A new meal menu and intake time-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (MMITQ) was developed. The validity of the MMITQ was assessed a survey on 95 students of a women's junior college by comparing the estimates of intake for several nutrients or six food crowds between the results from MMITQ and a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) (the Japanese version used in a cohort study of the Ministry Labour and Welfare). 1) The correlation coefficients (r) (n=95) of several nutrients intake per day between the MMITQ and the SQFFQ were as follow : 0.569 for potassium, 0.501 for calcium, 0.403 for phosphorus, 0.567 for magnesium, 0.574 for iron, 0.457 for copper, 0.654 for carotene, 0.452 for V.D, 0.525 for V.E, and 0.515 for V.C, 0.626 for V.K, 0.412 for polyunsaturated fatty acid, 0.592 for dietary fibre and 0.562 for folic acid showing the rs of 14 nutrients were within the range of 0.4-0.7, As for energy, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, zinc, V.B1, and V.B2, rs were lower than 0.4 (0.23-0.37), although they were still significant (p<0.05). 2) The correlations (n=95) of estimated intake level between MMITQ and SQFFQ for six food crowds were as follows : 0.484 for one first crowd (meat, fish, egg, soybean, and processed soy product), 0.485 for the second crowd (milk and dairy products, fingerling, and alga), 0.547 for the third crowd (green yellow vegetables), 0.563 for the fourth crowd (light color vegetable and fruit), 0.144 for the fifth crowd (cereals, potatoes and sugars), and 0.312 for the sixth crowd (fats and oils, food with a lot of fats). 3) As the validity of several SQFFQs including the SQFFQ used in this study have already been acknowledged, the above results may support the usefulness of the MMITQ for estimating the intake of each nutrient or food group in a person within a field survey.
This study was examined possible effects of eating habits on the food aversion of school children. The subjects were 1,100 of junior high-school students. They asked if they dislike or not 15 kinds of foods that are served commonly in their daily meals. About 44% of students did not dislike any foods tested, and about 46% of students disliked from 1 to 3 kinds of foods. About 10% of students disliked more than 4 kinds of foods, suggesting a disorder on food preference. The group having disorder on food preference didn't keep their eating habit healthy, and disrupted dietary rhythm by the frequent skipping of their breakfast or dinner. Also, they took frequently their meal alone without their family members. These results suggested that the eating disorder on food preference in junior high-school students might be improved through the nutrition education to change their eating habits.
“Nikogori” extracted from cooked fish or meat has been noted as an easy-to-eat food for old aged people and those with medical problems associated with swallowing. The unique texture of “Nikogori” is the source of its good taste. We investigated the effects of adding seasonings (soy sauce, rice vinegar, wine vinegar, milk and mayonnaise) and changes in the processing of “Nikogori” made from chicken on the physical properties of “Nikogori”. We examined the rheological properties of “Nikogori” using dynamic viscoelasticity, rupture characteristics, lightness, pH, 17O-NMR data and microscopy. Also, the relationship between the change in the quantity of collagen and the molecular weight distribution of the gelatin was studied by electrophoresis. As a result, the mechanical properties of the “Nikogori” were found to be dependent on the presence of the seasonings, such as wine vinegar, rice vinegar or mayonnaise. We found that the pH and fats of the solution had an influence on the solubilization of the collagen and gelation. When meat was heated in a low pH solution (adding wine vinegar or rice vinegar), the collagen was eluted very well, turned into gelatin and formed stronger gels. On the other hand, when mayonnaise was added to the “Nikogori”, they formed weaker gels. When we prepared a model gel with added fats, it formed weaker gels and its spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) based on the 17O-NMR data tended to be shorter as the molecular motion in the solution was retarded.
In this study, we conducted investigations on zen monks training at monasteries who adopt a diet centered around vegetables in order to investigate their nutrient consumption state and health, and reviewed if their diet can be applied to prevent and minimize lifestyle-related diseases. The following is a report of the obtained results. 1) The nutrient consumption of zen monks was high carbohydrates, high dietary fiber, low fat, and low cholesterol, and this was especially conspicuous in the non-animal food consumption group. 2) Together with the dietary habits whose amount of energy consumption is high, it is suggested that it is effective for preventing and minimizing lifestyle-related diseases. 3) Given that the general blood test values and biochemical test values of the zen monks are excellent, it indicates that continuing a diet low in fats and cholesterol has low risks of causing health problems. Consequently, the diet of the zen monks can serve as a reference to those who need to lower their triglycerides and total cholesterol to standard levels.
A questionnaire survey was conducted on college students' families in the Harima region, Hyogo Prefecture to clarify the characteristics of using Usukuchi (light color) Soy Sauce at home. The following results were obtained. (1) 93.1% of families have used either the Usukuchi Soy Sauce and Koikuchi (regular) Soy Sauce. 81.0% of the families have used both the Usukuchi and Koikuchi Soy Sauce. The types of soy sauces in a home was most frequently 5 and the average was 4.7. The home that possessed 4-6 types was 82.8%. (2) A questionnaire survey was conducted to elucidate how to use soy sauce in eight kinds of dishes. Over 95% of the persons cooked dishes by themselves. A significant difference was not seen in the method to pass on the process for cooking of eight kinds of dishes. (3) It was conceivable that the kind of soy sauce used for the dishes influenced the color of the raw materials. Also, the color of the dishes was slightly or strongly influenced by both kinds of soy sauce and the dishes. (4) The families who ordinarily used the Usukuchi Soy Sauce preferred to use Usukuchi Soy Sauce for many of the dishes. The families who mainly used the Koikuchi Soy Sauce as well as the Usukuchi Soy Sauce tended to vary the type of soy sauce used for several of the dishes.
In Japan, which is entering the super-graying societies, it is an urgent task to achieve an extension of a “healthy life expectancy”. With the purpose of obtaining the fundamental references for realizing the health promotion of the elderly and the extension of a healthy life expectancy, we surveyed the physical capacities, quality of life (QOL), vital functions, and lifestyle of 26 elderly females (average age: 74.3 years) who lead independent lives in Marumori-machi, Miyagi Prefecture, and compared various parameters, especially considering whether or not they regularly exercised. As a result, it was found that the group having an exercise routine (14 persons) had a significantly higher speed gait, smaller number of steps, and a longer stride during maximum walking, compared with the group having no exercise protocol (12 persons). In addition, with regard to the QOL, the exercising group had milder “physical pain” and a higher “degree of mental health”. With regard to food ingestion, the exercising group ate meat more frequently, while the no-exercise group significantly ate instant food more often. Consequently, the survey indicated that the continuation of an exercise routine is useful for retaining the gait function of elderly people, and an exercise routine is also related to the QOL and dietary life.
A survey for the preference and consciousness of okara was carried out from September to October 2004 involving 290 female university and college students and 262 of their mothers in Hyogo, Nara and Osaka areas. Okara was more preferred by the student's mothers than the students, and the former group had okara meals more often than the latter group. Unohana, a traditional Japanese cuisine, was the most popular okara dish for the daughters and their mothers. If more okara meals are newly developed, the consumption of okara will increase. Croquette and hamburger steak containing okara were the most favorite okara foods for the daughters and their mothers. They had a good healthy image for okara, and the mothers had greater knowledge of okara compared to the female students. Okara will be recognized as more important food material, if its useful characteristicss are widely known.
The idea of healthy meals which elementary school children in the fourth grade, who have not studied this subject in the school curriculum, had was investigated through their drawings. This study was performed on the basis of the hypothesis that the drawings of supper that keeps them healthy must show us the level of their knowledge about healthy meals. Without regard to the school curriculum, they had much information concerning healthy dishes and food through mass communications, etc. The representative menu, which they drew, consisted of rice, miso-soup, grilled fish and salad. Although they knew that the Japanese-style dish was better than the Western-style dish for their health, they did not know much about the Japanese vegetable dish. In addition, many pupils did not well understand not only the composition of the meal, i.e., staple food, main dish and side dishes, but the rule of their table setting. Some pupils drew more than one staple food and main dish in one meal and another pupil did not draw any staple foods, main dish and/or side dish at all. Dietary habits of the pupils in their home might influence their ideas of a healthy meal. A questionnaire study about their daily dietary life suggested that the more the pupils enjoyed their dietary life with a lot of communication with their family, the more they understood healthy meals. In order to perform a diet education effectively, it was suggested to be very important to make them interest in daily dietary life by cooperating with the pupil's family. It was also shown that the picture drawn about this subject would be a useful tool to understand the level of knowledge of pupils about the dietary life.
For the purpose of studying the benefits of sprouts from the standpoint of food and nutrition science, we determined the primary, secondary, and tertiary functional components of various types of seed sprouts. The protein content (per 100 g of dry weight) reached as high as 56.1% for peas, 52.3% for soy beans grown in Japan, 49.5% for soy beans grown in the United States, and 50.0% for soy beans grown in China. In other types of sprouts, the protein content ranged from 34% to 48%. The lipid content ranged from 0.4% to 1.6%. As for the fatty acid composition, linolenic acid accounted for 23% to 48% in the sprouts from seeds other than buckwheat and soy beans, and was especially high in those from cress at 47.7% and peas at 40.6%. The total free amino acid content (per 100 g of dry weight) ranged from 1,873.0 to 5,022.0 mg for radish, buckwheat, cress, broccoli, red cabbage, mustard, and rucola sprouts. In contrast, the content was markedly higher in peas, Japanese soy beans, United States soy beans, and Chinese soy beans, reaching as high as 13,787.5 mg, 12,768.8 mg, 10,845.9 mg, and 11,931.0 mg, respectively. The major free amino acid was asparagine in pea and soy bean sprouts, while it was glutamine in the other types. The γ-aminobutyric acid content (per 100 g of dry weight) was 530.4 mg in peas, 321.9 mg in Japanese soy beans, 210.8 mg in United States soy beans, 267.8 mg in Chinese soy beans, and 246.3 mg in rucola. On the basis of these findings, it is suggested that sprouts from peas and soy beans of the legume family have a high content of fine protein and flavor-enhancing free amino acid components, as well as γ-aminobutyric acid, which is known to have a blood pressure depressant effect.