In the Japanese Islands, there is much rainfall in the rainy season, and the temperature is high in the summertime, which promotes the growth of rice. In the wintertime, there is much snowfall on the mountains in the areas facing the Sea of Japan, which results in bringing the meltwater in summer to the rice fields in those areas. Two thirds of the land is covered with mountain forests, in a big portion of which Japanese cedar trees (Cryptomeria japonica) are growing particularly after plantation following the World War Two. There are 110 volcanoes (about 10% of all of the volcanoes in the world) ; eruption, earthquake and tsunami are associated with the presence of volcanoes. The massive precipitation on the lands may every year deplete water-soluble minerals from the soil surface, thereby constantly diminishing the content in the soil of potassium and phosphorus which are indispensable for plant growth. The author thinks that the volcanic ash from infrequently-but-regularly occurring eruptions are replenishing the soil with these minerals for the annual harvest of rice as well as for the growth of the cedar trees. Masao Otsuki, an agricultural economist, once called Japan as “The Country of Rice and Cedar.” Accumulation of rice grains helped to establish Yamato Imperial Court. Armada ships made of the cedar tree were sent to the Korean Peninsula in 663. Architectural techniques used for building the large ships were applied for constructing large palatial buildings in the Fujiwara Metropolis in 694. The natural environment with volcanoes and earthquakes may have made the residents make up cultures with polytheistic character.
PS-B1 is fermented products cultivated from soybean milk using indigenous lactic acid bacteria which are of human intestinal-bacteria origin. We have studied the bioactivities of PS-B1 in order to understand its ability as a “biogenic food”. In this study, we found: (1) that PS-B1 inhibited the growth of several cancer cells; (2) that PS-B1 protected liver from the damage induced by alcohol, virus, and drugs; and (3) that PS-B1 improved the lipid metabolism.
Cultivated and wild Aralia elata SEEM. Shoots were analyzed for general composition, mineral constituents, and free amino acids composition for a taste and functional constituents. The protein content in the cultivated and wild shoots (per 100 g) was 2. 55 g and 5. 48 g, respectively. The potassium content in the cultivated and wild A. elata SEEM (per 100 g) was 315. 1 mg and 543. 7 mg, respectively. The zinc content in the cultivated and wild A. elata SEEM (per 100 g) was 1. 09 mg and 1. 46 mg, respectively. The main free amino acids were asparagine, glutamine, aspartic acid, serine, phenylalanine, arginine, proline and gamma-amino butyric acid. Compared with cultivated A. elata SEEM , the wild plant had a higher content of the total free amino acids, arginine, glutamine, proline, gamma-amino butyric acid and branched chain amino acids. Boiling increased the glutamic acid content approximately 8. 4 times, but it reduced the γ-amino butyric acid content about 75%. The tree bark and roots contained a high level of arginine, while the leaves showed a high content of gamma-amino butyric acid and branched chain amino acids.
We studied the effects of the docosahexsaenoic acid concentrate (DHA) along with a high cholesterol (HC) diet given to rats on the epididymal fat pad weight, the serum and liver iron concentrations, and the apparent iron absorption rate. Young male rats were fed a diet containing 10% Butter, 10% DHA, 10% Butter+HC or 10% DHA+HC for 3 weeks. The epididymal fat pad weight decreased in the DHA group compared to the Butter group. The concentration of serum total cholesterol decreased in the DHA group compared to the Butter group, similar to the DHA+HC group when compared to the Butter+HC group. The concentration of serum iron increased in the DHA group compared to the Butter group and the concentration of liver iron decreased in the Butter+HC group and DHA+HC group compared to the Butter group and DHA group. It was clarified that the apparent absorption rates in the observed Butter+HC group and DHA+HC group were higher than the Butter group and DHA group fed the experimental diet for the 1-14 days. However the DHA group was lower than the Butter group fed the experimental diets for the 14-21 days. These results suggest that the concentration of total cholesterol decreased in the DHA+HC group compared to the Butter+HC group, and the accumulation of adipose tissue appeared to decrease in the DHA diet compared to the Butter group. From the apparent absorption rate for each week, it was clarified that the accumulation of iron was changed by the fatty acid composition of the sample lipids used in the experiment and different feeding periods. Furthermore, we are considering the iron intake by the body.
This study investigated the relationships among the daily life style, diet, body composition and food intake of elderly people. The number of elderly men and women participating in the study was 46 (average age: 82.0±5.12). The measured parameters were body composition, bone mineral density, step count, blood pressure, intake of energy and questionnaire about daily life style and diet. The result of the analysis indicated that (1) The subjects get a high score on the question of subjective life and diet. (p<0.05) (2) The subjects had high scores for a response to a questionnaire about health that had a high percentage of low edema. (p<0.05) (3) The subjects had high scores for a response to a questionnaire about eat all one wants and diet satisfaction that had a high percentage of high visceral fat. (p<0.05) (4) The score of the degree of health, life satisfaction, and pleasure of a diet tend to be associated with age. In these items, the people aged 80 and over have a high percentage of good groups. (p<0.1) The possibility that the result of a diet conscious survey and a visceral fat level were related was observed. In addition, the body measurement item was not connected to the quality of the conscious survey item. We need more research that includes a detailed diet and exercise intensity.
It is important for vinegar manufacturers to develop a more accurate method for predicting of appearance of macromolecule aggregates in vinegar with the purpose of maintaining the clearness of products for a longer time in the summer. The traditional method to predict the appearance of aggregation in a short period of time was merely to look for the appearance of aggregates at 60°C in a colorless transparent glass bottle filled with vinegar with the intention of promoting macromolecule aggregation at a high temperature as an accelerated aging test. During the course of the concentration of proteins contained in several vinegars by a membrane, we found that the degree of aggregation of the macromolecules was different among the vinegars regardless of the macromolecule content. From the analyses of the vinegars in which the aggregation was accelerated by the addition of other macromolecules or metallic ions, and which were manufactured from several raw materials by different makers, it suggested that the turbidity of the vinegar after the ultra-filtration concentration at room temperature was closely related to the aggregation velocity of the macromolecules at 37°C. Thus, this new faster method using a membrane was shown to be effective for the accurate prediction of the appearance of aggregates in the summer.
With the aim of introducing eco-cooking into home economics classes, we performed the following experiments: 1. In a first-year class, according to a recipe from a cooking textbook used in a junior high school home economics class, we prepared a dish and assessed gas and water usage, amount of food waste, and required tools to calculate the total cost of cooking and CO2 emissions using both conventional and eco-cooking methods. We then performed sensory evaluation of dishes prepared with each method. 2. In a second-year class, a dish was prepared twice with conventional cooking methods and once with eco-cooking methods after receiving eco-cooking education. We then compared the effects achieved by becoming proficient in conventional cooking with those achieved through eco-cooking. 3. We introduced both methods in teacher-training courses and conducted a survey on the viability of incorporating eco-cooking classes. Results revealed that eco-cooking used 41% less gas, and 77% less water, in addition to producing 28% less food waste and 44% less CO2 at a 62% lower cost. The results from the sensory evaluation of the two cooking methods indicated that there were no marked differences in taste. Interestingly, a noticeable reduction in gas, water, food waste, cooking tools, cost and CO2 emission was not achieved by becoming more proficient in conventional cooking though repetition of the method. Furthermore, the survey from the teacher-training courses showed a large number of positive comments. The above findings corroborate the importance of eco-cooking education and the effect of sufficient one-time education.
In order to examine the eating habits of Tanzanians living in Dar es Salaam, we investigated their breakfast, lunch and dinner intake situation, and the frequency of food intake, between February and May, 2009. The results obtained were as follows : First, the percentage of people in Dar es Salaam who did not eat breakfast was lower. Among all age groups, the percentage of people who did not eat breakfast, lunch or dinner was highest among people under 20 years of age.Second, a relationship between the frequency of breakfast intake and health consciousness was observed. Third, intake frequency of ugari and oil was high,while intake frequency of pork was low.
At present, the carbohydrate source in a staple Japanese diet is mostly polished rice. Brown rice polishing mainly enhances its appearance and gives it a soft texture. Unfortunately, brown rice polishing causes the loss of valuable nutrients. In recent years, the Japanese are concerned with healthy foods as a precaution against life-style related diseases and metabolic syndrome. Unpolishing rice could be a healthy option. What is improved for the ease of consuming tasteless brown rice is germinated brown rice. Thus, germinated brown rice has recently appeared in the commercial market. In addition, rice cookers with a setting for germinated brown rice are now available. Rice bran oil is commonly consumed as vegetable oil. In this study, the fatty acids composition of brown rice was analyzed. It was expected that the fatty acids in the lipids of germinated and ungerminated brown rice were changed by the germination or the boiling. However, there were no effects on the fatty acid contents, and the germinated brown rice is a safe food to eat, and its high consumption will improve dietary quality, and the useful dietary education of young children.