The current status and issues of Japanese dietary habits from the results of the National Health and Nutrition Survey Japan would be discussed. Total energy intake and protein intake of Japanese in the past 45 years showed a decreasing trend. On the other hand, fat intake increased, but carbohydrate intake decreased. According to the physical condition survey of the 2017 National Health and Nutrition Survey, the proportion of obese individual (BMI≧25 kg/m2) was higher for men in their 20s to 60s compared with the goal for Healthy Japan 21 (secondary), and the proportion for thinness (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) was higher for women in their 20s. In older people, physical working hours, protein intake and oral function were associated with trend in malnutrition. Salt intake has been decreasing during a decade, however further improvement should be needed. At present, prevention of lifestyle-related diseases in men in their 20s to 60s, prevention of young women’s thinness and elderly people’s frailty might be issues. In order to resolve these issues, utilization of a Japanese Food Guide, Smart-meal system and nutrient labeling on foods, maintenance of appropriate body weight, Shokuiku throughout individual’s life, utilization of Exercise and Active Guides, maintenance for oral health, etc. might be effective. These strategies might lead to the extension of the healthy life expectancy.
One of the factors that is believed to contribute to Japanese longevity is their dietary life, which is unique and distinct from Westerners. However, there has been no study that examined whether the Japanese diet in itself is effective for health maintenance. Therefore, we investigated whether Japanese diet is beneficial to health maintenance compared with American diet in rats. As a result, we revealed that modern Japanese diet is useful for health maintenance compared with modern American diet. We subsequently investigated the health benefits of Japanese diet from different eras. The menus of Japanese diets from 2005, 1990, 1975 and 1960 years were prepared, cooked, and powderized. Each of the Japanese diets was provided to mice. We revealed that the Japanese diet from 1975 exhibited health benefits with respect to the stages of growth, adolescence, maturity and old age. Since there were many ingredients in the Japanese diet of 1975, it was suggested that ingestion of small amounts of a variety of foods is desirable. In this paper, I define the diet that Japanese people eat daily as the Japanese diet, and outline its health benefits from the aspect of lifestyle-related disease prevention in particular.
We conducted a Brief-type Self-administered Diet History Questionnaire (BDHQ) survey in conjunction with the use of the food-weighing method involving participants of the 2016 Nagasaki Prefecture health and nutrition survey (prefectural survey), in order to compare the obtained data and examine the questionnaire’s usefulness. As the results of a comparison of the two dietary surveys, the difference in the mean values of energy intake was -1.2 to +2.9%, showing the validity of the data. With regard to the level of nutrient intake, the validity was also confirmed, as the difference in values of energy-producing nutrients was less than ±10% for most items. On the other hand, the validity of the data for vitamins was not confirmed, as the difference was more than ±10％ for many items. This variation may be caused by the difference in the time of measurement between the food-weighing method (1 day) and BDHQ (1 month).
The results of this study showed that the implementation of the BDHQ during the prefectural survey is effective in reducing the burden on investigators, and may contribute to understanding the regular nutritional intake of people in the Prefecture and improving their health awareness through feedback of the questionnaire results.However, its introduction to the prefectural survey should be carefully considered, keeping in mind the low validity of the data for some nutrients, such as vitamins, as well as cost issues and characteristics of the questionnaire.
During infancy, children gradually become able to manipulate utensils in accordance with the development of motor and cognitive abilities. Previous studies on the development of eating skills have mainly examined infants and preschoolers. However, even after preschool age, eating skills continue to develop and become more refined and sophisticated with age. This study examined the development of eating skills after early childhood self-feeding ability had been acquired. Eleven 5-year-old children and sixteen adults were observed while eating curry and rice with spoons. The young children’s spoon manipulations were found to be somewhat simple. For example, food was picked up with a spoon and brought to their mouths in a single action. In contrast, the spoon manipulations of the adults were more complex and complicated. They first gathered the curry and rice into one area and then adjusted the amount and shape for easier intake. The children were frequently observed lifting the plate and sliding the food directly into their mouths. This behavior was never seen in the adult subjects. The adults often performed more refined, coordinated movements using their right and left hands and fingers (e.g., lifting or turning a dish with one’s left hand to more easily pick up rice using a spoon in one’s right hand). The results suggested that self-feeding skills using a spoon are acquired up to the end of preschool age; however, after this period of time, spoon manipulation becomes more multi-functional with age.
In Japan there are cultures in which people have eaten mountainous deer as a valuable protein source, but such meat is not being eaten in modern times.
The Japanese government is recently promoting the capture of deer to stop the damage to agricultural crops due to a large deer population. However, it is ethically problematic that most captured deer are buried.
We aimed to expand the use of venison as a food resource by developing a recipe for a venison cuisine which is consistent with the taste of consumers and can function as a commercial product.
In this study, we developed a recipe using a vacuum low-temperature cooking method that makes the meat quality soft and creates a flavorful dish. As a result of a sensory evaluation, the venison cuisine was evaluated as equal to a beef dish for "deliciousness”, "appearance”, "hardness” and "elasticity”.
By using the vacuum low temperature cooking method, we showed that venison can be a favorite dish for people. Its cooking method is suitable for the commercialization of venison because it can be hygienically cooked, distributed and sold, so it seems that it will be significantly useful for expanding the use of venison as a food resource.