Crystallization and glass transition behaviors of carbohydrate materials were reviewed. Firstly, effects of water content, molecular weight, and types of monomer and chemical bond on the glass transition temperature, effect of aging treatment on the glassy properties, and crystallization behavior of low molecular carbohydrate materials such as sucrose and trehalose were explained. Secondary, gelatinization and/or melting, recrystallization (retrogradation), and glass transition properties of starch were explained. Finally, cookie was employed as a typical carbohydrate enriched food, and practical significance of the physical control was exhibited.
Chocolate is a suspension in which solid particles of sugar and cocoa powder are dispersed at high concentrations in a continuous phase of cocoa butter. Many of chocolate's physical properties are thus determined by the behavior of cocoa butter crystal, which plays numerous essential roles in providing chocolate with a pleasing appearance, snap at room temperature, and smooth melting in the mouth. On the other hand, a fat bloom appears on chocolate when the unfavorable properties of cocoa butter crystal are manifested. Fat bloom is a condition in which the fine texture of fat crystal is lost for some reason and the chocolate becomes non-uniform. Chocolate fat bloom is classified into various types by the form of chocolate it is found on and the storage conditions that cause it. However, the relationships between the causes and results of bloom are diverse, and the classification of chocolate fat bloom is complicated. In this article, we classify chocolate fat bloom according to bloom morphology. Organizing the morphological states can help us to understand the developing mechanism, which gives a complicated flow chart showing the dependence on the type of chocolate item and its storage conditions.
Amino acid crystal shape is affected by impurities those are included in the fermented broth. To control crystal shape is important for final product properties and purification efficiency. To control crystal shape, it is necessary to know how affect to the crystal shape by impurities. Crystal shape is depending on the crystal growth of each growth surface. To know the effect of impurity effects for crystal growth, relation between crystal structure is important. In this report, we estimated the inhibition mechanisms of crystal shape and crystal growth using L-sodium glutamate and Leucine DMBS complex crystals by studying between crystal structure and crystal growth.
Margarine and fat spread contain typical water-in-oil emulsions, including semi-solid fats, as continuous oil phases. The application of palm oil, one of the most promising transfat alternatives, for semi-solid fats is increasing. However, granular crystals often occur in palm-oil-based solid fats and cause deterioration. In this study, we carried out differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments on granular crystals in margarine. Microstructures of the granular crystal were precisely observed with a synchrotron radiation small-angle XRD technique and polarization microscopy with a compensator. We analyzed the microstructures and formation processes of granular crystals in relation to the fractional crystallization of the β form of 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol promoted by crystallization and transformation of tripalmitin and tristearin fractions.