagoshima Prefecture, imaging for green tea was strong followed by black tea and coffee. In the Hanshin District, imaging for black tea was strong followed by green tea and coffee. (5) In 2000 or 2001, compared with 1988, as beverages in chatting time and for visitors, imaging for green tea tended to decrease in all three districts.
A study was made on the regional differences in Japan of personal tableware usage and the resistance to common use. There was a regional difference in the personal use and common use of each tableware item at home. The data show that people in the eastern region of Japan were more likely to use personal tableware at home than those in the western region. The most significant factor for personal usage of the rice bowl, soup bowl and chopsticks was the region where they live. There was also a regional difference in the resistance to common use for all tableware items except the teacup at home and the tableware items when eating out. The data also show that people in the eastern region of Japan had stronger resistance to common tableware use than those in the western region. The most significant factor for the resistance to common use of chopsticks and the soup bowl was again the region where they live.
A questionnaire survey was conducted to compare the health consideration and defecation tendencies for Nursery School children and their parents living in Osaka (546, 425 and 465, respectively), Nara (248, 226 and 233, respectively), and Kanagawa (171, 108 and 147, respectively). 1) For infants, their food habits to be sufficient to maintain their health were 79% in Osaka, 69% in Nara, and 68% in Kanagawa (p<0.05 in infants of three regions). Consideration about food habits of mothers were higher than fathers in Osaka (p<0.001). 2) Knowledge about food intake requirements for infants were in the order of 61% in Osaka, 56% in Kanagawa, and 51% in Nara (p<0.05 in infants of three regions). Consideration about food habits of mothers were higher than fathers of the three regions (p<0.001 in Osaka, and p<0.01 in Nara). 3) Infants who do not miss the three regular meals were 86% in Osaka, 82% in Nara, 76% in Kanagwa. The frequency of skipping meals of fathers (between 17% and 24% of often miss) were higher than mothers (between 4% and 12% of often miss) in the three regions (p<0.001 in Osaka and Nara, and p<0.05 in Kanagawa). 4) The percentages of those with regular bowel movements every day of infants, were 71% in Osaka, 61% in Nara and 63% in Kanagawa, and bowel movements of less than three times a week were reported by 4%, 9% and 7% in Osaka, Nara and Kanagawa, respectively (p<0.05 in infants of three regions). Bowel movements of less than three times a week were of parents were 4% and 13% in Osaka, 12% and 18% in Nara and 6% and 16% in Kanagawa, respectively (p<0.001 in fathers of three regions, respectively). Defecation frequencies of mothers were lower than fathers, of the three regions (p<0.001, respectively).
In order to examine the properties of diacylglycerol-rich cooking oil (DG oil), chiffon cake and carrot cake were baked using DG oil. The results obtained were compared with those for triacylglycerol-rich oil (TG oil). The specific volume of chiffon cake using DG oil was significantly smaller than that of TG oil, while the specific volume of carrot cake did not differ between the oil. According to the microscopic observations, the bubble-formation and the size of bubbles did not uniform in DG oil's chiffon cake. The adsorption of oil particle to the surface of both cakes using DG oil was observed. The sensory evaluation and the total evaluation for the chiffon cake using TG oil were higher than that of DG oil except appearance and color of cross section.The appearance and color for the carrot cake using DG oil were obtained higher evaluation than that of TG oil and these results supported the quality of microscopic observations.
Arnaranthus L. are edible plants that are rich in protein, dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins. There are 12 varieties which are cultivated and used in food preparations in Japan: Rarushaku, BAYAM. M, BAYAM. P, ABIEBIE, Maruba, Yanagiba, and Baiamu which belong to A. vegetables and Mexico, Nairobi, Nouken c. 91-3, K4, and Akou which belong to A. grains. Since the young stems and leaves of A. grains are used as vegetables. The objective of this study was to determine if edible amaranthus contains any natural antioxidant materials. 17 samples, 12 leaves and five grains, were screened using ethanol extracts in a methyl linoleate oil system. Fifteen of the samples contained rather strong antioxidant activity. The results were as follows: 1) Seven samples had strong antioxidant activities: water extracts of the leaves of ABIEBIE, Yanagiba, and Nairobi, ethanol extracts of the leaves of BAYAM. M and ABIEBIE, and ether extracts of the leaves of Baiamu and Nairobi. 2) Water extracts of ABIEBIE and Yanagiba leaves showed a synergistic antioxidant effect with citric acid, and water extracts of ABIEBIE and Yanagiba leaves and ethanol extract of ABIEBIE leaves showed a synergistic antioxidant effect with α-tocopherol. 3) Water extracts of ABIEBIE and Yanagiba leaves were stable against heat treatment at 100°C for 2h. 4) Water extracts of ABIEBIE, Yanagiba, and Nairobi leaves were stable at pH's 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, and9.0. 5) Water extracts of ABIEBIE and Yanagiba leaves showed activity with a minced pork model system.The synergistic antioxidant effect with the addition of citric acid or α-tocopherol showed a stronger antioxidant activity. 6) The HPLC (High Performance Liquid Cromatography) method for evaluation of the free radical-scavenging activity of foods, using1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, was used in 13 samples. Eight samples showed free radical-scavenging activity. Three of these, water extracts of ABIEBIE, Yanagiba and Nairobi leaves, showed the particularly strong free radical-scavenging activity. In conclusion, water extracts of edible amaranthus have natural antioxidants.
The purpose of this survey is to examine the defecation habits and awareness of health among Americans because higher proteins and lipids and lower dietary fiber intakes may cause colon cancer. 194 Americans (48 males and 146 females) living in California States and the suburbs were asked to answer a questionnaire on their defecation habits and awareness of health in 1991. More females than males considered their intakes to be “less” of meats and beverages, and “much” of vegetables and fruits according to their consciousness. This suggested that females were interested in food intake more than males.About threefourth of the subjects considered their eating habits to be sufficient to maintain their health and knew their food intake requirements.The proportion of “do not miss any regular meals” in males was higher than that in females.About one-third of males and about a half of females were answered that they thought constipation could affect their health. About a half of males and females considered to defecate when they felt the need and this suggested that their awareness of defecation tended to be rather lower. Those who defecated less than 3 times per week answered that they defecated to feel the need. Of those with regular defecation every day, the time of defecation was longer and those who had less defecation or irregular tended to be less times or irregular in males, while the opposite answers were given in females. The awareness of defecation and improvement of food habits in “Western” dietary pattern (a higher intake of red and processed meat, high-fat dairy products, sugar-containing beverages, sweets and desserts) may be one of important factors in order to decrease constipation.