Collagen accounts for about 30 percent of whole body protein, and it is distributed throughout the body. In terms of food, denatured collagen is called gelatin, and gelatin hydrolysate with the protease is used as a functional food material. This hydrolysate is called “collagen peptide”. On the other hand, recent Japanese women uptake about 2g of collagen from meals every day, and some people uptake about 5-10g collagen peptide from a dietary supplement every day. Collagen peptide, a heterogeneous mixture of oligopeptides and polypeptides similar to gelatin, has been used therapeutically as a dietary supplement to improve conditions of joints and articular cartilage. Some experiments have suggested that oral ingestion of collagen peptide might have beneficial effects on joint conditions such as osteoarthritis. Moreover, oral intake of collagen peptide induced the elevation of serum levels of collagen dipeptide, such as prolylhydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp). As peptide bond of Pro-Hyp is hard to digested by the specific protease in the body. In recent years, such as the improving effect of articular cartilage, bone and skin function of collagen peptide and the dipeptide of the specific sequence of collagen peptide detected from the blood after collagen peptide intake have been well reported. Additionally, the food safety of collagen peptide also should be discussed. The food function and bioactive mechanisms of collagen peptide is becoming clear.
At present, following 3 kinds of food composition tables: standard tables of food composition in Japan-2010-, amino acid composition of foods-2010- and fatty acids section of standard tables of food composition in Japan (fifth revised and enlarged edition) -2005-, are being used. Iodine, selenium, chromium, molybdenum and biotin were newly tabled in standard tables of food composition in Japan-2010-. And idea on “Food energy-methods of analysis and conversion factors”, FAO food and nutrition paper 77 (2002), was introduced. Protein (the sum of amino acid residues) based on amino acids composition and triacylglycerol equivalents based on fatty acids composition were also tabled as reference information. And new reference nitrogen - protein conversion factors were reported. For new food composition tables, carbohydrates composition (mono-, di-, oligosaccharide, fructan and starch), polyols and organic acids composition (acetic acid, citric acid, malic acid, etc.) are directly analyzed. Available carbohydrates will be expressed as monosaccharide equivalents. And several hundreds of foods were newly analyzed. New food composition tables are planned to be published in 2015.
The effects of steaming and roasting temperature and time on mallotus bark (Mallotus japonicus) tea leaves were investigated. The characteristics we analyzed were color tone, soluble polyphenol content, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical capture activity. We observed that roasting had greater effects on tea leaves than did steaming. We concluded that the suitable roasting temperature was below 200°C for ensuring ideal soluble polyphenol content and DPPH radical capture activity. For optimal color fading, the suitable roasting temperature was below 150°C.
A relationship between eating behavior and attitude to uncleanness of daily life in female college students and female high school students was statistically studied by method of questionnaire. Following results were obtained; 1) The fundamental factor of attitude to uncleanness on daily life was “hating to make use of goods placed public utility”. 2) 274 subjects were classified into three groups by using their principal component scores. 3) In attitude to uncleanness, 44 subjects who showed over minus 0.9 score were liable to hate hanging on to straps of trains and buses, touching door knobs and keyboards of personal computers, using toilet seats, sofas and mules in public utility. On the other hand, 41 subjects who showed over plus 0.9 score were not. 4) In eating behavior, they who showed over minus 0.9 score were liable to pay attention to the dirt of tablewares and tables at the time of eating out. But they who showed over plus 0.9 score were not. From above results, it was speculated their attitude to uncleanness on daily life closely related eating behavior of female college students and female high school students.
Serious malnutrition has been reported in the Republic of Guatemala, but on the other hand, increases in the number of obese subjects and chronic diseases are found in the urban region. We conducted this study to determine the actual situation and the causes of the obesity in the residents of Coban city located in the central part of this country. During initial survey, the physical characteristics were determined by a one-self-style questionnaire given to the adult inhabitants. In the second survey, we determined the dietary records, physical measurements and the amount of walking by the adult inhabitants. The obese subjects, who were more than 25 in BMI, were high in the two surveys.The ratio of obese subjects was from 39% to 46% in the two surveys. The daily average amount of walking was moderately higher compared to recent Japanese numbers. However, no significant correlation between the numbers and their BMI was observed. On the other hand, as for the energy and fat intake, there was a weak correlation tendency between the BMI when men and women were put together from the diet survey. No particular serious deficiency was seen in the intakes of vitamins and minerals. The data presented by the international organizations reveal a serious situation of malnutrition in the Republic of Guatemala. However, in Coban city, obese objects were common. In the Republic of Guatemala, it was shown that the difference is present in the nutrition/health problem by their area. Our results suggest the appropriate nutritional education for these people.
The purpose of this research is to verify the cause which is insufficient of calcium in Japanese people after the graduation from a junior high school. We have investigated ingestion and consciousness of milk and calcium. From July to August 2012, 486 university students in Nagasaki University and their families were surveyed. Contents of this research are about the amount and frequency of intake of milk a week, the reason to drink milk and not to drink milk, the awareness of calcium intake, and recognition of the calcium-rich food. This investigation revealed that there were 82% of university students and their families those who did not drink milk every day. The reason they did not drink milk was “not in the habit of drinking milk”, “condition of the stomach is bad to drink milk”. And many university students and their families considered milk, dairy products, and small fishes as the food containing much calcium, but they didn′ t eat them. Furthermore, they neither knew other foods containing much calcium nor consumed them. We considered that these things were the cause of insufficient calcium in Japanese people after the graduation from a junior high school.