Diet and nutrition before, during, and after pregnancy as well as during infancy and childhood are important determinants of health outcomes, not only in childhood, but also throughout adulthood. Effective interventions, including appropriate nutritional education for mothers and children, should be undertaken during these periods, taking into consideration the concept of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease （DOHaD） and “life cycle chain”. Current diet and nutritional problems in Japan include body image distortion in some young women, which can lead to unhealthy diets and inappropriate weight gain during pregnancy, subsequently elevating risks for chronic diseases in their children. During infancy, breastfeeding and proper weaning practices are key factors for both the physical and mental development of children. Therefore, education for mothers is very important to ensure appropriate feeding and care for children. During childhood, there are several factors that influence children’s food preferences and choices that are becoming increasingly important in order to prevent unbalanced diets and overeating, a problem that may continue even into adulthood, causing obesity-related diseases. One of the emerging factors is the issue of how foods and beverages high in fat, sugar, and salt are specifically marketed to children by the commercial sector, which has become a global concern. as a risk for increasing of childhood obesity in many countries. In Japan, nutritional education （the Basic Law on Shokuiku） was enacted in 2005 and various initiatives and programs have been implemented both at national and local （community） levels. To promote health in new generations, more strategic and effective interventions are needed to improve diet and nutrition, especially for mothers and children.
The Great East Japan Earthquake, which had a magnitude of 9.0, caused extensive damage over a wide area along the Pacific coast, from the Tohoku to the Kanto area. Two years and seven months since the disaster, recovery efforts still have not progressed as desired. The Iwate Dietitians Association sent its advance team and dispatched registered members to evacuation centers in order to inspect meals and other conditions in late March 2011 since late April 2011, the association has received requests for dispatching of personnel for nutritional and dietary support activities, and thus has been engaging in these activities. With the objective of preventing a reduction in motivation for meal preparation, problems related to nutritional balance, malnutrition, homeboundness, and other issues associated with the transition from evacuation centers to temporary housing, “Promoting mental and physical health through food” seminars and “Social luncheons” have been held monthly, thereby contributing to community development in new regional and dietary environments.
We assessed the availability of the Dietary Balance Guide（A） compared to the Four Food Groups（B） and Nutrient Intake calculated using a personal computer（C） as a teaching aid of meal planning lessons for senior high school students. Two hundred and thirty-seven students （121 males and 116 females） of the second grade in senior high school took two of the three （A, B, and C） lessons and were then questioned about the availability of the material and method used in each lesson. The results were as follows: 1. Students answered that they could pleasantly study and were interested in either of the three lessons. 2. Dietary Balance Guide（A） was assessed as the most simple and easy to understand a nutritionally balanced meal, but difficult to be aware of the over-consumption of fat, meanwhile, they could easily be aware of the over-consumption of fat using the Four Food Groups（B） or using the personal computer（C）. 3. 3-4 servings of milk and milk products based on the Dietary Balance Guide was desirable for the students to achieve an adequate intake of calcium. 4. It was proved that there were the students who wanted to more deeply study using the Four Food Groups（B） or personal computer（C） rather than the Dietary Balance Guide（A）.
There are still many traditional local cuisines all over Japan offering dishes made of local ingredients and prepared by the traditional methods. Nowadays, the structural changes in families and the life styles are the main reasons for a declining tendency in the propagation of local cuisine specialties. Based on several population studies, it was revealed that certain types of dishes may have a positive impact on our health; therefore, the registered dietitians managing general food at the workplaces try to prevail and to propagate certain traditional meals because of that positive impact. In this study, we focused on the problems related to the experiences of the dietitians regarding the traditional dish consumed during their childhood. We wanted to explore whether the memories of traditional local meals had evoked their concerns and the will of inheritance. The studies were performed on a total of 4927 persons (409 males and 4518 females), who were the students of taking a training course for registered dietitians. The responders were from either a close (nuclear) family or from an extended family, and the ratio of both types was 1 to 1. The responders belonging to the extended family group had various food experiences. More than 80%of all responders were concerned about or expressed the will of inheritance teiseifor the traditional local cuisine. The logistic regression analysis was performed a using a “concern for traditional local cuisine” and the “experiences of food and local cuisine during childhood” as the dependent and independent variables, respectively. The experience of the traditional local cuisine showed the highest odds ratio (1. 637) among the predicting variables. A similar trend was observed for talking about food and traditional local cuisine as revealed by a high odds ratio (1. 583) . Based on these results, the talking about food and traditional local cuisine plays an essential role in provoking an interest and concern about it, even if the experience is not sufficient. Therefore, it is suggested to start talking about food at an early age in order to induce a positive attitude to traditional local cuisines, which may benefit one′s future dietary habits.
The purpose of this study was to declare for Japanese pre-school children′ s growth and was to benefit prevention of life-styled diseases. Subjects were 40 healthy and free living pre-school children ( males: 20, females: 20 ) aged 3 to 6 years old. Measurements are four Skinfold Thickness and Circumference, Height, Weight, Sitting-Height and Under-Legs. As, there was no predicting formula of Body Density and Body Fat Percentage from Skinfold Thickness for Japanese pre-school children. So, we adapted the two equations for Body Density and the four equations for Body Fat Percentage from the precedence literature on pre-school children. Survey was performed on January, Febrary, 2003. Results and Discussion were as follows. 1. Results by Two-way ANOVA, four Skinfold Thickness, Circumference, Height, Weight, Sitting-Height and Under-Legs were not recognized the differences by sex, but increased with ages. 2. The sum of four Skinfold Thickness for pre-school children was females higher than males, and occasion of females, we recognized that the sum of four Skinfold Thickness and Body Fat Percentage increased from about beginning at 5years late. But, calculated Body Fat Percentage from Body Density were widely distributed by the formula. This means that there is the problem about the formula used for Japanese pre-school children. Therefore, it is necessary to consider on body composition, the formula for Japanese pre-school children.
This study investigated the cultural background and historical transformation of the ethnic cuisine served at Nowruz Festival which celebrates the Lunar New Year in the Republic of Kazakhstan. This study aims to clarify (1) The present condition of the ethnic cuisine called Koje that is main dish at the festival, (2)The meaning of ingredients put into the Koje and (3)How the festival and ethnic cuisine have changed through the Soviet era, the independence period and present era. In previous studies, nutritional assessment and meal survey of Kazakh have been performed since around 1994. In addition, dining etiquette and meals at the time of performing religious rituals have also been researched. However, the study to clarify the cultural and historical background of the ethnic cuisine in a festival like Nowruz has not been done. The research method was participant observations for the events related to Nowruz and interviews of residents using the semi-structured interview technique.As a result, the following results were clarified. (1)Koje had been freely distributed to every people in the square of all races which live in Kazakhstan that participate in a festival. (2)It was common in all the homes to put in 7 ingredients such as horsemeat and white ingredients in order to wish for the family?s prosperity and happiness. (3)There are 3 types of celebrations of Nowruz in the Soviet era depend on the geographical, psychological and political distance from the Soviet government and population density of the Kazakh people. Based on this study, we were able to show that the values and daily lives of the Kazakh people strongly affect to the ethnic cuisine in Nowruz.
To understand the relationship between dietary habits and lifestyle, we asked university students in Fukuoka to complete a questionnaire. The survey was done in September, 2012. 22. 2% of the students living alone who cooked for themselves ate breakfast every day, while more than half of the students in a dormitory or living with family did so (three categories p＜0. 05) . Compared with other categories, the students living alone indicated the tendency to have an irregular meal time, have unbalanced meals, and eat alone. Three quarters of the boarding students belonged to after-school activities, while only 40. 0% and 51. 1% of the students living at home and alone were involved in such activities, respectively. Concerning the circumstances of part-time work, two-thirds of the students at home have worked after-school. On the other hand, 43. 6% of the dormitory students and 44. 5% of single students worked. The rate of answering that they feel healthy was 40. 0% of home life students, 30. 4% of dormitory students, and 26. 7% of single students. The results of the questionnaire showed that single students tended to spend time alone. Therefore, they were often skipping their breakfast probably due it being bothersome. To resolve this situation, we recommend utilizing the campus cafeteria′ s breakfast campaign. Using the cafe helps students have a balanced meal, spend time with their friend (s) and keep regular meal time schedules.