Japanese Journal of Agricultural Economics
Online ISSN : 2432-2385
  • Dimitrios Dadakas, Christos Karpetis, Stevi Tatsi
    2021 年 23 巻 p. 1-17
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    公開日: 2021/05/21
    ジャーナル フリー

    The 2011 earthquake, tsunami and nuclear disaster in Japan affected imports and exports of agri-food products. Following the disasters, the implementation of international surveillance measures on exports of agri-food products and the restrictions on domestic production resulted in a decrease of exports and an increase in the level of imports. While restrictions were gradually lifted, levels of imports and exports did not adjust immediately as consumers were reluctant to consume products from afflicted regions. We examine Japan’s agri-food exports and imports for the presence of structural breaks to endogenously determine whether there were any permanent post-2011 changes in the evolution of the time series of trade flows. We use the endogenous structural break literature and examine 2-digit trade series for the presence of up to 3 structural changes in the series’ trends. Results indicate non-uniform post-2011 level and trend changes for both imports and exports of agri-food products.

  • Hisako Sekine
    2021 年 23 巻 p. 18-31
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    公開日: 2021/05/21
    ジャーナル フリー

    New variety development requires funding, and there is restricted opportunity for wheat breeders to collect research funds if wheat growers use their products as seed. This is a serious issue for wheat variety developers, especially for private companies. This study attempts to clarify the monetary burden placed on growers in Japan, Germany, and Australia for wheat varietal use. Using data published by public organizations, such as the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization and government ministries, and collected through interviews, the author compares the costs to growers in each country. The analysis yields two main conclusions: First, production in Germany is minimally related to price, and in Australia, it is weakly related to price. This means growers cannot earn enough from sales if their yields are low. The Australian system reduces the cost of varietal use for farmers, especially when yields are low. Second, German and Australian growers pay 1.2% of their output for varietal use when yields are average. In Japan, growers pay only 0.1% of their output for varietal use, and breeding programs are publicly supported. Though the Japanese government aims to introduce private sector crop-breeding industries, it could be difficult for private companies to acquire enough funds for breeding under the current system.

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