The objective of this study is to examine how students can grow and raise their self-efficacy after cooking training in a home economics course.
Questionnaires about the reality of eating habits were administered in a high school (second grade students in a Tokyo Metropolitan high school) during July and December.It was found that many students were not experienced in cooking, they lacked knowledge about nutrition, but they were very interested in cooking.Based on this information, 20 items were produced in order to determine the linear measure of cooking self-efficacy. By the analysis of Promax by Kaiser using the method of maximum likelihood, three factors were picked out. They were "knowledge science”, "basic efficiency”, and "clean confirmation”. As for each factor, the α coefficient by Cronbach was calculated. The internal consistency were confirmed.
After cooking training, it was confirmed what kind of capacity improved by using the official approval. Both the boys and girls students could do the three factors better after cooking training. Bandura proposed four sources of self-efficacy in 1977. It was thought how this and cooking self-efficacy were related to each other by using the behavior and conversation of the students while cooking training. These sources were performed while being mutually related for various scenes. This study indicated that cooking training made students’ capacity improve and group study improved their cooking self-efficacy.
We surveyed the current status of information provision on 117 Internet sites that sell gluten-free foods in Japan to investigate misunderstandings by customers when selecting products. On more than 90% of the sites, the prices, content, product photos, and sellers of their goods were listed, whereas the storage methods, expiration and freshness dates, and additives were only provided on 67.5%, 51.3%, and 47.9%, respectively. The specific raw materials, including allergens, were only listed on 40.2% of the sites. Approximately 60% of the sites listed "allergy” as an adverse effect of gluten-free foods. "Health” and "weight loss” were listed on 38.5% and 29.9% of sites, respectively, but "celiac disease” and "wheat intolerance/hypersensitivity”, which are the target diseases of gluten-free foods, were only described on 7.7% and 5.1%, respectively. Even on sites selling gluten-free foods for wheat allergy, more than half did not provide information on the possibility of allergen contamination or information on production lines. In addition, 64.7% of the sites indicating safety regarding the possibility of allergen contamination did not provide information on production lines, whereas 81.3% of the sites calling attention to allergen contamination provided such information.
This suggests that all Internet sites selling gluten-free foods for wheat allergy do not provide sufficient information for wheat allergy patients to safely select them in Japan. In addition, some of them provide unfound information about beauty and health to healthy persons without wheat allergy. Accurate and detailed information is required to sell gluten-free foods.
To evaluate the remain of riboflavin in various foods by light illumination, plant and animal products and processed food samples were exposed to the fluorescent light of 4000 lx for 6hr at 4℃.
Japanese horseradish (raw) showed a 63.7% residual ratio of the riboflavin content which was the lowest ratio of the plant samples. In addition, three nut samples, dried almond (Prunus dulcis), fried almond and fried cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale), and two mushroom samples, Enoki mushroom (Flanmulina velutipes) and Bunashimeji mushroom (Hypsizygus tessellatus), were observed to have under 80% residual ratio. In contrast, the riboflavin contents in immature soybean and leafy vegetables, such as Moroheiya (raw) (Corchorus olitorius) and Ashitaba (Angelica keiskei), were not reduced.
On the other hand, small amounts of riboflavin in all the animal products and processed food samples were remained, especially yogurt and pudding were observed to have 14.4% and 44.7% residual ratio, respectively.
We speculated that the difference in the riboflavin residual ratio between the plant and animal products reflected the presence of effective vitamins that inhibit the riboflavin degradation in each food. Based on this study, it was clear that the residual ratio of riboflavin in foods by fluorescent light was different in each food. This suggested that light-sensitive foods should be protected against light not only in the distribution system but also on the grocery shelf in stores.
Excessive salt intake significantly affects high blood pressure. According to the 2017 National Health and Nutrition Survey, the average daily salt intake for adults is 10.8 g for men and 9.1 g for women. This indicates that the benchmark set by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (8.0 g for men and 7.0 g for women) has not been reached. Fruit Granola cereals （Frugra® by Calbee Co., Ltd.） have a low salt content of 0.5 g per meal and are expected to reduce the average salt intake by about 3 g if a general breakfast is replaced by granola. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of replacing breakfast with granola on salt intake and blood pressure.
Study 1. Healthy volunteers over 20 years old were recruited, and their breakfasts were replaced with granola for 2 weeks. The changes in the estimated salt intake before and after the study were analyzed. Subgroup analyses showed that those individuals with high salt intake had decreased salt intake of 1.14 g/day when the breakfast was replaced by granola.
Study 2. We recruited office workers over the age of 20 years and analyzed their blood pressure before and after replacing their breakfasts by granola for 8 weeks. The group whose breakfast was replaced with granola (FGR group) had a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure. In addition, the stratified analysis of normal hypertension (130/85) and grade I hypertension (140/90) showed that the HT-FGR group had a significant decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures.
Our findings suggest that replacing breakfast by granola decreased salt intake and caused a possible decrease in blood pressure due to salt reduction.