This report presented the outline of the continuous conditioning support system for newly formed college female long distance team and in response to anemia as health problem. All participants belong to college female long distance team whose breakfast and dinner are serve at the university dormitory. The conditioning support system is divided three parts. At the first stage, self-checks are conducted by the athletes; the primary check for technical, medical, physical, nutritional and psychological are in the second stage; specialized institutions such as medical facility and treatment centers conducted outside the university for the third stage.The conditioning application (ASU-Log) was used by the athlete’s self - checks. The system engineer was in charge of the management of the system. Coaches were responsible for checking athletes’ performances and adjusting the practice contents (quality and quantity). While the doctor and the athletic trainer are in charge of checking health problems (including orthopedic). And if problem occurs, referred to the specialized facilities the third stage. Athletic trainers teach re-conditioning plans. Physiologists is in charge of measuring the maximum oxygen uptake, conditioning coach is in charge of physical strength measurements and instruct physical training. Dietitian managed nutrition by creating daily menus and checking meal contents. Mental consultations were provided by psychiatrist. In addition, a conditioning education program was used for the athletes. The competition results indicated that team has gradually improved. However, it took time to solve the anemia addressed as a health problem. In order to make the conditioning support system function flawlessly at the sports field, it is necessary to construct a system particularly focused on athletes and the sports. In addition, continuous observation for athletes as individuals are recommended.
Psychological problems faced by women athletes were investigated from various perspectives, including the menstrual dysfunction and sports environment to develop a psychological support program for female athletes. A questionnaire was administered to women athletes (N=147). The participants were classified into two groups to compare performance: athletes with participation in inter-national athletic events (N=67) and those with participation in national athletic meetings (N=80). Participants were asked to respond about the conditions and incidents they had experienced during the last two or three months using a five-point scale ranging between 1 (Not at all) to 5 (Very often). They were also requested to freely describe their current physical and psychological difficulties and prob-lems, as well as interpersonal relationships, among others. The results of free description were categorized using the KJ method. Results indicated that female athletes participation in international athletic events had problems related to the environment, such as the small size of practice fields and the insufficient number of female staff members. On the other hand, those with participating in national athletic meetings complained of the decline in concentration because of period pain, among others. It is suggested that athletes with participation in international athletic events might maintain their concentration without being affected by physiological conditions. Moreover, clear differences in problems characteristic to female athletes such as period pain were indicated based on the athletes’ performance levels, which should be taken into consideration in developing a psychological support program for elite female athletes.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the actual state of doping test among top athletes. This survey was conducted among 221 athletes aged ≥20 years (121 men and 100 women) who un-derwent medical checkups at clinics run by the Japan Sport Council and who had previous experiences in undergoing doping tests. To understand the current situation in doping testing among athletes, a questionnaire survey was conducted from the perspective of “prevention of the adverse effect of dop-ing tests on the condition of athletes.”Our findings confirmed that when undergoing doping tests, some athletes experienced stress and un-pleasant feelings during urine collection and other situations related to the test. In addition, our find-ings also indicated that doping tests had an effect on the deterioration of athletes’ conditions.In addition, because doping tests using urine collection may also pose substantial psychological and physiological burdens on some athletes, testing methods other than urine collection are also meaningful from the perspective of conditioning in preparation for competitions. Our study shows that methods other than the currently mainstream urine collection should be attempted in the sample collection for doping tests and that a system should preferably be put in place that allows for athletes themselves to select a sample collection method depending on their circumstances.
Purpose: A decrease in the performance of female soccer players is observed from junior high school to senior high school, and anemia is often noted in tall, well-built players. In order to examine the involvement of low energy availability in that phenomenon, the current study examined changes in lean body mass with age in adolescent and post-adolescent female soccer players. Methods: We investigated changes associated with the development of lean body mass in correlation with skeletal muscle mass by monthly measuring body composition in elite female soccer players who were boarding students at a junior or senior high school, and analyzing longitudinal changes in lean body mass based on the measurement results. Results: Height and lean body mass were found to be correlated: a greater lean body mass was correlated with a taller height. The annual increase in lean body mass decreases as the growth in height slows, but temporarily increases from the age of 15 to 16 years. Increases in body weight during this period were approximately equal to increases in lean body mass. Conclusion: The temporary increase in lean body mass from age 15 to 16 was considered to be specific to female soccer players, and was thought to reflect an increase in skeletal muscle mass as a result of training. Because increases in lean body mass during this period is accompanied by an increase in basal metabolism, energy intake must be increased to avoid a low energy availability. This period of an increase in lean body mass coincides with a period of increases in testosterone levels and red blood cells, suggesting that these phenomena may affect one another. During this period, female soccer players should manage their body composition in terms of their lean body mass rather than in terms of their body weight or body mass index.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to 1) assess the validity of the lateral flow device (LFD), compared with the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method, for determining salivary cortisol concentrations; and 2) evaluate the saliva cortisol response to training and soccer games. [Method] Sixteen U-22 Japan men’s national soccer players participated in the present study. Sixteen players (20.8 ± 1.0 yrs, 177.3 ± 8.6 cm, 71.9 ± 7.2 kg) participated in training camp A, and 12 players (21.1 ± 0.9 yrs, 177.5 ± 9.3 cm, 72.0 ± 8.1 kg) participated in training camp B. Saliva samples were collected at the time of awakening, after training (training camp A), and after the game (training camp B). Saliva sample cortisol concentrations were analyzed by conventional EIA and LFD and the results of each method were compared. [Results] Salivary cortisol concentrations that were analyzed by LFD showed fluctuations that synchronized with EIA methods in Camp A and Camp B, respectively. A positive correlation was observed between cortisol value obtained by LFD analysis and that by EIA method (r = 0.73, p ＜ 0.0001). No proportional bias was observed. Moreover, the salivary cortisol concentration that was determined by LFD analysis changed according to training load. [Conclusion] The salivary cortisol concentration analysis by LFD was determined to be useful for individual condition evaluation in elite athletes.
The purpose of this study was to qualitatively investigate the psychological processes that occur before and during the successful performances of Japanese athletes at international competitions held in Japan. Ten Japanese retired athletes (six female and four male) who had performed well in international competitions held in Japan participated a semi-structured interview. In the interview, the participants were asked to describe their experience in detail for approximately two hours. The taped and transcribed interviews were analyzed using the modified grounded theory approach (M-GTA: Kinoshita, 2003, 2007). The analysis yielded an integrated process model consisting following 18 concepts: (1) a larger audience than usual, (2) more media persons than usual, (3) feeling a pleasant tension, (4) controlling the media for their own convenience, (5) inconvenience caused by
the restriction of activities, (6) assertive exploration for ways to feel refreshed, (7) experiencing a sense of responsibility, (8) peer pressure, (9) futile efforts, (10) unexpected situation, (11) being agitated, (12) perceived great urgency, (13) reflection, (14) turning defiant, (15) self-regulation, (16) concentrating on their own performance, (17) being motivated by the cheers from the Japanese audience, and (18) performing successfully. Furthermore, these concepts were arranged in chronological order, and they demonstrated two routes that led to a successful performance. The results suggested that flexible response to excitement of audience and media, overcoming pressure as a representative of the nation, and establishment of psychological skills necessary to be able to concentrate on one’s performance were important performance factors for athletes at international competitions held in the athlete’s home country.
The purposes of this study were to estimate exercise intensity during mogul skiing using heart rate and to clarify the physiological characteristics of mogul skiing using blood lactate concentration. Additionally, to clarify the characteristics of mogul skiing by comparison, a 40-s incline side jump test and mogul ski performance points were compared. Six male and six female subjects belonging to the Japanese national ski team took part in this study. The study took place at the moguls World Cup in Tazawako, Akita, Japan. Blood lactate concentrations were measured three, five, and seven minutes after the finish using a lactate auto analyzer. Additionally, relative blood lactate concentration was calculated with respect to the maximum blood lactate concentration, which was measured after the 40-s incline side jump test. Three male and three female participants took part in the heart rate measurement during the competition. To estimate exercise intensity, relative heart rate during the competition was calculated with respect to the maximum heart rate measured during the maximum oxygen uptake test. To evaluate the relationships between lactate concentration and time
point and between the number of 40-s incline side jumps, lactate concentration after the 40-s incline side jump test and time point, Pearson's correlation coeffcient was tested. The average maximum blood lactate concentration after the competition was 7.6mmol・L-1 for the males and 8.6mmol・L-1 for the females. The aｖerage heart rate during the competition was 182.3bpm for the males and 182.8bpm for the females. There was no correlation between lactate concentration and time point; however, there was a positive correlation between the number of 40-s incline side jumps and time point. Based on the results of this study, mogul skiing can be defned as a high-intensity exercise requiring anaerobic endurance.
The development of an athlete from their commencement in sport at the local level to achieving the serial medallist status at the international level can be a long and winding pathway. From a theoretical point of view, various international models and frameworks of sport and athlete development are available, but sporting stakeholders especially National Sport Federations are ‘wondering’ which models or frameworks to adopt at the practical level. After the literature review, there are various models of athlete development pathway, but the international framework, FTEM (Foundation, Talent, Elite, and Mastery), is a useful inclusive framework for understanding the stages of athlete development from grassroots to the podium with practical application by National Sport Federations. The national framework is required to the whole of sport for bridging the gap between theory and practice by taking into account the cultural and social context in Japan.