In our eating habits, independent eating habits are being lost in all meanings today. For example, in the home, the opportunity of the meal made at home decreases and the domestic taste is disappearing. In the local area, succession of gastronomic culture is difficult. Moreover, the agricultural products are also no longer consumed in the area. As a result, the food self-sufficiency ratio of our country is a fall tendency. The decline in a food self-sufficiency ratio has the strong relation not only with food problems but environmental problems and agricultural problems. Therefore, regaining independent eating habits means that many of those problems are solved. Now, in order to raise a food self-sufficiency ratio, there are only two methods. For that purpose, consumers′ efforts are required. One method should make a denominator small. That is, it is important to lose useless consumption (food loss). Another method is making a numerator expand. Specifically, the agricultural products are consumed in the area. And it activates Japanese agriculture. For that purpose, food education is an important means. The food education can perform consumers′ consciousness reform. Furthermore, it can expect to solve many problems, such as a food self-sufficiency ratio.
We have been analyzing the aroma of fruits, vegetables, milk products, meat flavors and the odorous components of living flower and natural essential oils. These results are directly applied for the creation of flavors and fragrances. In this report, we would like to introduce one of our analytical data of natural products, including the scent of rose flower and the volatile components of Citrus Sudachi. We will then introduce the researches about the impact of aromas on our Health and effects on our physiology. We will especially show the relaxing effects, stress reduction and the positive weight loss effects by using aroma.
Vegetables are essential for our rich and varied dietary life as well as for highly intellectual activities. The roles of vegetables in our diet have greatly changed in the past few decades. With the aim of increasing vegetable consumption, therefore, producers have been taking a wide range of measures in consideration of the requests and changes in the tastes of consumers. An example of vegetables in which supply season has been expanded is strawberries. Strawberries were an early-summer crop, traditionally grown outdoors and harvested in May and June. However, to meet consumers′ demands - they want to eat strawberries also in winter, especially in Christmas time -, strawberries have been sold in winter starting in November since around 1980s. Forcing culture and other means made this possible. Next, an example of vegetables whose appearances have been changed to meet the tastes of consumers is cucumbers. Cucumbers used to be covered with white bloom, and those with a larger amount of bloom were considered fresh. However, consumers started disliking this type of cucumbers. In 1985, it was found that the bloom could be reduced by grafting. Consumers′ preference for bloom-less cucumbers overwhelmed the demerits of grafting, and green shiny cucumbers are now sold. One of vegetables whose tastes have been improved is tomatoes. They used to be harvested when they just started turning red because the fruits softened when they became completely red and the taste was also bad. In 1983, a new cultivar of tomatoes was developed whose pulp remain firm even if harvested at full maturity and which has a rich taste because the fruits receive photosynthates from leaves for a longer period of time. Other “full-maturity” cultivars have since been developed too, contributing to an increase in consumers craving for tomatoes. In this way, advancement of under-structure cultivation and cultivation technologies, development of new cultivars, among other factors, have helped increase vegetable consumption.
Young female students were divided into two groups, those who living at home and the others living away from home, and their consumption of food groups on different time zones and intake of various nutrients were compared. To find the relationship between the habit of skipping breakfast and time zones of meal intake, the subjects of the study-193 students majoring in food and nutrition or enrolled in a nutrition course at a junior college in Tokyo were requested to respond to “meal menu and intake time-based food frequency questionnaire (MMITQ).” Compared with those students living at home (n=133), the students living away from home (n=60) were found to consume significantly less quantities of seafood and vegetables. Among the nutrients, the intake of vitamins C and D by the latter group was significantly lower (p<0.05). The habit of breakfast-skipping was noted in 11.3% (n=15) of those students living at home and 13.3% (n=8) of those living away from home, with no significant difference between the two groups. Among the breakfast-skippers who lived away from home, 68.9% of the daily energy was taken exclusively in the time zone after 4 : 00 pm. In the same time zone, their consumption of soy beans and soy products was greater than that of those living at home, and their intake of total lipids and magnesium was also high. There was no significant difference between the groups vis--vis the habits of snacking at night. Of 54.9% who habitually snacked at night, many consumed more than 2 types of food at night (20.7%). This study indicated the status of the diet that needs to be improved even for students who major in nutrition. Attention should be directed to the potential risk of nutrient deficiency that threatens those who live away from home and those habitually skip breakfast.
One of the aims of nutritional instruction in recent years is the reduction of salt intake. Unfortunately, this has not yet been attained. The strategy for salt reduction taken mainly from the cooking perspective consists of measures to reduce the amount of salt used in cooking. However, there are apprehensions on whether the actual amount of salt intake is correctly reflected. Thus, in order to know the correct salt intake the ratio of the actual amount of salt taken to the amount of salt used in cooking for various dishes was measured. The results are as follows. Soup and Rice foods is 100%, Boiled foods of vegetable is 60-95%, Fri-boiled foods is 60-100%, Boiled foods of fish is 20-70%, Steamed foods is 90%, Grilled foods of one fish is 35%, Grilled foods of fish fillets is 60-80%, Pan-broiled is 40-60%, skillet-grilled 75-80%, Fried foods is 70-100%, Deep-fried foods is 45-60%, Tomato salad is 35%, Kouhaku-namasu and Cucumber-sunomono is 40%, Pickled of Japanese radish is 60%, Green salad and Komatsuna-ohitashi is 80%, Shimesaba is 30%, Grated radish is 100%. Based on this data, it was found that the actual salt intake per meal of Japanese, Western, and Chinese style dishes were 67%, 85% and 78% respectively.
Young women have poor eating habits, therefore they need to obtain nutrition education. Even if they have abnormal physical results, they cannot recognize it. Their generation has found it difficult to attend nutrition education. This study was carried out to consider the relation between consciousness and eating habits using the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top for female students, and to examine the changing food consciousness of female students after their nutrition education. The survey with Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top has revealed that their dietary intake was generally poor and they did not eat moderate amounts except for main the dishes. However it was proved that the food consciousness of female students was improved after their nutrition education, therefore, it was suggested that the nutrition education with Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top provided benefits of diet modification to female students. Therefore it was absolutely essential that we had well-developed education system.
This research studied the eating behavior and genetic factors that cause masked obesity, in which body fat percentage is high even though the body weight is low or normal, a phenomenon that is increasing among young Japanese women. This study performed physical measurement, an eating-behavior survey based on EAT-26, and a genetic polymorphism test that used the non-invasive collection of fingernail clippings on 94 young women. The result showed that 13. 8% of the women have masked obesity, while 39. 4% have masked obesity tendency, and the total of both groups equaled more than half the total number (53. 2%). When the masked obesity group is compared to the standard group, no difference can be seen in the frequency of appearance of β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR) genetic polymorphism (Trp64Arg) and insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) genetic polymorphism (rs7566605), but there is a significantly higher rating in EAT-26. These results suggest the possibility that unique eating behavior habits of young women are largely involved in causing masked obesity in this population.
The purpose of the present investigation is to determine how one′s nutritional status affects an unsettled state of mind, especially the impulsivity trait, in university students. Three hundred twenty-four university students completed a self-rating questionnaire. They were assessed using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (11th version; BIS-11), and the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II). Based on BDHQ scores, the participants were classified into three groups according to their nutrient intake: low-energy density nutrient intake, moderate-energy density nutrient intake, and high-energy density nutrient intake. A one-way analysis of variance revealed significantly higher BIS-11 scores in the case of low-energy protein intake and low dietary intake of the soy and soy food groups. The vitamin and mineral deficiencies influenced the impulsivity trait, and the n-6 fatty acid deficiency possibly led to an increase in the impulsivity level. The results suggest that an unbalanced nutritional status is a risk factor for a higher impulsiveness in university students.
This survey investigated their attitude toward diet and their living activities.Female students of a private junior and senior high school in Sapporo were surveyed. The targets were 261 students in the 2nd year of the junior high school and 235 students in the 2nd year of the senior high school. 1. The rate of the junior high school students who answered they “do not skip meals” was higher than that of the high school students. 2. As for the food intake, foods that many students answered they “eat at least once every day” were mainly rice, dairy products and eggs. 3. Many high school students answered they “want to lose weight”, while many junior high school students answered they “don′t want to lose weight very much”. 4. The rate of the junior high school students who answered they “have never taken” dietary supplements was higher than that of the high school students. 5. We can understand the comparison of dietary habits and health between junior high school and high school students, and observed that the junior high school student group, who skipped meals, had a high rate of picky eating.
The Okayama Society of Dietitians has been requested by various welfare, healthcare, and medical facilities in Okayama Prefecture to develop a tool for promoting a common understanding of the textures of side dishes. Therefore, with the objective of unifying the names of textures of side dishes, we conducted a questionnaire survey on food texture at these facilities with the cooperation of the Okayama Society of Dietitians, the Welfare Dietitians Committee of the Okayama Society of Dietitians, the Dietitians Section of the Academic Committee of the Okayama Association of Geriatric Healthcare Facilities, and the Okayama Clinical Dietitians Committee, and proposed a draft criteria for promoting a common understanding of textures of side dishes. The total number of names of textures of side dishes was 171 at welfare facilities (n=112), 102 at healthcare facilities (n=65), and 327 at medical facilities (n=153). However, these items could be classified and organized according to the following criteria proposed for unification of names of side dishes: 1. regular food, 2. bite-size food, 3. minced food, 4. soft food, 5. soft solid food, 6. blended food, and 7. food for swallowing training. By standardizing the recognition of textures, the criteria proposed herein for textures of side dishes are expected to be useful for promoting a common understanding not just among registered dietitians, but also among various professions. Provision of nutritionally balanced, safe, and enjoyable meals is a fundamental role of registered dietitians. In the future, we plan to conduct further investigations in order to provide meals that are delicious, visually appealing, and contribute to maintenance of masticatory and swallowing functions.