The state of the school lunch program including nutrient intake, food ingredients, and cooking methods at an elementary school in Jeju city, Korea, was investigated, and the results were compared to the school lunch program in N city, Japan. 1) The recommended reference intakes of sodium, lipids, and dietary fiber are not stipulated by law for school lunches in Korea, but all of the stipulated nutrients in Jeju met the reference intakes. There was a need to propose recommended reference intakes of sodium, lipids, and dietary fiber for the school lunch program in Korea. 2) About 80% of the lunches in Jeju city, but less than 40% of the lunches in N city, used rice as a staple food. In Jeju city, about 7.5% of the cereals or pulses were added to the rice most of the time. Among the vegetables used in both cities, those used most frequently were Chinese cabbages, onions, and cucumber in Jeju city, and onions, carrots, and Chinese cabbages in N city. In Jeju city, raw Hijiki and Wakame (not dried), fishes, and shellfishes were served more often than in N city. For the seasonings, garlic and red pepper were used in significantly higher amounts in Jeju city than in N city. 3) The introduction of the local products and traditional cooking menu in Korea were found in the school lunches in Jeju city. These results suggested that the school lunch is an important curriculum of nutrition education involving diet culture for elementary school children in Korea.
We investigated the relationships between calcaneal stiffness and the lifestyle of 53 men and 139 women over 60 years of age living in a local community (Nara). Their calcaneal stiffness was measured with an ultrasonic densitometer to calculate the agematched stiffness (AM value). Daily eating habits, physical exercises, housework and past jobs, hobbies and social activities, and health promoting behaviors were evaluated by direct interview. The results were as follows; 1) Significant and positive correlation coefficients were observed between the AM value and three parameters in men : social activity, hobby time and the housework (washing). Significant and positive correlation coefficients were observed between the AM value and nine items in women : body weight, BMI, fat body weight, lean body mass, total calcium intake, total housework time, total kitchen work time, frequency of meat intake and frequency of soybean curd intake. 2) All the single items surveyed were grouped into nine categories according to their relevancy and the mean values were normalized. All the subjects were divided into two groups : high AM value group (over 100) and low AM value group (under 100). The nine categories of the two groups were then compared by the t-Test. The intake of milk and other dairy products, frequencies of other food intake and medical history (past and present) were significantly higher for women in the high AM value group than for those in the low AM value group. No significant difference was found in men. 3) Four factors were extracted by factor analysis and compared for their factor points between the low and high AM value groups. No significant difference was observed in men. However, a calcium-related factor had a significantly higher point for women in the high AM value group. A few relationships specific to gender were recognized between calcaneal stiffness and lifestyle : social activities in men, and nutrition and housework in women. Our study shows that it is important for the prevention of osteoporosis in the elderly to take countermeasures based on the gender differences. (334 words)
It has been suggested that a low protein intake causes sustained enhancement of sympathetic nervous activity. Thus, the present study was undertaken to see the effects of different sizes of protein intake under a constant daily energy intake (1,600 kcal/day), on urinary excretions of catecholamines and their metabolite, vanylmandelic acid (VMA), in healthy young women. In the experiment 1, in which 40g- and 80g-protein containing food were taken for 4 days and 8 days, respectively, VMA excretion decreased after 80g-protein intake. In the second experiment, 40g-, 80g-and 40g-protein containing food were successively taken for 4 days, respectively. In here, dopamine (DA) excretion increased significantly after 80g-protein intake, and returned to the initial level by retaking of 40g-protein containing food. Noradrenaline (NA) excretion did not change after 80g-protein intake. NA/DA ratio decreased significantly after 80g-protein intake, and returned to the initial level after the second 40g-protein intake. VMA excretion tended to decrease successively during the 80g-and the following 40g-protein intake periods. The present results indicate that the conversion of DA to NA may be suppressed by a excess protein intake, and that the enhanced sympathetic nervous activity observed in the lean subjects, could be caused, at least in part, by a lower protein intake by them.
The effect of dry okara on the specific loaf volume of bread was investigated. The addition of dry okara to wheat flour gave desirable effect on the gas production of dough, but induced lowering effect on the loaf volume. In the case of dry okara adding to flour after the gluten formation compared with the adding both of flour and dry okara at the same time, the loaf volume was increased and the hardness of bread crumbs was decreased. In spite of the the high water-holding property of dry okara, the moisture contents of okara bread and control bread were similar after baking. The specific loaf volume of bread was increased and the hardness was decreased by addition of Hiprotch (70% gluten and 30% soy protein) or emulsifier to dough. Moreover, the specific loaf volume showed the same high value as that of control bread by using both of Hiprotch and emulsifier. The sensory evaluation of okara bread became acceptable by using both of the improvementors. Hiprotch had no effect on the bread crumb microstructure. It seems that the change of the microstructure by the addition of emulsifier was due to the depressing of starch gelatinization. Proteins extracts from wheat flour, dry okara and Hiprotch were analyzed by size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography. The slight interaction between gluten and okara protein occurred by the addition of Hiprotch. It seems that the soy protein in Hiprotch gave desirable effects on gluten formation in the presence of okara. Therefore, it was suggested that desirable effects of Hiprotch addition on gluten formation increased the loaf volume of bread containing okara.
Using a placebo controlled single blind crossover study, we examined the effects of dried skipjack soup stock on mood and emotion among Japanese female college students by questionnaire. Twenty-seven subjects were divided into two groups, and 100 ml of skipjack soup stock and a placebo were alternately given for one week to both groups. The washout period was one week. The placebo was diluted water containing a natural skipjack flavor, pigment and salt. The profiles of mood were observed using the POMS test and the mood questionnaire before and after consumption. There were some subjects who had an unstable emotional baseline. The walking counts by pedometer and the diary descriptions suggested there were some events that varied their emotions. We therefore decided to use subjects who had a stable emotional baseline for evaluation of the test foods. As a result, the scores for tension, anger and TMD (Total Mood Disturbance) in the skipjack soup stock group significantly decreased from the initial values. On the mood questionnaire the score for concentration increased from the initial value. These results suggest that skipjack soup stock had a beneficial effect on mood status.
Considerable evidence now exists that a diet rich in certain fruits and vegetables acts to reduce the effects of age related illness. In particular recent focus has been on darkly pigmented berries high in phytochemicals such as anthocyanins and phenolics. Boysenberry is one such fruit with the potential to be an innovative functional ingredient. Though not as well known in Japan as blueberry and raspberry it is highly regarded in parts of the US and Europe. Boysenberry (Rubus loganobaccus cv boysenberry) is a trailing craneberry or bramble, a hybrid cross between a loganberry and a blackberry. One of the chemopreventitive characteristics of boysenberries is by way of its antioxidant effect attributed to the anthocyanins. The main anthocyanins have been determined by HPLC analysis to be three cyanidin-3-0-sophoroside, cyanidin-3-0-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-0-glucosid. These act to prevent cellular damage by scavenging highly reactive free radicals. Other potential functional uses of boysenberry as both an ingredient and/or extract are because of its ellagic acid and folate content.
We made a survey of traditional “osizushi” in Owase City and in Miyama cho. The answers to our questionnaires are as follows. 1) About 40% of the households cook it. 2) The residents in their 60s cook it most often Followed by the residents in their 50s. 3) The residents of Miyama cho cook it most often. 4) Concerning the fish and vegetables used for oshizushi in both districts, vinegared sanma or mackerel pikes are mostly used and the vegetables are boiled in a soy-based sauce. Shiitake mushrooms are most popular and then gobo or burdock roots come next Followed by peas. 5) Concerning the leaves of the plants laid on top of each oshizushi, haran or aspidistra leaves are mostly used in Owase City and myoga or Japanese ginger leaves in Miyama cho. 6) For the number of layered oshizushi, 2 or 3 layers are popular in Owase City and 3 or 4 layers in Miyama cho.
This report, which is the result of studies based upon ancient documents, pertains to seasonings such as vinegae and sugarwith emphasis on fish sauces and salt seen on Hachijyo Island in recent times. 1. The main focus of seasonings was fish sauces and salt-preserved products (meat sauces) from fowls. 2. Salt was manufactured by the direct boil-down method, and sugar, miso and soy sauce were procured by bartering with the goverment.
Teaching “beans” was carried out at an elementary school with 460 children in Osaka City. With that as the focus, the deployment of teaching food was summarized and the results were examined. 1) Quizzes were accepted with interest by the children and considered effective in teaching many children. 2) The first year of teaching increased the degree of children's recognition of bean names and nutritional values. Children also came to eat beans as part of their school lunch more than before the teaching. So the second year's goal was to have the children eat beans at home. 3) In teaching food, a relationship with the home is necessary to carry out in practice what children have learned. It is important to create an interactive relationship between the school and the home. 4) Through the experience of cooking beans, both children and their parents changed their image of beans from “Cooking beans is difficult” to “Cooking beans is easy”. Teaching traditional foods and how to eat them is one of the most important roles of teaching food. 5) Teaching food at the elementary school is based on the three colors of food groups and started with school lunches. Children received the handouts of beans used for school lunches and understood the nutritional values of soybeans by the three colors of food groups.