The effects of the estimation toward their mother on their sense of eating with familieswere investigated by questionnaire studies for junior and senior high school anduniversity students who were in the psychological weaning stage. Although male students showed the tendency to accept the dignity of their motheras a good character according to their development, female students showed the tendencyto regard it as unfavorable characteristics. For the female students, their senseof eating with families was shown to be more influenced than the male students bycomplicated factors, i.e., unpleasant memories with mother, frequency of eating alonethrough their daily life and evaluation toward their mother's life. The most important factor that influences their sense of eating with families wasthought to be the affirmative sense toward their mother through respect and friendliness. The frequency of eating alone in the past was shown to be concerned with unpleasantmemories at mealtime and solitary in the family.
Recently, preservation technologies of dried seafoods were at a very high level, then the dried foods were developed as manufactured foods, which are currently known all across in Japan. In this paper, the transition of dried seafoods in the patent gazette from the early days of the Showa era are considered. The conclusions are as follows; 1) After World War II, the output of seafoods in processed marine products was about 70%, but in 1998, this output was about 35%. 2) Recently, a dried fish sweet sake and an old style kusaya are changing into an ash or a herb dried fish, and a fish pickled in sake lees. Those products are patented as new goods for added value. 3) The dried bonito is used not only prepare brew stock for cooking but it is also ap-plied as a food for provisions and carrying foods. In presently, this dried bonito is changing into a package of dried bonito shavings. 4) The dried seafoods are being developed as foods to preserve for a long time and to simplify cooking compared to the former cooking styles, which is at present known as a instant foods, a seafood powder for sprinkling over rice (hurikake) and a dietary supplement.
When fish or meat with collagen is boiled down and cooled, the obtained juice contains a significant amount of gelatine, hardens and forms a gel called “Nikogori”, whose deliciousness is due to its unique texture. A series of measurements was conducted to clarify the effects of the components and the cooking condition on the physical properties of “Nikogori” . We examined the lightness, pH, rupture characteristics, 1H-NMR and 170-NMR data. As a result, the mechanical properties of the “Nikogori gel” were found to be dependent on the material, the boiling time and the presence of seasonings such as wine vinegar, soy sauce or rice vinegars. We postulated that the difference in the heating times and pH of the solution had an influence on the solubilization of the collagen. The fish (flatfish) formed a gel after a short heating time, and gel strength decreased after a 20minute heating time. The pork shanks formed a gel firmer than the fish one, and the strength of its gel was a maximum after 90 to 120 minutes of heating. The end of the chicken wing particularly produced a stable and strong gel during a long heating. On the other hand, the cow shanks without any bone and hide did not form a gel even after 240minutes.It was suggested on the basis of the NMR result that factors other than the collagen influenced in the physical properties of “Nikogori” .
The aim of this study is to demonstrate the possibility and versatility of using shojindashi in cooking. Fast we analyzed and compared the taste components of plain dashis-made with konbu, dried shiitake, dried radish, kanpyo and soybean-and mixed dashis-each made with konbu and one of the other ingredients. Then we did further sensory evaluation of sumashijiru, simmered radish and simmered kori-dofu cooked using the mixed dashis. As a result, dashi made with konbu and dried shiitake had an umami taste, dashi made with konbu and dried radish had a sweet taste, dashi made with konbu and kanpyo had an acid taste and dashi made with konbu and soybean had a mild flavor. General evaluations of all the dashis were average. Therefore, it was concluded that it is possible to effectively use all of the mixed dashis in sumashijiru, simmiered radish and simmered kori-dofu.
The regional characteristics and palatability of soy sauce in Japan are discussed in this paper.The questionnaire survey was carried out to investigate the palatability of soy sauce in Japan. It was conducted at 37 high schools and one junior high school in 24 prefectures in 1998. The investigation involved 1, 740 parents of these school students. The questionnaire survey clarified that the regional difference was based on the strength of personal interest in soy sauce and the type of soy sauce, use method, supplier and the market share. The market share of five major soy sauce manufacturers in Japan could distinguish all regions of Japan into two classes using the percentage score of the share. The five major soy sauce manufacturers (5-MSM) were Kikkoman Corp. in Noda-shi, Yamasa Corp.and Higeta Shoyu Co., Ltd., in Choshi-shi, which were all in the Chiba Prefecture, Marukin Chuyu Co., Ltd., in Shodo Island in the Kagawa Prefecture, and Higashimaru Shoyu Co., Ltd., in Tatuno-shi in the Hyogo Prefecture. The percentage of less than 50% of the market share was defined as the A-block. On the other hand, the percentage of greater 50% of the market of 5-MSM was defined as the B-block. The five regions of Kyushu, Sanyo, Sanin, Hokuriku, and Tohoku belonged to the A-block. The A-block has the common characteristics as follows: 1) Consumer was very interested in soy sauce. 2) Several types of soy sauce were distinguished for use in various cooking. 3) Customers often purchased soy sauce directory at their favourite soy sauce manufacturer. 4) The consumption of Koikuchi-shoyu (deep color soy sauce) occupied a low proportion. The above data concluded that the intimate relationship between the local area soy sauce manufacturers and consumers was high in these A-block regions. The six regions of Hokkaido, Kanto-Koushin, Tokai, Kansai, Shikoku, and Okinawa belonged to the B-block. The B-block had some opposite characteristics versus the A-block as follows: 1) Consumer was slightly interested in soy sauce. 2) The same type of soy sauce was used for various cooking. 3) Soy sauce was mainly purchased at the supermarket. 4) The top market share of soy sauce was formed by 5-MSM. As a result, it was shown that the preference of “taste” differed regionally over all of Japan.The regional difference of palatability could regionally help the small and medium soy sauce manufacturers in Japan.
A recent survey was conducted with elderly people.Two groups, people with dementia living in a Group-home, and people without, living in Retirement Housing, were asked about Instrumental Activities of Daily life (IADL) and Basic Activities of Daily life (BADL) covering health, diet and lifestyle. It was noted that people with dementia had a significantly recognizable inability to perform IADL as opposed to people without dementia who were able to carry out these things on their own. However, it was also noted that the same group of people with dementia, were able to carry out some basic activities, such as dressing themselves, but were still unable to perform other activities.In relation to diet and feeding themselves around 80% of the total number of people surveyed were able to feed themselves and only a few people were hindered in this area.However, it was found that when people had full dentures, there was a tendency for these people to have small appetites.