Hesperidin, which is called vitamin P, is a flavonoid compound abundantly occulting in citrus fruit peel. This material is well known to decrease capillary fragility and permeability. In addition, hesperidin is reported to have various physiological activities. Therefore, it has attracted attention as a multifunctional food ingredient. However, the use of this flavonoid in the field of foods has been limited because of its low water solubility. To solve this problem, we developed a soluble derivative of hesperidin, glucosyl hesperidin, which was synthesized by regioselective transglycosylation with cyclodextrin glucanotransferase from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Glucosyl hesperidin was very soluble in water, and its solubility was about 100, 000 times greater than that of conventional hesperidin. Moreover, the metabolic fate of this glucoside was investigated. As a result, it was verified that orally administered glucosyl hesperidin was hydrolyzed?to?hesperidin by small intestinal α-glucosidases, and that released hesperidin was hydrolyzed to hesperetin by β-glucosidases from intestinal bacteria before absorption. Glucosyl hesperidin was also confirmed to exhibit such physiological activities as improvement effect on microcirculation, antihypertensive effect and decrease of serum triglyceride level.?From these findings, glucosyl hesperidin is considered to be available effectively as a soluble vitamin P supplement in the field of functional foods.
The ‘Hakuto’ (white peach) produced in Okayama prefecture is very famous in Japan due to its distinctive quality. The name of ‘Hakuto’ is not only from its white color of flesh or skin but also expressing the whole images of white peach. The original variety ‘Hakuto’ was derived from growing seedlings of Chinese varieties in Meiji period. The debut of this cultivar might be one of the main reasons why the white peach production in Okayama became famous in Japan. In addition to that, the character of the farmers with challenging spirit as well as the suitable climate and soil condition made it possible to raise Okayama as a main white peach producing area. It is known that the cultivation technique such as fruit bagging and pruning has been changed in Okayama in peach production, however; the biggest change was brought by the utilization of nondestructive sugar content measurement by using near-infrared absorbance method. It has changed into the quality valuing in recent years, though only outside looking were valued a lot before. As peach grower had to pay much more attention to the internal quality, it was required to build a new standard on the growth and nutritional status of peach tree and soil condition. After the investigation mainly done by the research institute for agriculture, it was succeed to prepare the new standard and to reflect the data measured by the nondestructive sugar content measurement for improving through the correction of cultivation condition. The June drop (physiological fruit drop) is serious problem in the varieties such as ‘Hakuto’ and ‘Shimizuhakuto’. It is from the sprit pit due to the excessive uptake of water from root system. To control it, the mulching by plastic film under the canopy is tested and turned out be effective. Besides that, a breeding method has been taken to obtain the better quality and lower June drop ratio. The new variety ‘Okayamayumehakuto’, for example, is the best result of breeding which promises the higher sugar content of mature fruit and the fewer June drop ratio than ‘Shimizuhakuto’. Further endeavor should be taken to keep ‘Hakuto’ as a leading commodity in Okayama toward the future. All we need to do is to keep producing the peach with an outstanding quality by succeeding and improving the technique from the predecessors.
This research attempts to clarify the effects of eco-cooking education on the students in a home economics teacher training course. To discover what differences were made by a lecture on eco-cooking, one typical dish each of Japanese, European, and Chinese food was cooked by two different methods: ordinary cooking and eco-cooking. The comparison made it clear that the two kinds of cooking differed in 8 items. As a result of eco-cooking, namely, the effective use of energy, water, and ingredients, about 40% and 70% of the amount of gas and water used for ordinary cooking were saved, respectively. The amount of garbage also decreased by about 74%. In addition, by improving the way of cutting vegetables, it was possible to decrease their waste ratio by 8 to 10%. Moreover, the number of cooking utensils decreased by 20 to 30%, and the amount of CO2 emissions was reduced by about 50%. The cost of gas and water for cooking was reduced by about 60%, which is equivalent to about 11 yen. The conducted questionnaire survey shows that some items for eco-cooking are easy to practice, whereas others are hard. Thus, eco-cooking has been found to be effective in home economics education. It has been clarified that eco-cooking education includes some important views which are closely related to food, environmental, and consumer education in home economics education courses
The mineral components and other properties were analyzed for 50 samples of domestic and 11 samples of foreign mineral water available on the Japanese market. When these samples were classified according to the Bottled Water Guideline of Japan, 45 brands of natural mineral water (NMW) and 5 brands of mineral water (MW) of the domestic mineral waters were determined. Of the foreign mineral waters, there were 8 brands of NMW, 2 brands of MW and one brand of bottled water. The means of the residue upon evaporation, hardness and the free carbon dioxide of the domestic mineral waters were significantly lower than those of the foreign mineral waters. As for the minerals, the Na, Mg and Ca contents of the foreign mineral waters were significantly higher than those of the domestic mineral waters. On the other hand, the P contents of the domestic mineral waters were significantly higher than that of the foreign mineral waters. The contents of the trace minerals, presumed to be always found in the NMW, are expressed in the detection percentage of the mineral waters of Japanese origin and the mineral waters of foreign origin in parentheses. B was 97. 8% (100%), V 80% (37. 5%), As 80% (12. 5%), Sr 97. 8% (75. 0%), Li 66. 7% (37. 5%), Zn 62. 2% (62. 5%), Ge 62. 2% (12. 5%), Se 60. 0% (12. 5%), Rb 71. 1% (12. 5%), Mo 71. 1% (25. 0%), Sb 57. 8% (62. 5%) and U 57. 8% (25. 0%). Of the mineral waters of foreign origin, only B had a trace mineral detection percentage exceeding 80%.
For the rice powder breads added to pectin or guargum were made, the particulate distributions of rice powders, composition of rice powder breads, sensory evaluation and textures of the rice powder breads were examined. (1)The particulate distribution of rice powders was 10-200 μm. (2)The productive methods of rice powder breads were put 300 g at water and 300 g at rice powders in a pan cakes. The methods were put 4 g at salt, 9 g at guargum, 18 g at sucrose, 30 g at trehalose, 9 g at skin milk, 30 g at margarine and 3 g at dry yeast in pan case. (3)The rice powder bread at this productive method was good optimum ratio of material composition. (4)The hardness stress of texture of rice powder breads decreased that the ratios of material composition of sugar and trehalose increased. (5)The cohesiveness stress almost did not change that the ratio powder compositions of sugar and trehalose increased.
In recent years, seafood consumption has been declining nationwide. One of the suggested reasons for this downtrend, known as flight from fish, is the problem with throat lodgement of fish bone from seafood dish. The Pacific saury, Japanese jack mackerel, sardine, mackerel, and Japanese eel are commonly consumed fish, but their small bones tend to lodge in the throat. Here, we report the morphological characteristics of small bones of these types of fish. Twenty samples of each of the Pacific saury, Japanese jack mackerel, sardine, mackerel, and Japanese eel were purchased from fish markets during the period from January to December 2009. Abdomens of raw or cooked fish were dissected to recover small bones (ribs, epipleural, epicentral, epineural and pteygiophore). The bone samples were first subjected to softex radiography and then stained with alizarin red S. The length and diameter of these bone specimens were measured and their form were observed under a microscope. Decalcification of small bones immersed in acetic acid was observed in a similar manner. It was found that the tips of the small bones of the Pacific saury, sardine, and Japanese jack mackerel were very pointed, suggesting that these can easily damage the tonsilla palatina and lodge in the pharynx. Formation of hook-shaped lumps in their base parts were also observed, and this was considered to cause frequent deep lodgement of bones in the larynx leading to difficulties in their removal. The small bones of the Pacific saury and sardine were finer, denser and more elastic than those of the Japanese jack mackerel and mackerel, and that the small bones of the Japanese eel were sharply pointed at both ends and finer than those of the other types of fish. These results suggest that the sites, forms, and incidence of lodgement of small fish bones in the throat vary depending on the types of fish.
The principal 705 Japanese foods were selected from the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan — 2010 — (Standard Tables) because these foods are known to contain available carbohydrates including starch, glucose, fructose, sucrose maltose and/or lactose. Individual available carbohydrate contents were calculated and tabulated based both on the estimated saccharide (carbohydrate minus dietary fiber) content of each selected food in the Standard Tables and the starch and sugar content of the food included in The McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference and other sources. Because the compiled tabulated form, the Japanese Starch and Sugars Presumptive Composition Tables (JSSPCT), is harmonized with the Standard Tables, one can utilize the data in the JSSPCT as a reference for research and other purposes until and after the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology or other national organization publishes the official tables for available carbohydrate composition of foods in Japan.
This study reports a nutritional education program involving tasting vegetable dishes, presented by a company to their employees. We recruited volunteers. A nationally registered dietitian and staff in charge of the healthcare section of the company planned the program, and the dietitian decided on the educational contents. At first, we explained the relation between lifestyle-related diseases and the amount of vegetable intake in Japanese people, as well as the nutrients contained in vegetables. Then, three recipes containing vegetables were selected for the sample dishes. A questionnaire about the frequency of eating vegetable dishes was implemented before the program. Most people ate salad (44. 7%), stir-fried vegetables (71. 1%), and boiled vegetables (47. 4%) once or twice a week. Another common dish was Ohitashi (57. 9%),which was traditional Japanese way of cooking spinach or green beans by boiling and then adding a soy sauce mixture. However, the most common way that volunteers consumed vegetables was by eating miso-soup. A significant portion of the volunteers (42. 1%) reported eating miso-soup with vegetables 5 to 7 times a week. As for dishes including many beans, the rate of volunteers who didn’t eat this type of dish at all was the highest. After tasting the three healthy vegetable recipes (vegetable gratin with mayonnaise, noodles with boiled pork, and salad with beans), the rates of those who answered “I want to eat it again” were 52. 6, 57. 9, and 57. 9%, respectively. There were many positive comments, such as “I was able to receive dietary education in an enjoyable way” or “I was able to raise my own consciousness of health”. Further studies are needed to promote an increase in levels of vegetable intake on an everyday basis.
All description of “shoyu” (soy sauce) which appears in the cookbook of 76 volumes of the Edo era was extracted, and it classified according to cooking. In particular, it focused on “usushoyu” and “kishoyu” which were considered to be a light color, and it was examined for what kind of dish the soy sauce of a light color was used in Edo era. The following was found. 1) About 50% of “usushoyu” was used for simmered dishes, on the other hand, “kishoyu” was used also for dressed dishes, besides simmered dishes. 2) Furthermore, the case where soy sauce was used in cooking process was compared with the case where it was used as dipping sauce or sauce after cooking. Although “usushoyu” was used in cooking process for simmered dishes in many cases, “kishoyu” was used after cooking for dressed dishes 3) In Kansai district which had more use of “usushoyu” and “kishoyu” than the Kanto district, many “usushoyu” was used for a soup and simmered dishes, and dressed dishes had much “kishoyu.” 4) The soy sauce light a color and bland having been fond in good rareness for simmered dishes and soups in Kansai. Since “kishoyu” was used for the dressed dishes of wild foods, it was guessed that the scent of raw soy sauce was also employed efficiently.
We examined the fat adsorption ability of eucommia (E.) ulmoides leaves when E. Ulmoides leaves were fed to chickens for 21 days. The dry E. Ulmoides leaves feeding reduced amount of total fat and cholesterol in chicken's meat significantly. And, E. ulmoides leaves feeding reduced SFA ratios and PUFA ratios in chicken’s meat significantly. On the other hand, E.ulmoides leaves feeding increased amount of total fat and bile acid in chicken’s excretion. This study showed that E. ulmoides leaves adsorbs triacylglycerol, bile acid, and SFA selectively, and discharged from the body.