The AIB food safety audit is conducted by a professionally trained staff of food safety auditors. Food processors who participate in the in-plant audit program receive a complete examination and technical assistance in all areas that affect product integrity. Personnel training is vital to the success of any program and AIB has provided more than 50 years of quality service. The service in Japanese has been available in Japan since 2001 by a collaboration of AIB and Japan Institute of baking. The use of the service is increasing steadyly every year because of its practical effects
The characteristic of the Japanese rice is as follows. The rice cannot use medicine in post harvest. A distribution channel is short. I display the day when I removed rice bran. I can trace it. On this account the rice sold commonly is safe. The rice keeps it in a low temperature warehouse since harvest it. By low temperature safekeeping, it can supply delicious rice. The rice is produced in a rice factory. Impurities are removed with color sorters and various sorters. It is rice refined in this way, but the objection occurs in a ratio of 30-100ppm. As for about 90% of the objection, a consumer has a cause. The contents of the objection are other things enter, harmful insect mixture, a bad smell, bad quality, a color is strange. The rice is eaten from old days. However, there is a many people without interest in how to handle rice. I think that many people can do reduce an objection by teaching how to handle rice.
In this study, we examined the characteristics of gas heating and induction heating based on a frequently used pan. There are two types of gas heating, an inner flame burner, in which the flame is directed inside and an outer flame burner, in which the flame is directed outside. The power of the gas and electricity per unit time was controlled in order to provide the same amount of heat to the contents. As a result, concerning the temperature rise during the boiling water and the temperature decrease after boiling water, some differences were observed between the gas heating and induction heating. The following results were obtained. 1) The increasing temperature rate during induction heating using a stainless steel pot was faster than that of gas heating using an aluminum pan. 2) When we used an earthen pot and gas heating, there was an effect of retained heat. During in sensory evaluation, after the retained heat cooking using an earthen pot, the color and saltiness of a Japanese white radish cooked with sake, sugar, and soy sauce were significantly deeper and stronger for the gas heating than for the induction heating. These results suggested that when we cook some ingredients by wet heating using the effect of retained heat, the combination of an earthen pot and gas heating affects the cooked product.
Dietary Behavior and Health Consciousness for Female Students Majoring in Nutrition and their Mothers
In order to investigate the desirable dietary lifestyle for women, we performed a survey on the dietary behavior, nutrition, and health consciousness of female students majoring in nutrition (n=135) and their mothers (n=132), who lived in the urban area of Nagoya City After2years of professional education, we performed a follow-up survey of the students, examining the effects of their education on their dietary habits and health.
I. Comparisons of the dietary behavior and health consciousness between students and their mothers Over half of the students and their mothers belonged to the ‘low’ physical activity group (Level I). 53.8% of the mothers had an exercise custom, which is higher than the 41.5% of the students. About 30% of students and their mothers self-assessed their health condition as ‘not good’ . 85.2% of the students and 87.9% of their mothers were interested in dieting Also, 85.2% of the students and 51.5% of their mothers understood the ‘metabolic syndrome’ (p<0.001). Students had a higher frequency of missing regular food intake and the use of home delivery foods for lunch compared to their mothers. 88.1% of the students did not cook, and their mothers took charge of the cooking at home, of the students, 57.1% were interested in the consumption conditions of the food items, and 34.8% were interested in the distribution of the food products, much lower compared to their mothers Improving the will of good dietary habits related to their health tended to be higher for the students compared to their mothers. II. Effects of education and training on the dietary behavior and health consciousness of the students After2years of professional education as nutritionists, the students with a BMI less than 18.5 kg/m2 increased from 15.6% to 28.0%. Also, the students who defecate everyday significantly increased from 17.0% to 57.6%. Subjects who complained about easy fatigability
Children's development is affected by food habits, which are influenced by guardians' dietary awareness. We conducted a nutritional survey using a questionnaire about school meal system and guardians' knowledge of children's food and health in 41 public and 115 private kindergartens in Kumamoto prefecture. We also surveyed lunch programs at 9 kindergartens. There were 4 groups of lunch programs, as follows: (1) Taking one's own lunch box and drinking milk provided by kindergarten, (2) Providing lunch from public school lunch center, (3) Providing lunch prepared by kindergarten and (4) Providing lunch through a catering service. There was no nutritional management system in kindergarten, using (1), (3) or (4). We observe that there were significant differences in the contents of breakfast and snack among the 4 groups and that suppertime was also significantly different among the groups. Looking at the contents of breakfast, intake of sweet rolls was [significantly] high in (4). In (4), also, suppertime was significantly later than in the other three groups. These results indicated that the eating habits of children were influenced by the daily life patterns of their families. Only the meal contents of group (2) were managed by a school dietician. Dietary awareness of the guardians of group (2) was relatively high, and it seemed that their meal contents were appropriate.
We investigated the nutritional components of greeneye, the official fish of Iwaki city, Fukushima Prefecture, using specimens from different fishing grounds (in Aichi Prefecture and Miyazaki Prefecture and offshore of Joban). 1. The nutritional components were as follows : water, 66. 6-75. 2% ; protein, 14. 2-15. 8% ; lipids, 5. 4-14. 9% ; ash, 2. 6-3. 6%. Differences among the fishing grounds were particularly significant for the lipid content. 2. The limiting amino acid was tryptophan, and the amino acid score was 83. 3. The primary free amino acids were lysine, taurine, alanine, leucine, and glutamate. The total free amino acid content varied among the fishing grounds. In addition, compared to other amino acids, the taurine content was significantly affected by cooking. 4. The fatty acid composition of the lipids mainly included palmitic acid (approximately 24%), oleic acid (approximately 42%), icosapentaenoic acid (EPA ; approximately 6%), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA ; approximately 10%), indicating a high proportion of oleic acid. 5. For the whole body, the cholesterol and taurine contents decreased when the head and viscera were removed.
Generally, the protein content in food has been estimated on the basis of the total nitrogen content. The nitrogen content, determined by the Kjeldahl method, is multiplied by the general factor 6.25 or the specific factor for each food to determine the crude protein content. However, using this method for foods that contain significant levels of nonprotein nitrogen, will result in a significant difference from the actual protein contents. We previously reported a new nitrogen to protein conversion factor (N:P factor), calculated by multiplying the N:P factor based on the amino acid composition by the ratio of the nitrogen content in amino acids to the total nitrogen content. In this study, we calculated the factor for 295 foodstuffs in “the Revised Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan, Amino Acid Composition of Foods”, by applying this new means. According to the trial estimation, the protein contents in most foods were significantly overestimated as the N:P factors calculated in this study were much lower than the current applied factors. This result demonstrates that a more accurate conversion factor for calculating the protein contents of foods from the total nitrogen content including the nonprotein nitrogen needs to be developed. Further research is required in these areas.
D type amino acid is the optical isomer of L type amino acid and they can be found in daily food. Therefore, we are exposed to the D type amino acid in daily bases. However, the effect of D type amino acid after consuming remains uncertain. Recently the appetite-suppressing effect of L-histidine has been reported. This mechanism is understood as the conversion of L-histidine to histamine in the brain and therefore suppressing the appetite. In contrast, whether D-histidine has the same effect or not remains unknown. Therefore, D-histidine was given to rats to examine whether there was any influence to the food intake habit. Here we report that D-histidine suppress the appetite without affecting the brain histamine concentration. We also observed that serum zinc concentration, a mineral which is important for normal palate, was not affect by the D-His administration. Thus, we show for the first time that D-histidine may have an anti-appetite effect through an unknown pathway.
Estimating the weights of foodstuffs and concentrations of salt and the sucrose in foods on the market is important for planning menus and carrying out a diet survey as a dietician. Whether female college students contemplating a career as a dietitian can change the visual estimation ability for the weights or concentrations and food consciousness by learning a special subject after a certain period of time was studied. What was additionally needed in the training was discussed in order to provide a more effective method of education. The estimating capability tended to be improved after the training. It was presumed that it occurs due to from practical training or lectures of the special subject. As a result of the survey, food consciousness and food behavior were significantly improved. It was proved that improving the estimation capability needed not only practical training to cook using a scale, but also execution to eat regular meals or maintain a balanced diet. To acquire enhanced dietician skills, they should be provided a scientific basis for eating regular meals or keeping a balance and adopt healthy habits. Moreover, it was proved that the students have to be first highly-motivated.
The joy of eating is one that people wish to enjoy throughout their lives, and the loss of the ability to orally ingest food reduces QOL. Therefore, nutritional management for facility residents must aim to ensure an appropriate energy intake for each individual. The measures we implemented after conducting a survey on food texture at welfare facilities for the elderly in Okayama city in September 2007 produced favorable results. In the present study, we report the positive results obtained from a follow- up survey conducted half a year later in April 2008. Subjects were residents at welfare facilities for the elderly, specifically healthcare and welfare facilities for elderly requiring long-term care. Individuals receiving tube feeding were excluded. Survey items included confirmation of consistency using a food texture checklist, care requirement level, level of independence in activities of daily living for disabled or elderly individuals, walking ability, oral function, presence or absence of dentures, dentition, and BMI. Survey results confirmed that care requirement level was correlated with the degree of bedridden state, walking ability, and oral function, and that it also influenced food texture. In particular, the selection of food texture was influenced by factors such as oral function, presence or absence of dentures, and dentition. Moreover, introduction of soft food which solidified paste food with some coagulants enabled almost all subjects to maintain or increase their BMI over the six-month period. These findings indicate that registered dietitians must monitor not only food consumption, but also care requirement level, degree of bedridden state, walking ability, presence or absence of dentures, and dentition. The present support system enabled the provision of safe and satisfying meals to facility residents and was thought to have contributed greatly to care for maintaining the dignity of elderly individuals from the perspective of nutritional management.
In order to study food functionalities, we have determined the total polyphenol contents and radical scavenging activity in Ku-ding cha compared to green tea and mate tea. Samples of Ku-ding cha were from commercial items in China, and they were divided into 6 groups (broken, contorted, cut, crumpled, ball, spiral) according to their forms. The radical scavenging activity was analyzed using the DPPH-HPLC method. Some samples showed a high activity compared to that of green tea which is known as a strong radical scavenger. The antimutagenic activity was analyzed using the Ames test. The contorted group and the ball group showed strong activities, and the broken group and the crumpled group showed weak activities. Each sample in the same groups had a similar activity. We studied the cluster analysis using the data in this study and as previous study who contents consisted of free amino acids, minerals and total polyphenols. As a result, the samples in one group were approximately classified into the same cluster. The higher activity of the contorted group and the ball group in Ku-ding cha may be related to its value as a functional beverage.