The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) has promoted Shokuiku from production through distribution, manufacturing / processing to consumption. MAFF is working on Shokuiku by setting four specific aims: (1) Promoting people's understanding on agriculture, forestry, fishery and food industry; (2) Helping people to enjoy a health diet of Japanese style eating habits (3) Perpetuation of traditional food culture; and (4) Providing information on food safety The example of Shokuiku by MAFF is popularizing the Dietary Guidelines for Japanese, “the Japnanese Food Guide Spinning Top”. You can see the other information of Shokuiku on web-site of MAFF http://www.maff.go.jp/syokuiku/index.html.MAff has the branch on prefectures. So please contact our branch office near your home.
The origin of metabolic syndrome is the disordered life style, overeating and lack of exercise, and the accumulation of visceral fat. The disordered life style causes the accumulation of visceral fat, and the accumulation of visceral fat causea atherosclerotic risk factors composing metabolic syndrome via adipocytokines, which are secreted from visceral fat. And finally the metabolic syndorome causes atherosclerotic diseases. The improvement of disordered life style is the most important for the therapy of metabolic syndrome, because the disordered life style is at the upper stream of metabolic syndrome. The improvement of disordered life style has good effects on the all risk factors composing metabolic syndrome. The risk factors composing metabolic syndrome, even if they are not severe, should not be neglected, because the light risk factors gathering make a huge atherosclerotic risk.
The importance of the concept ”metabolic syndrome” can be found in the changeover of mind-set. In a conventional approach, one's lifestyle improvement is forced for the first time after getting a disease. According to this concept, however, one's life-style improvement is to be advised actively at a stage before getting a disease. The diet therapy using this concept, which differs from the conventional one that gives a special prescription depending on one's specific disease, is based on diet guidelines recommended by academic societies for relevant diseases to be applicable and effective to such diseases. The first goal is reduction of visceral fat, more specifically, reduction of 5% of the initial amount of visceral fat so that the character of their fat cells qualitatively change. This diet therapy consulting covers over not only the eating habit but also physical exercises, appropriate controls of alcohol drinking and quitting smoking. Our diet advising focuses on modification of eating habit that tends to get more high-energy food, and guides people to have an eating habit to take an appropriate amount of energy. We use an action changing skill method for nutrition consultation, introducing a concept “food balance guide”, which teaches that the nutrition balance shall and can be realized by combining appropriate amount of staple food, side dish and some accompanying dishes. In many cases, no conventional diet therapy that requires an exact nutrition energy calculation is necessary. According to the reformation of medical administration system, which will be implemented in 2008, a person diagnosed as a metabolic syndrome will be obliged to follow a life-style consultation. The aim of this reformation is to reduce the burden of medical costs, namely, not to make people get ill. According to the relevant law, the public health nurses and national registered dietitians will be in charge of this consultation task. The position in society of the national dietitians, thus, will be estimated under the new medical administration system. In other words, I don't think it is an exaggeration to say that the future playing field of the dietitians and the national registered dietitians will be determined by the degree how they could contribute to the aim of the Health, Labor and Welfare ministry, namely, how they would contribute to reduce 25% of the number of persons in would-be life-style related diseases. I hope this confronting challenge will become a chance to their big break.
Health status and meal contents of community-dwelling elderly people were investigated. The following results were obtained. (1) While health status decreased with an increase in age among elderly people in their 80s, it increased among elderly people older than 90 years. (2) More than 20% of the elderly people had lost all of their teeth. The average number of remaining teeth was 11 (33.8% survival rate), and decreased with an increase in age. The average loading rate for artificial teeth exceeded 80%. The loading rate rose when the number of remaining teeth was 19 or less, and the rate was significantly lower when the number of remaining teeth exceeded 19 (59.4% survival rate). Many elderly people were not satisfied with the loading condition of artificial teeth. More elderly people had problems with their bite condition (19.6% of the total) than with their swallowing condition (7.8% of the total). The degree of an individual's swallowing condition was strongly correlated with his or her health status. (3) For many elderly people, boiled rice is the staple food, and is most frequently eaten at breakfast. Nutritional supplementation was found to be more easily prepared at breakfast than at any other meal. Nutritional supplementation was found to be unbalanced at lunch because elderly people frequently eat only one kind of dish. Fruits were consumed most frequently as a desert. Concerning the intake-frequency of various foods, the intake of only pickled vegetables (tsukemono) decreased with an increase in age, deterioration of health status, and with reduced bite or swallowing conditions. Although very few elderly people utilize processed foods developed for the dietary needs of the elderly, which are recognized as convenient by some elderly people. Based on the analytical results shown above, countermeasures for allowing the elderly to more comfortably eat meals are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how genetically modified (GM) food is considered by those who participate in food processing, namely, food farmers, food developers, distributors and consumers, from production to consumption. The findings indicate that food developers were more interested in genetic recombination technology than other groups, whereas consumers were more interested in GM food. The number of people who think that application for genetic recombination technology to food production and other fields was not good for citizens was as follows in declining order: farmers›consumers››distributors›developers. Compared to other sources, newspapers were not a reliable source for information on GM food. In particular, food developers and distributors had more this tendency. Every organization including the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare, the Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, and researchers of universities should be responsible for informing the nation of this technology. In conclusion, it is important that all the parties concerned with genetic recombination technology continue to inform the public of this technology steadily to help the nation understand GM food.
We performed measurements to prove that daily participation in cooking improves human brain functions. The “daily cooking participation” experiment was conducted on 21 healthy male subjects, aged 59-81 (mean 68.5). For three months, the subjects were asked to come up to a cooking school once a week, and learn basic techniques for daily cooking. They were also asked to cook and prepare their meal at their home. Brain activity tests were conducted on the subjects both before and after the “daily cooking participation” experiment. Through the comparison of the pre-test and post-test results, it can be proven that “daily participation in cooking” improves the activity of prefrontal cortex. Subject: 21 healthy males (aged 59-81, mean 68.5) Period of measurement: 3 months (March 9-June 2, 2005) Methods: “Daily cooking participation program” was conducted as follows: Subjects were asked to come up to a cooking school once a week, and learn basic techniques for daily cooking. They were also asked to cook and prepare their meal more than five times in a week (15-30 min./day) at their home. They had the same brain activity tests done both before and after “daily intervention” for comparison. Brain activity tests: The following tests were conducted in the interview method: FAB (frontal assessment battery at bed side), Stroop, Topology test, DST (Digit-symbol test) Mini Mental state examination Statistically compared with the results of the paired t-test, FAB, Topology and DST scores were significantly improved after the program. This proves that daily cooking participation improves function of the prefrontal cortex. Hence, it can be suggested that daily cooking participation prevents to decrease or improves the ability for social life; communication, self-care, self-control and emotional control which occur in the prefrontal hemisphere of the brain.
The influence of chronic fatigue on food taste sensitivity was investigated in 73 healthy university students (age 21.3±0.5 years). Participants were divided into two groups (Cumulative fatigue group and Normal group) based on their CFSI (Index of cumulative fatigue symptoms) scores and both groups were tested for sensitivity to sweet, salty and sour tastes. Participants were assessed for the emotion state using the Affect-grid. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured and compared between the two groups. The results showed Cumulative fatigue group had a significantly higher sensitivity to salty taste. Cumulative fatigue group had a significantly higher arousal level and a significantly lower pleasant level compared to the Normal group. Moreover, arousal, salivary cortisol and pleasant level were correlated with cumulative fatigue level. In addition, the atrabiliary item of CFSI was correlated with the sensitivity of saltiness. These results were discussed in the context of the depressive mood and the unpleasant feeling.
Kaburazushi and Daikonzushi are traditional fermented foods of the Toyama and Ishikawa prefecture. The purpose of these studies were carried out to determine the various components and bacteria of the Kaburazushi and Daikonzushi. The results were as follows: 1. The average contents of the sodium, potassium, salt and water activity of the commercial Kaburazushi and Daikonzushi were 734mg/100g, 197mg/100g, 1.9%, and 0.958, and 675mg/100g, 144mg/100g, 1.7%, and 0.956, respectively. 2. GABA, arginine, alanine and glutamic acid of the homemade Kaburazusi and Daikonnzusi increased during storage at 5°C. The GABA contents of the homemade Kaburazushi and Daikonzushi were 47.7mg/100g ∼ 60.5mg/100g. 3. The average viable cell counts and lactic acid bacteria of the commercial Kaburazushi and Daikonzushi were 6.1×105/g, and 4.8×105/g, and 4.8×106/g, and 1.7×107/g, respectively.
Using 11 kinds of vegetables including blade and stem vegetables, taproot and rhizome vegetables, and fruit vegetables, the losses of Mn and vitamin C were compared between vegetables boiled after mincing and those minced after regular sizing and then boiled. The losses of both Mn and vitamin C were higher in the former case than in the latter case. Five kinds of vegetables including 2 kinds of blade and stem vegetables, 1 kind of taproot and rhizome vegetables, and 2 kinds of fruit vegetables were minced into 3 different sizes, and the losses in 5 types of minerals after boiling were compared. As a result, we found that any mineral was reduced in approximately an inverse proportion to the size of the vegetable, The vegetables boiled after mincing except a part of vegetables were significantly favored over those minced after regular sizing and then boiled as to their taste, appearance and easiness to eat. For some vegetables, no significant difference was observed between the former case and the latter case.
In order to utilize the adzuki bean seedcoat powder and the eluate of the adzuki bean seeds as a food material, the antioxidative activity of several materials (A: seed coat powder, B-a: first-eluate from adzuki bean seeds, and B-b: second-eluate from adzuki bean seeds) were assessed. The effects of the three materials were then examined by adding them to cookies. The peroxide values (POVs) of the cookies with added material A or B were lower than the additivefree cookies in the preservation test. The total polyphenols and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of material B-a were higher than material B-b. The total polyphones and the radicalscavenging activity of the cookies with added material A, B or C (A+B) were higher than the additivefree product. Observation of the tissue by scanning electron microscopy indicated the seedcoat powder particles on the surface of the cookies with added material A or C compared with the additivefree cookies.
The number of young women who have a tendency toward weight loss despite being underweight or normal with respect to body mass index (BMI) has increased in recent years. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the physical and mental effects of dieting tendency on young women, with a focus on the eating behavior and subjective fatigue symptoms. 1) The proportions of underweight, normal, and overweight women with respect to BMI were 17.5%, 75.4%, and 7.1%, respectively. However, dieting tendency was observed in 87.9% of all women. In particular, 92.2% of women with a dieting tendency were “underweight” or “normal” with respect to BMI. 2) Among women with a dieting tendency were “underweight” or “normal” with respect to BMI, 60.3% had an “overweight” body image of themselves, while 60.9% had experienced dieting, indicating significant differences between women with and without a dieting tendency in both cases. 3) Experience of binge eating was significantly more common in women with a dieting tendency (53.6%) than in those without a dieting tendency (38.0%). 4) Complaint rates for subjective fatigue symptom group I, comprising “sleepiness” and “unsteady gait”, were significantly higher in women with a dieting tendency than in those without a dieting tendency. Total complaint rate for fatigue was significantly higher in women with a dieting tendency (25.9%) than in those without a dieting tendency (19.7%).
Yokohama Chinatown is located in Yamashita District of Yokohama City, Kanagawa Prefecture. Yokohama Chinatown, one of the most popular towns, built about 150 years ago has become the largest Chinese restaurant area in Japan. All kinds of Chinese dishes are available at 250 Chinese restaurants in this town. The number of people visiting Chinatown is estimated 22 million a year. I will introduce the history and the success points in Yokohama Chinatown briefly.
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the actual physical conditions, living hours, and diet, specifically recipes and their ingredients, of healthy very elderly community residents in Iwata prefecture, which has a rapidly aging society. Subjects were 313 residents (133 men, 180 women) from 11 municipalities around Morioka city, Iwate prefecture, who underwent health check-ups for 85-year-olds. The survey was carried out as part of mass health examinations that were conducted at health centers, community centers, and gymnasiums in various municipalities during September and October 2002. Regarding the actual dietary life of very elderly (age, 85 years) Iwate prefecture residents who did not require nursing care, the following results were obtained: 1) very elderly residents had an extremely favorable nutritional status as indicated by their physical condition and serum albumin level, 2) very elderly residents infrequently missed any of their three daily meals, 3) the diet of very elderly residents typically consisted of rice as a staple food, grilled fish as a main dish, boiled vegetables and simmered dishes as side dishes, and miso soup, 4) the most common sources of protein were miso soup, followed by the main dish. In addition, vegetables were most often served in miso soup and side dishes, with a significantly higher intake of vegetables in side dishes among women compared to men.In conclusion, these findings indicate that the health status of very elderly community residents is maintained by a regular lifestyle and a traditional dietary life based on homegrown vegetables and local specialties in Iwate prefecture.
In this study, we observed how evaluations of taste change when information is disclosed about the food being evaluated. The information included price, product name, production region, nutritional additives, genetic modifications, and cultivation methods. Tests with and without information disclosure were separately conducted, one month apart, in order to ensure that the evaluations were independent. Evaluation of the effects of the disclosure vs. nondisclosure of prices showed that lower prices downgraded the evaluations while higher prices increased the evaluations. With regard to the product name,the evaluations tended to increase in proportion to the brand rating of the products. Well-known production regions received higher evaluations for domestic products, while domestic products received higher evaluations than foreign products in all instances. When information regarding nutritional additives, such as iron, calcium, and B-complex vitamins was disclosed, the evaluations tended to decrease. The evaluations of products which contained no genetically modified ingredients were higher than those of products with no information about genetic modifications, which in turn were higher than those of products indicating the use of genetically modified ingredients. Information such as few added chemicals, chemically-free, and organic increased the evaluations. Approximately 56% of all the products showed a significant change in the taste evaluation following the disclosure of information about the food.