A mail survey to elucidate the actual situation of evacuation center operation manuals in Japanese municipalities was conducted to clarify: (1) awareness of operation manuals; (2) manual preparation processes; (3) manual use; and (4) manual revisions． Questionnaires were sent to all 1,896 municipalities in Japan, and 1,010 replies were received． The results indicate a high level of awareness of manuals, and many manuals are prepared by disaster prevention departments, with reference to national and prefectural government guidelines, within three years． Regarding the use of manuals, there was a difference between assumptions and reality． About half of the municipal governments revised their manuals, and there was a tendency for the preparation organization and revision organization to be different．
The objective of this paper is to propose seismic risk indexes for clarifying seismic risks in each city, district, town, and village in Japan and to contribute to effective managements in disaster resilience. It is crucial to take effective disaster countermeasures based on seismic risks in each region against megathrust earthquakes. The seismic risk indexes proposed in this paper are based on five perils and five exposures, comparing all cities, districts, towns, and villages in Japan. Based on these indexes, we could (1) identify methods for calculating losses in each peril and exposure, (2) create seismic risk maps by calculations, and (3) draw radar charts for seismic risk focusing on two cities and two districts.
Countermeasures for disaster mitigation or disaster risk reduction are in progress after the Great East Japan Earthquake and other disasters and it is assumed that residual risks at local level have been decreased by those efforts. However, there has been few research for evaluating “Local Residual Risks”. The authors have currently been conducting a research to develop a model to evaluate the Local Residual Risk against large-scale disasters such as Tokyo Inland Earthquake and Nankai Trough Earthquakes. In this connection， this paper presents the results of preliminary consideration about the development of simplified and prototype model to analyse “local residual degrees of crisis” for four risk scenarios by an earthquake.
The aim of this study is to present a real-time estimation method of economic values of direct stock damages caused by major earthquakes in Japan. The result will contribute to both government and private sectors for their decision making, particularly for budget allocation. First, we develop a simple but evidence-based model for estimating stock losses explained by an earthquake hazard factor and an exposure factor, i.e., seismic intensity and the existing stocks. Second, we carefully check the model specification, estimation and performance so as to be soundly applied to realtime assessment of future earthquake events. Finally, we develop a methodology of exhibiting estimated losses in a 250-meter meshed plane of an afflicted area.
Since the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, Japan Self-defense Force (JSDF)’s disaster relief activity has been widely recognized as essential disaster relief tools for affected society. This behavior is strengthened after The Great East Japan Earthquake. Since the beginning of 2019, JSDF tries to introduce “proposed-style” disaster relief activity: disaster relief activity SDF units actively analyze the impact and situation of the damage and propose its disaster relief activity to disaster-affected local authority. Based on the situation, this paper tries to perceive character of current SDF’s disaster relief action quantitively with published briefs about individual disaster relief activity from 2006 to 2018 and consider these data with Disaster Research Center Typology (DRC-Typology). As conclusion, this paper points out importance of compiling criteria for setting of Joint Task Force and multilateral coordination for apportioning role for needs of disaster affected society between, local authorities, SDFs and other public and private sectors.
This study is aimed at clarifying the effects of the disaster reduction education plan developed to enhance students’ capabilities to achieve a sustainable society. Through the plan implemented along with UD classes at three high schools, the students understood UD definitions and grasped the actual situations of shelters and disaster-related deaths. They realized the influence of UD-related things spreading in the world around them, e.g. products, facilities, information and services and the possibilities of their being members of the diverse people and of their showing leadership in shelters.
In order to allocate a rescue team with suitable capability required for a site, it is important to relevantly assess the rescue difficulty of each site for efficient resource utilization in disaster response. In this study, we used the empirical data on rescue operations conducted at collapsed wooden building sites during the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes collected byNational Police Agency, and analyzed on the relation between duration times of rescue operations and some factors such as building damage grades, scales of rescue sites, situations of victim entrapments, and so on. As a result, it was found that damage grades and space scales didn't affect much on duration times and the affecting factors of rescue difficulty were found to be the situations of entrapments; pressurization and configurations under the victims.
Buildings and infrastructures in coastal areas are exposed to the risk of damage from tsunami. In evaluating tsunami risk of spatial distributed networks or portfolio risk of an inventory of the buildings, spatial correlation in tsunami inundation depth distribution and analyzing many maps of inundation depth are an important consideration. This study attempts to analyze spatial variation and correlation in inundation depth distributions applying the mode decomposition technique based on singular value decomposition. In addition, inundation depth distributions are simulated by the mode synthesis. The present results suggest that the spatial correlation is affected by the slip zone of tsunami fault model and the simulation method is able to generate many maps of inundation depth which are preserving spatial correlation in original dataset.
This study examined factors which influence the intention of evacuation behavior. We expected that the behavioral intention of evacuation is determined by six cognitive factors; perceived risk, response-efficacy, self-efficacy, response cost, descriptive norm, injunctive norm.We conducted a survey using a standard questionnaire in Kochi prefecture and identified the six factors. The standard questionnaire revealed that the factors affecting the intention of evacuation behavior differed depending on the residence and residence period.And srveys in multiple regions have the same result that the influence of subjective norms was large.
This study categorized the disaster management education programs at the children's center in Kamitonda Town, Wakayama Prefecture, developed a model based on analyses, and suggested a conceptualized school disaster management education. This program is a program where housekeepers are developing for the purpose of “learning disaster responses in daily life” from viewpoint of ordinary people. Since 2007, more than 160 programs have been practiced. In this study, these programs were organized based on learning objectives, and evaluated using the three pillars of qualities and abilities of the new educational guidelines in Japan. We also examined and proposed whether these activities could be applied to disaster management education in future school education programs.