Melt-growth theories which are based on the kinetic models of crystal growth are described and compared with the results of computer simulation. Experimental results now available are confronted with the simulation results, and therefrom some doubts are thrown against the original kinetic models for the melt-growth mechanism. Bottle-neck growth is critically reviewed, and is recommended as a method to study the melt-growth mechanism of simple metals. Recent melt-growth theories based on the dislocation model of liquid state are reviewed, and some of the experimental results observed are interpreted properly by the theories.
Some aspects of the crystal growth of linear macro-molecules are reviewed. The morphology of a polymer crystal and its crystallization kinetics are decisively affected by the structure of the amorphous state from which the crystallization starts. (1) Solution-grown single crystals of polymers are thin platelets whose upper and lower faces are composed of an array of molecular folds. Similarly, spherulitic textures growing out of quiescent melts consist of folded-chain lamellae. (2) Shish-kebabs, each of which is made up of a central fibril and folded-chain lamellae attached on it, precipitate from stirred solution, while the row structure consisting of lamellae stacked in the flow direction is formed from the flowing melt. Three ideas on the development of row structure are described. (3) Some polymers form into extended-chain crystals when crystallized under high pressure. This fact is supposed to be due to an increasing tendency to the parallel arrangement of molecular chains in the amorphous state under high pressure.
In this review, the preparation and properties of epitaxially grown (001) Si films on sapphire, as applied to high-speed MOS LSI's are presented. Relationships between growth conditions and MOS transistor characteristics are discussed by investigating the effect of crystalline properties on electrical ones in Si films. Emphasis is placed on lattice defects and residual strain which are the most important factors for MOS transistor characteristics. The defects have major influences on carrier mobility, drain leakage current and threshold voltage and the strain on carrier mobility. Early stages of Si film growth are also described, relating with the formation of lattice defects in order to obtain high-quality Si films.